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1.
Clin Imaging ; 81: 122-135, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710802

RESUMEN

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is a distinct disease entity of unknown etiology primarily affecting children and adolescents. It is an autoinflammatory process that typically affects multiple bones with a waxing and waning course. About one third of the patients diagnosed with CRMO have spinal involvement which can lead to long term morbidity. The clinical presentation and imaging features of CRMO involving the spine are nonspecific and can mimic other disease processes like infection or malignancy. Since imaging plays a very important role in the diagnosis and management of CRMO, we intend to highlight various imaging patterns of spinal CRMO alongside its clinical features and briefly discuss its imitators, management and outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Osteomielitis , Imagen de Cuerpo Entero , Adolescente , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Osteomielitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiólogos , Recurrencia
2.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2214): 20210126, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802265

RESUMEN

Men who have sex with men (MSM) make up the majority of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses among young people in China. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics among the MSM population is, therefore, crucial for the control and prevention of HIV infections, especially for some newly reported genotypes of HIV. This study presents a metapopulation model considering the impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to investigate the geographical spread of a hypothetically new genotype of HIV among MSM in Guangdong, China. We use multiple data sources to construct this model to characterize the behavioural dynamics underlying the spread of HIV within and between 21 prefecture-level cities (i.e. Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan, etc.) in Guangdong province: the online social network via a gay social networking app, the offline human mobility network via the Baidu mobility website, and self-reported sexual behaviours among MSM. Results show that PrEP initiation exponentially delays the occurrence of the virus for the rest of the cities transmitted from the initial outbreak city; hubs on the movement network, such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Foshan are at a higher risk of 'earliest' exposure to the new HIV genotype; most cities acquire the virus directly from the initial outbreak city while others acquire the virus from cities that are not initial outbreak locations and have relatively high betweenness centralities, such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Shantou. This study provides insights in predicting the geographical spread of a new genotype of HIV among an MSM population from different regions and assessing the importance of prefecture-level cities in the control and prevention of HIV in Guangdong province. This article is part of the theme issue 'Data science approach to infectious disease surveillance'.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759018

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children receiving immunosuppressive therapies for neuroimmunologic disorders had (1) increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV2 infection or to develop more severe forms of COVID-19; (2) increased relapses or autoimmune complications if infected; and (3) changes in health care delivery during the pandemic. METHODS: Patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment were recruited to participate in a retrospective survey evaluating the period from March 14, 2020, to March 30, 2021. Demographics, clinical features, type of immunosuppressive treatment, suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in the patients or cohabitants, and changes in care delivery were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three children were included: 84 (55%) female, median age 13 years (interquartile range [8-16] years), 79 (52%) on immunosuppressive treatment. COVID-19 was suspected or confirmed in 17 (11%) (all mild), with a frequency similar in patients with and without immunosuppressive treatment (11/79 [14%] vs 6/74 [8%], p = 0.3085). The frequency of neurologic relapses was similar in patients with (18%) and without (21%) COVID-19. Factors associated with COVID-19 included having cohabitants with COVID-19 (p < 0.001) and lower blood levels of vitamin D (p = 0.039). Return to face-to-face schooling or mask type did not influence the risk of infection, although 43(28%) children had contact with a classmate with COVID-19. Clinic visits changed from face to face to remote for 120 (79%) patients; 110 (92%) were satisfied with the change. DISCUSSION: In this cohort of children with neuroimmunologic disorders, the frequency of COVID-19 was low and not affected by immunosuppressive therapies. The main risk factors for developing COVID-19 were having cohabitants with COVID-19 and low vitamin D levels.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/inmunología , Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Inmunosupresores/efectos adversos , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/complicaciones , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/inmunología , SARS-CoV-2/inmunología , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Atención a la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunosupresores/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Máscaras/virología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/virología , Pandemias , Recurrencia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Vitamina D/sangre
4.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118314, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653586

