Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 691
Filtrar
1.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 32(4): 503-513, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564916

RESUMO

AIM: To summarize the information on the effectiveness of community water fluoridation (CWF) on the reduction of dental caries in the context of the wide use of fluoridated toothpaste in Brazil. DESIGN: A systematic review was conducted regarding the effect of CWF based on studies with Brazilian population groups using the following electronic databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, and SCOPUS. The literature search was conducted up to August 2019. Studies that compared caries experience in at least two areas, one fluoridated and the other non-fluoridated, by mean dmft/DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) index or caries prevalence (caries vs. caries-free) were included. Considering the beginning of widespread use of fluoride dentifrice and the time for producing dental caries decline, studies published before 1995 were excluded. Descriptive analysis and meta-analyses were carried out. The effect size was measured by mean difference for dmft and DMFT ± SD and odds ratios on a logarithmic scale for caries prevalence. RESULTS: Of the 574 studies retrieved, 16 and 10 were included in the qualitative and quantitative analysis, respectively. Fluoridated areas exhibited lower mean dmft/DMFT than non-fluoridated areas did. The mean difference in the dmft between non-fluoridated and fluoridated areas was -2.28 (95% CI -3.26; -1.30) for children aged 5-8 years and -1.12 (95% CI -1.93; -0.32) for those aged 3-12 years; the mean difference in the DMFT was -0.61 (95% CI -0.80; -0.42) for the children aged between 7 and 12 years. The caries prevalence was 1.4 times and 57% lower, respectively, at primary and permanent dentition in fluoridated areas. Heterogeneity was observed in all age groups, ranging from 77.6% to 98.2%. CONCLUSION: Community water fluoridation remains effective in preventing dental caries in children younger than 13 years, even with the widespread use of fluoridated toothpaste.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretação , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Prevalência , Cremes Dentais
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149927, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474297

RESUMO

Effective stewardship of ecosystems to sustain current ecological status or mitigate impacts requires nuanced understanding of how conditions have changed over time in response to anthropogenic pressures and natural variability. Detecting and appropriately characterizing changes requires accurate and flexible trend assessment methods that can be readily applied to environmental monitoring datasets. A key requirement is complete propagation of uncertainty through the analysis. However, this is difficult when there are mismatches between sampling frequency, period of record, and trends of interest. Here, we propose a novel application of generalized additive models (GAMs) for characterizing multi-decadal changes in water quality indicators and demonstrate its utility by analyzing a 30-year record of biweekly-to-monthly chlorophyll-a concentrations in the San Francisco Estuary. GAMs have shown promise in water quality trend analysis to separate long-term (i.e., annual or decadal) trends from seasonal variation. Our proposed methods estimate seasonal averages in a response variable with GAMs, extract uncertainty measures for the seasonal estimates, and then use the uncertainty measures with mixed-effects meta-analysis regression to quantify inter-annual trends that account for full propagation of error across methods. We first demonstrate that nearly identical descriptions of temporal changes can be obtained using different smoothing spline formulations of the original time series. We then extract seasonal averages and their standard errors for an a priori time period within each year from the GAM results. Finally, we demonstrate how across-year trends in seasonal averages can be modeled with mixed-effects meta-analysis regression that propagates uncertainties from the GAM fits to the across-year analysis. Overall, this approach leverages GAMs to smooth data with missing observations or varying sample effort across years to estimate seasonal averages and meta-analysis to estimate trends across years. Methods are provided in the wqtrends R package.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Qualidade da Água , Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estações do Ano
3.
J Environ Manage ; 327: 116885, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36455442