RESUMEN

People who relocate to a new environment may experience health effects from a change in ambient air pollution. We undertook a literature review of studies of such relocations and health effects and report the results as a narrative analysis. Fifteen articles of heterogeneous designs met the inclusion criteria. Four short-term (relocation duration less than six months) and three long-term (relocation duration six months or greater) studies reported evidence of the effect of relocation on physiological outcome, biomarkers or symptoms. All had potential weaknesses of design or analysis but, as a whole, their results are broadly consistent in suggesting short-term adverse effects of air pollutants or their reversibility. One long-term study provided evidence that changes in air pollution exposure during adolescence have a measurable effect on lung function growth. Four cohort studies were also identified that used relocation to strengthen evidence of air-pollution-exposure relationships by using a design that incorporates effective randomization of exposure or the use of relocation to improve exposure classification. However, three studies of relocation during pregnancy provided limited evidence to conclude an effect of relocation-related change in exposure on pregnancy outcome. Overall, most relocation studies are consistent with short- or long-term adverse effects of air pollution on biological function or mortality, but many studies of change in exposure have design weaknesses that limit the robustness of interpretation. We outline principles for improved design and analysis to help strengthen future studies for the insights they can provide from their quasi-experimental designs, including on the nature and timing of functional changes of relocation-related changes in exposure to ambient air pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Adolescente , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo
5.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 39(1): 105-111, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809789

RESUMEN

OCDs of the ankle are the third most common lesion in the body and a physician should include this in the differential while evaluating the pediatric population with the history of injury and/or pain in the ankle. Pain, stiffness, and swelling are the most common presenting complaints about the pediatric and adolescent patients with an OCD. Conservative treatment options should be attempted before attempting surgical intervention. Multiple surgical procedures exist to manage the lesion based on location, size, and other factors.


Asunto(s)
Osteocondritis Disecante , Osteocondritis , Astrágalo , Adolescente , Articulación del Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Articulación del Tobillo/cirugía , Niño , Humanos , Osteocondritis Disecante/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteocondritis Disecante/cirugía , Astrágalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Astrágalo/cirugía
6.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 39(1): 129-142, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809791

RESUMEN

Tarsal coalitions are recognized as a congenital anomaly whereby the two or more bones of the hindfoot and midfoot are fused resulting in limitation of foot motion and pain. Tarsal coalitions were found to be the cause of painful flatfeet in adolescents and young adults. Developing a clinical understanding of tarsal coalitions as well as developing a step-wise conservative and surgical approach for their treatment can alleviate patient symptomatology and provide excellent long-term benefits. Conservative treatment consists of immobilization, NSAIDs, and casting for symptomatic patients, and surgical treatment for symptomatic tarsal coalition consists of resection and/or arthrodesis.


Asunto(s)
Pie Plano , Huesos Tarsianos , Coalición Tarsiana , Adolescente , Artrodesis , Tratamiento Conservador , Humanos , Huesos Tarsianos/diagnóstico por imagen , Huesos Tarsianos/cirugía , Coalición Tarsiana/diagnóstico por imagen , Coalición Tarsiana/cirugía , Adulto Joven
7.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg ; 39(1): 57-71, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809795

RESUMEN

Musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limb are frequent in pediatric patients and represent the most common cause of emergency department admissions. Acute sports-related injuries commonly involve the lower extremity, as the knee and ankle are the most frequently injured parts. Physeal fractures are common injuries in children and adolescents participating in contact sports, which may lead to growth disturbances and cause limb length discrepancy. It is imperative for pediatric trauma centers to implement evidence-based multispecialty protocols for the perimanagement of the injured child, especially through the postdischarge and rehabilitation phases, in order for the child to resume active daily living.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Fracturas Óseas , Adolescente , Cuidados Posteriores , Traumatismos en Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos en Atletas/terapia , Niño , Fracturas Óseas/cirugía , Humanos , Extremidad Inferior , Alta del Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 240-245, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460115

RESUMEN

Many countries in the world are experiencing a recent surge in COVID-19 cases. This is mainly attributed to the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Genome sequencing is the only means to detect the evolving virus mutants and emerging variants. Cycle threshold values have an inverse relationship with viral load and lower Ct values are also found to be associated with increased infectivity. In this study, we propose to use Ct values as an early indicator for upcoming COVID-19 waves. A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the Ct values of positive samples reported during the first wave and second wave (April 2020-May 2021). Median Ct values of confirmatory genes were taken into consideration for comparison. Ct values below 25, >25-30, and >30 were categorized as high, moderate, and low viral load respectively. Our study found a significantly higher proportion of positive samples with a low Ct value (<25) across age groups and gender during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. A higher proportion of positive samples with a low Ct value (high viral load) may act as an early indicator of an upcoming surge.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiología , Carga Viral , Adulto Joven
9.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132064, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474389