RESUMO

Forage crops are used worldwide as key feed sources for dairy systems. However, their productivity and quality are limited due to intensified drought events, elevated carbon dioxide (CO2), and their interaction with climate change, with consequences for the security of animal husbandry and the agricultural economy. Although studies have quantified the impacts of such stresses on forage growth, these impacts have been less systematically investigated in a global context due to differences among various forage groups, regional microclimates, and environmental factors. Herein we employed nine forage growth-related variables involving three perspectives, i.e., photosynthetic parameters, production, and quality, from research articles published between 1990 and 2021 via a meta-analysis. A linear mixed-effect model was then used to explore the quantitative relationship between these factors in a restricted dataset. Decreasing trends in all four photosynthetic parameters were detected across different eco-geographical regions with increasing drought stress. The maximum decrease in DMY occurred in the Mediterranean, with 52.8% under drought conditions. Globally, eCO2 significantly increased photosynthetic rate (Pn) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) by 40.8% and 62.1%, respectively, which also had positive effects on forage dry matter yield (DMY) (+25.1%), especially for forage in Northern Europe. However, this stress would significantly decrease forage quality by decreasing crude protein (CP) (-19.7%) and nitrogen content (N content) (-13.5%). These negative impacts would be aggravated under the co-occurrence of drought and eCO2, including a significant increase in WUEi (+111.1%) and a decrease in DMY (-12.3%). Gramineae showed a more sensitive response to drought stress in photosynthetic parameters and DMY than Leguminosae, but the latter exhibited a better response in photosynthetic parameters and production under eCO2. Our analysis provides a consensus concerning how the growth parameters of forage have changed under environmental stresses.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360992

RESUMO

Nowadays, water pollution has become a global issue affecting most countries in the world. Water quality should be monitored to alert authorities on water pollution, so that action can be taken quickly. The objective of the review is to study various conventional and modern methods of monitoring water quality to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. The methods include the Internet of Things (IoT), virtual sensing, cyber-physical system (CPS), and optical techniques. In this review, water quality monitoring systems and process control in several countries, such as New Zealand, China, Serbia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and India, are discussed. Conventional and modern methods are compared in terms of parameters, complexity, and reliability. Recent methods of water quality monitoring techniques are also reviewed to study any loopholes in modern methods. We found that CPS is suitable for monitoring water quality due to a good combination of physical and computational algorithms. Its embedded sensors, processors, and actuators can be designed to detect and interact with environments. We believe that conventional methods are costly and complex, whereas modern methods are also expensive but simpler with real-time detection. Traditional approaches are more time-consuming and expensive due to the high maintenance of laboratory facilities, involve chemical materials, and are inefficient for on-site monitoring applications. Apart from that, previous monitoring methods have issues in achieving a reliable measurement of water quality parameters in real time. There are still limitations in instruments for detecting pollutants and producing valuable information on water quality. Thus, the review is important in order to compare previous methods and to improve current water quality assessments in terms of reliability and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Qualidade da Água , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluição da Água , Computadores
5.
J Environ Health Sci Eng ; 20(2): 983-1013, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406601

RESUMO

Introduction: Climate change is among the most renowned concerns of the current century, endangering the lives of millions of people worldwide. To comply with the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP21), hospitals should be on track to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although hospitals contribute to climate change by emitting greenhouse gases, they are also affected by the health consequences of climate change. Despite all the guidance provided, hospitals need more radical measures to confront climate change. The current study was carried out to examine the components of hospitals' adaptation to climate change and to review measures to confront climate change in hospitals. Method: This systematic review was designed and carried out in 2020. The required information was collected from international electronic databases including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Moreover, Iranian datasets such as Scientific Database (SID), Irandoc, Magiran, and IranMedex were reviewed. No restriction was considered in the methodology of the study. For the relevant thesis, the ProQuest database was also explored. The related sources were examined and the Snowball method was applied to find additional related studies. The research team also reviewed other accessible electronic resources, such as international guidelines and academic websites. The checklist of the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI, 2017) was employed in order to evaluate the quality of the included papers. The studies published until June1, 2020, were included in the study. Results: Of 11,680 published documents in the initial search, the full-texts of 140 were read after evaluating the titles and abstracts, of which 114 were excluded due to lack of sufficient information related to countermeasures in hospitals. Finally, the full-texts of 26 studies were reviewed to extract the required components. Two strategies were found, including climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation, with 13 components including water, wastewater, energy, waste, green buildings, food, transportation, green purchasing policy, medicines, chemicals and toxins, technology, sustainable care models, and leadership in hospitals were identified as affecting these measures and strategies. Conclusion: Considering the significance of climate change and strategies to confront it as one of the current challenges and priorities in the world, it is necessary to develop a framework and model to reduce the effects of climate change and adapt to climate changes in hospitals and other health centers. The identification and classification of the measures and components, influencing hospital adaptability and solutions for reducing the climate change impacts could be the first stage in developing this strategy. This is because it is impossible to create this framework without identifying these factors and their mutual impacts at the first. In the present study, through a systematic review using a comprehensive approach, the related components were explored and divided into two categories, including measures to reduce the effects and measures to adapt to climate change. The results of this study can be useful in developing a comprehensive action model to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt hospitals to climate change.