RESUMEN

The occurrence, spatial distribution, potential sources, and risk assessment of 14 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids and 3 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates acids, were investigated in 21 drinking water sources from the lower Yangtze River in November 2019. The total PFAAs (∑PFAAs) concentrations ranged from 39.3 to 220.3 ng/L, and perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate were predominant with average concentrations of 19.4 and 15.4 ng/L, respectively. The higher ∑PFAAs concentrations in the southern shore and downstream could be attributed to industrial development and surface runoff/tide currents, respectively. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression revealed that the primary sources of PFAAs were fluororesin coatings/metal plating, surface runoff/textile, effluent discharge/food packaging, and leather/fabrics. Human intake risks of PFAAs were assessed by target hazard quotient (THQ), which showed that human health risks of PFAAs decreased with increasing age, excluding 13-17 years age group. Moreover, the total exposure risks of PFOA/PFOS in all sampling sites to people aged over 18 years calculated based on contribution from drinking water were noted to be at safe level. The results obtained were helpful for improving our understanding of human health risks of PFAAs, and expanding our knowledge on PFAAs in drinking water.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Agua Potable , Fluorocarburos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adolescente , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos/análisis , Caprilatos/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fluorocarburos/análisis , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
10.
Food Chem ; 367: 130628, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343807

RESUMEN

A spectrophotometric method based on diazo-coupling reaction for nitrite analysis was established and validated, including inter-laboratory validation, linearity, accuracy, precision, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The time-saving and high-recovery method was established by examining the filtration step, colorimetric process and concentration range of the calibration curve. This method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.999) in the range of 0.025-1.0 µg/mL. The three-level recoveries were between 86.7% and 108.6%, with the coefficient of variation (CV) below 5.8%. Mean nitrite concentration ranges in processed foods were ND-33.47 mg/kg. The mean nitrite intake was 0.8% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI, 0.07 mg/kg bw/day) for all children and adolescents and 2.8% for the consumer group. The major contributors for all subjects and consumers were ham, sausage and bacon. These results indicated that the improved method was suitable for analyzing nitrite in processed foods and the nitrite exposure levels were safe.


Asunto(s)
Productos de la Carne , Nitritos , Adolescente , Niño , Dieta , Exposición Dietética , Humanos , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Nitritos/análisis , República de Corea
11.
Ann Ig ; 34(1): 45-53, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698761

RESUMEN

Background: Tobacco products represent a major health risk factor and a potent way to help transmission of COVID-19. Current data regarding consumption of these products in the region are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns of cigarette, hookah and other tobacco products consumption among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo before the COVID-19 outbreak in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study based on a National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) was conducted among undergraduate students from the University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina via an online questionnaire from 22nd to 26th of January 2020. Results: Out of 605 students involved in the study, most of them were female (N=429, 70.9%); 363 (60.0%) were enrolled in medical sciences; 159 (26.3%) were attending the 3rd year of their curriculum; 224 (37%) were original from Canton Sarajevo and 514 (84.9%) were living in urban environment. Two hundred thirty five students out of 605 (38.8%) were current smokers and 117 (19.3%) hookah smokers. Being female (OR=0.539, 95% CI 0.368-0.790, p=0.002), in the 1st or 2nd year of study (OR=0.805, 95% CI 0.667-0.972, p=0.024) and living in a rural environment (OR=0.335, 95% CI 0.191-0.585, p<0.001) were associated with reduced risk of cigarette consumption, while older age (22+ years) (OR=1.287, 95% CI 1.122-1.476, p<0.001) increased the same risk. On the other side, being female (OR=0.595, 95% CI 0.380-0.930, p=0.023), of younger age (18-21 years) (OR=0.832, 95% CI 0.743-0.932, p=0.001) and medical science student (OR=0.567, 95% CI 0.328-0.978, p=0.041) were associated with decreased risk of consuming hookah. Conclusions: This study provides an insight in prevalence of smoking among students at the University of Sarajevo. More antismoking efforts are needed, especially in urban environments; and a follow-up study, to be planned in the near future, should determine whether COVID-19 pandemic (and all the modifications of lifestyles connected with it) have eventually changed tobacco consumption patterns among undergraduate students.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pipas de Agua , Estudiantes de Medicina , Productos de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Bosnia y Herzegovina/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hábitos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107091, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol- and cannabis-related risk perceptions are strong predictors of use behavior. Studies suggest that attitudes toward cannabis are becoming increasingly permissive, however studies have yet to comprehensively a) compare time trends in cannabis-related attitudes to those of other commonly used substances, such as alcohol, and b) test whether trends significantly differ by age. METHOD: Public access data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health from 2002 to 2019 were used (N = 1,005,421). Structural Equation Models tested whether study year (linear trend), was associated with alcohol- and cannabis-related risk perceptions (correlated outcomes), and whether age (adolescence [12-17], emerging adulthood [18-25], adulthood [26-35], middle adulthood [36-49], and older adulthood [50+]) moderated time trends. Sex, race/ethnicity, and use frequency were covaried. RESULTS: The linear trend of study year was associated with decreased cannabis-related risk perceptions (p < .001). There was also a significant interaction of age by study year for cannabis-related risk perceptions, such that adults, emerging adults, and middle adults had the largest decrease in attitudes over time. For alcohol-related risk perceptions, the linear trend of study year was significantly associated with increased risk perceptions (p = .001), but the interaction of time by age was non-significant; alcohol-related effects were extremely small (b < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that cannabis-related risk perceptions are becoming more permissive with time across ages, but particularly in adults, emerging adults, and middle adults. In contrast, alcohol-related risk perceptions have stayed relatively stable over time, with only negligible increases. Findings underscore the importance of targeting permissive cannabis-related attitudes via prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Cannabis , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Actitud , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Percepción
13.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107087, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464915

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit drug among college students, and there is a need to understand the social processes that contribute to young adults' marijuana use. Substance use behaviors tend to be more similar (homophilous) among individuals with social ties to one another. However, little is known about whether marijuana use homophily within young adult relationships is due to social selection (seeking out ties with similar marijuana use to one's own) or social influence (adopting similar marijuana use behaviors as one's ties), or both. METHODS: Students (N = 1,489; 54.6% female; Mage = 18.6 years) at one University completed online surveys in their first three semesters of college. Surveys assessed participant characteristics, marijuana use, and ties to up to 10 other students in the whole (sociocentric) network of first-year college students. Stochastic-actor oriented models (SAOMs) were used to analyze the co-evolution of marijuana use and social ties over time. RESULTS: Participants were more likely to select peers with similar past 30-day marijuana use as themselves. Concurrently, students' past 30-day marijuana use became more similar to their peers' use over time. DISCUSSION: Evidence for selection and influence effects were highly significant after controlling for network structure and other covariates indicating these processes may work in tandem to increase marijuana use homophily over the first year of college. This highlights the importance of relationships made early in the first-year of college, as these initial peer ties are likely to reinforce marijuana use behaviors that occur within these relationships.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Marihuana , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Grupo Paritario , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
14.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107095, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479068

RESUMEN

Online social networking is an intrinsic part of present life. However, if individuals believe that some basic psychological needs can only be fulfilled through social networking sites, an addictive pattern of usage may emerge. Problematic social media use (PSMU) is a growing concern in adolescence. The present study aimed at contributing to prior scientific literature by testing a model that considers low emotional intelligence (EI) as a vulnerability factor, perceived stress and depressive symptoms as affective and cognitive responses to conflicting situations, and PSMU as a maladaptive coping mechanism. In this study, 2068 Spanish adolescents (46.2% male, 53.8% female) within the ages of 12 and 19 (M = 14.61, SD = 1.62) completed self-report measures of the above-mentioned constructs. Results indicated that (a) perceived stress was a significant mediator in the association between EI and PSMU, (b) depressive symptoms were a significant mediator in this link, and (c) a significant serial mediation model was supported, in which lower EI predicted higher perceived stress, which contributed to higher levels of depressive symptoms, thus resulting in higher PSMU. These results provide important empirical evidence suggesting promising pathways towards preventing PSMU in adolescents, such as EI training, teaching stress-reduction techniques and focusing on reducing depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Depresión , Inteligencia Emocional , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Red Social , Estrés Psicológico
15.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107088, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487979