6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 113, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascariasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases of humans worldwide. The epidemiology of Ascaris infection appears to have changed with improvements in sanitation and mass drug administration, but there is no recent information on prevalence worldwide. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the global prevalence of human Ascaris infection from 2010 to 2021. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE/PubMed, and Scopus databases for studies measuring prevalence of Ascaris infection, published between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2022. We included studies of the general human population in endemic regions, which used accepted coprodiagnostic methods, and excluded studies of people with occupations with an increased risk or probability of ascariasis and/or specific diseases other than ascariasis. We applied random-effects models to obtain pooled prevalence estimates for six sustainable development goal regions of the world. We extrapolated the prevalence estimates to the global population in 2020, to estimate the number of individuals with Ascaris infection. We conducted multiple subgroup and meta-regression analyses to explore possible sources of heterogeneity, and to assess relationships between prevalence estimates and demographic, socio-economic, geo-climatic factors. RESULTS: Of 11,245 studies screened, we analysed 758 prevalence estimates for a total number of 4,923,876 participants in 616 studies from 81 countries. The global prevalence estimated was 11.01% (95% confidence interval: 10.27-11.78%), with regional prevalences ranging from 28.77% (7.07-57.66%) in Melanesia (Oceania) to 1.39% (1.07-1.74%) in Eastern Asia. We estimated that ~ 732 (682-782) million people harboured Ascaris worldwide in 2021. The infected people in Latin America and the Caribbean region had a higher prevalence of high intensity infection (8.4%, 3.9-14.1%). Prevalence estimates were higher in children, and people in rural communities or in countries or regions with lower income and human development indices. There was a trend for a higher prevalence in regions with increasing mean annual relative humidity, precipitation and environmental temperature. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that, despite a renewed commitment by some communities or authorities to control ascariasis, a substantial portion of the world's human population (> 0.7 billion) is infected with Ascaris. Despite the clinical and socioeconomic importance of ascariasis, many past routine surveys did not assess the intensity of Ascaris infection in people. We propose that the present findings might stimulate the development of customised strategies for the improved control and prevention of Ascaris infection worldwide.


Assuntos
Ascaríase , Humanos , Criança , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Prevalência , População Rural , América Latina
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418836

RESUMO

Since essential nexus variables were not considered in the energy subsystem, this study focused on the role of energy in the Water, Energy, and Food nexus (WEF nexus) system. The energy subsystem interacts with water and food on the supply and demand sides. The WEF nexus-based energy model has not been reviewed recently. This study provides a systematic review of 459 articles regarding energy simulation modeling issues relating to the WEF nexus system. The keyword ("energy" AND "simulation" AND "nexus") as well as "water" OR "food" OR "climate" OR "land" OR "carbon" OR "environment" is used for searching WEF nexus documents for energy simulation. The review highlighted that the energy subsystem is modeled online (One-way) and offline (Two-way), and the energy simulation struggles to represent its system boundary with the water and food subsystems in different spatial scales (household to global). The energy subsystem of the WEF nexus did not address return flow from cooling towers and crop energy consumption comprehensively. In the research, the supply and demand section of the energy subsystem demonstrated that a comprehensive simulation model for energy can be developed using the nexus system approach. The energy subsystem's supply, primarily power plants, interacts with the water subsystem, and the energy generation policy is based on water use. The WEF nexus system assesses renewable energy effects to reduce tradeoffs. In addition, energy demand is related to energy consumption, so the energy consumption for each crop can be calculated and explained the appropriate cultivation pattern based on it.