RESUMEN

Alcohol outcomes expectancies (AOEs) are robust predictors of alcohol initiation and escalation of drinking behavior among adolescents. Although measurement invariance is a prerequisite for inferring valid comparisons of AOEs across groups (e.g., age), empirical evidence is lacking. In a secondary data analysis study, we employed regularized moderated nonlinear factor analysis (MNLFA) to simultaneously test differential item functioning (DIF) across age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and alcohol initiation for a 22-item, two-factor measure of positive and negative AOEs among adolescents (analytic n = 936 drawn from a parent study of 1023 adolescents). Evidence of DIF was minimal, with no DIF for the negative AOE factor and DIF for only two items of the positive AOE factor. The item "feel grown up" exhibited DIF by age, and the item "feel romantic" exhibited DIF by SES. After accounting for DIF, the positive AOE latent factor mean differed by SES, age, and alcohol initiation, and exhibited lower variability by alcohol initiation. The negative AOE latent factor mean differed by sex and SES, with greater variability by SES and age and lower variability by alcohol initiation. Group-differences findings for age and alcohol initiation are consistent with prior work, and differences by sex and SES are a new contribution to the literature that should prompt additional research to ensure replicability. The present study demonstrates the utility of the MNLFA technique for examining comprehensive measurement invariance, particularly for applied researchers who seek to examine substantive research questions while accounting for any DIF present in the scales used.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Padres , Psicometría
16.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107099, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534840

RESUMEN

Drinking motives are robustly related to alcohol use behavior from adolescence through young adulthood. Yet, examination of changes in motives during the first year of college, a transitional time associated with both onset of and increases in heavy drinking has been understudied. We examined (a) whether drinking motives change, (b) time-varying effects of motives on alcohol use and consequences, and (c) change in the strength of the association between motives and use and motives and consequences over the first year of college. A sample of 121 heavy drinking first-year students (50% female, 58% Caucasian) completed three assessments (baseline, 3 months, 6 months). Endorsement of social motives declined from 0 to 3 months, while endorsement of coping, enhancement, and conformity motives declined from 3 to 6 months. Social motives were positively associated with alcohol use and consequences across assessments. When motive × time interactions were tested in separate models, the strength of effects of coping motives on drinks per week increased from 0 to 3 months. The strength of the effect of coping and conformity motives on consequences increased from 0 to 3 months and then decreased from 3 to 6 months. Identifying how drinking motives evolve and relate to trajectories of alcohol use may help to understand the development of risky drinking behavior and inform intervention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
17.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131667, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325256

RESUMEN

Excessive application of pesticides to control pests and weeds leads to contaminating bodies of water and health problems for consumers. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration of pesticides in raw water originated from the Marun River as well as the treated water of the drinking water treatment plant in Behbahan City. The efficiency of each treatment process was evaluated. Moreover, the health risks caused by detectable pesticides for consumers of treated water were assessed. The target pollutants were extracted using droplet liquid-liquid microextraction and detected by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrophotometer. The results showed relatively high mean concentrations of organophosphate pesticides ranging from 0.87 to 3.229 µg/L in the river water and low concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, except for 1,3-dichloropropene with the concentration of 3.58 µg/L. Alachlor had a rather high concentration (2.44 µg/L) in the river water. The concentration of pesticides in the drinking water had been reduced to an acceptable amount. The major part of pesticides removal occurred in coagulation-flocculation and rapid sand filtration units (87 %) due to the hydrophobic nature of pesticides and the use of GAC in the filtration unit. Based on the risk assessment estimates, the total hazard quotient (THQ) for all the pesticides was much less than one. The value of THQ was higher in younger individuals and children for all the given pesticides. The highest value of THQ in children was 0.2 which was attributed to aldrin. Similarly, the carcinogenic risk (CR) of aldrin for children and teenagers was in the unsafe range (more than 10-4) while the CR for other target compounds in all the age groups was negligible (10-4-10-6 or less). The high concentration of pesticides in the river water might be concerning and therefore selling and using pesticides, especially the banned ones, should be more regulated.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Adolescente , Niño , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Irán , Método de Montecarlo , Plaguicidas/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105258, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384945

RESUMEN

The false dilemma or dichotomy is a logical fallacy that occurs when interlocuters accept the premises in an incompatibility statement as being jointly exhaustive (i.e., leaving no third option), whereas that is in fact not the case. Brisson et al. [Memory & Cognition (2018), Vol. 46, pp. 657-670] investigated this fallacy in an adult sample and discovered a content effect that influenced participants' performance. The current study aimed to elaborate on these findings by establishing whether similar patterns could be observed with children. A number of age-appropriate incompatibility premises were constructed. For every item, four different inferential problems were presented (Affirm First, Affirm Second, Deny First, and Deny Second) with three potential answers to choose from (X, not X, or uncertainty regarding X). A sample of 192 volunteer children, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, was collected. Statistical analysis showed no significant effect for participants' age but did reveal main effects for premise validity and the amount of available "third options" (possibilities outside of the presented dichotomy). These results are a clear replication of the general effects on adults found by Brisson et al. Affirm inferences were also easy for children, Deny inferences were difficult (even more so than for adults), and content had a profound effect on participants' performance. Whenever more third options could be generated, children were less likely to fall into the false dilemma fallacy. Our findings thus further support the idea that reasoning with incompatibilities is influenced by the same semantic retrieval processes that have been previously related to human conditional reasoning.


Asunto(s)
Lógica , Solución de Problemas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Cognición , Humanos , Semántica , Incertidumbre
19.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105259, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481344

RESUMEN

Children under 6 years of age have difficulty recognizing a familiar face across changes in appearance and telling the face apart from similar-looking people. Understanding the process by which newly encountered faces become familiar can provide insights into these difficulties. Exposure to the ways in which a person varies in appearance is one mechanism by which adults and older children (≥6 years) learn new faces. We provide the first investigation of whether this mechanism for face learning functions in younger children. Children aged 4 and 5 years were read two storybooks featuring an unfamiliar character. Participants viewed six images of the character in one story and one image of the character in the other story. After each story, children were asked to identify novel images of the character that were intermixed with images of a similar-looking distractor. Like older children, 4- and 5-year-olds were more sensitive to identity in the 6-image condition, but they also adapted a less conservative criterion. Young children identified more images of the character after viewing six images versus one image. However, many also incorrectly identified more images of the distractor after viewing six images versus one image, an effect not previously found for older children and adults. These results suggest that this mechanism for face learning is not fully refined before 6 years of age.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Solución de Problemas , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos
20.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 49-58, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence about detrimental impacts of the pandemic on population mental health, but knowledge on risk of groups specifically affected by the pandemic and variations across time is still limited. METHODS: We surveyed approximately n=1,000 Austrian residents in 12 waves between April and December 2020 (n=12,029). Outcomes were suicidal ideation (Beck Suicidal Ideation Scale), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), and domestic violence. We also assessed the perceived burden from the pandemic. Demographic and Covid-19 specific occupational and morbidity-related variables were used to explain outcomes in multivariable regression analyses, controlling for well-established risk factors of mental ill-health, and variations over time were analyzed. RESULTS: Young age, working in healthcare or from home, and own Covid-19 illness were consistent risk factors controlling for a wide range of known mental health risk factors. Time patterns in the perceived burden from Covid-19-related measures were consistent with the time sequence of restrictions and relaxations of governmental measures. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were relatively stable over time, with some increase of depression during the second phase of lockdowns. Domestic violence increased immediately after both hard lockdowns. Suicidal ideation decreased slightly over time, with a low during the second hard lockdown. Mental health indicators for women and young people showed some deterioration over time, whereas those reporting own Covid-19 illness improved. LIMITATIONS: Data from before the pandemic were not available. CONCLUSIONS: Among mental health outcomes, increases in domestic violence and, to some smaller extent, depressive symptoms, appeared most closely related to the timing of hard lockdowns. Healthcare staff, individuals working from home, those with Covid-19, as well as young people and women are non-traditional risk groups who warrant heightened attention in prevention during and in the aftermath of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , ARN Viral , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Austria , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Salud Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
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