8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD008923, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Larval source management (LSM) may help reduce Plasmodium parasite transmission in malaria-endemic areas. LSM approaches include habitat modification (permanently or temporarily reducing mosquito breeding aquatic habitats); habitat manipulation (temporary or recurrent change to environment); or use of chemical (e.g. larviciding) or biological agents (e.g. natural predators) to breeding sites. We examined the effectiveness of habitat modification or manipulation (or both), with and without larviciding. This is an update of a review published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: 1. To describe and summarize the interventions on mosquito aquatic habitat modification or mosquito aquatic habitat manipulation, or both, on malaria control. 2. To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of mosquito aquatic habitat modification or mosquito aquatic habitat manipulation, or both, on malaria control. SEARCH METHODS: We used standard, extensive Cochrane search methods. The latest search was from January 2012 to 30 November 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and non-randomized intervention studies comparing mosquito aquatic habitat modification or manipulation (or both) to no treatment or another active intervention. We also included uncontrolled before-after (BA) studies, but only described and summarized the interventions from studies with these designs. Primary outcomes were clinical malaria incidence, malaria parasite prevalence, and malaria parasitaemia incidence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methods. We assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB 2 tool for RCTs and the ROBINS-I tool for non-randomized intervention studies. We used a narrative synthesis approach to systematically describe and summarize all the interventions included within the review, categorized by the type of intervention (habitat modification, habitat manipulation, combination of habitat modification and manipulation). Our primary outcomes were 1. clinical malaria incidence; 2. malaria parasite prevalence; and 3. malaria parasitaemia incidence. Our secondary outcomes were 1. incidence of severe malaria; 2. anaemia prevalence; 3. mean haemoglobin levels; 4. mortality rate due to malaria; 5. hospital admissions for malaria; 6. density of immature mosquitoes; 7. density of adult mosquitoes; 8. sporozoite rate; 9. entomological inoculation rate; and 10. HARMS: We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence for each type of intervention. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Six used an RCT design, six used a controlled before-after (CBA) study design, three used a non-randomized controlled design, and one used an uncontrolled BA study design. Eleven studies were conducted in Africa and five in Asia. Five studies reported epidemiological outcomes and 15 studies reported entomological outcomes. None of the included studies reported on the environmental impacts associated with the intervention. For risk of bias, all trials had some concerns and other designs ranging from moderate to critical. Ten studies assessed habitat manipulation (temporary change to the environment). This included water management (spillways across streams; floodgates; intermittent flooding; different drawdown rates of water; different flooding and draining regimens), shading management (shading of drainage channels with different plants), other/combined management approaches (minimal tillage; disturbance of aquatic habitats with grass clearing and water replenishment), which showed mixed results for entomological outcomes. Spillways across streams, faster drawdown rates of water, shading drainage canals with Napier grass, and using minimal tillage may reduce the density of immature mosquitoes (range of effects from 95% reduction to 1.7 times increase; low-certainty evidence), and spillways across streams may reduce densities of adult mosquitoes compared to no intervention (low-certainty evidence). However, the effect of habitat manipulation on malaria parasite prevalence and clinical malaria incidence is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence). Two studies assessed habitat manipulation with larviciding. This included reducing or removal of habitat sites; and drain cleaning, grass cutting, and minor repairs. It is uncertain whether drain cleaning, grass cutting, and minor repairs reduces malaria parasite prevalence compared to no intervention (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 0.83; very low-certainty evidence). Two studies assessed combination of habitat manipulation and permanent change (habitat modification). This included drainage canals, filling, and planting of papyrus and other reeds for shading near dams; and drainage of canals, removal of debris, land levelling, and filling ditches. Studies did not report on epidemiological outcomes, but entomological outcomes suggest that such activities may reduce the density of adult mosquitoes compared to no intervention (relative risk reduction 0.49, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.50; low-certainty evidence), and preventing water stagnating using drainage of canals, removal of debris, land levelling, and filling ditches may reduce the density of immature mosquitoes compared to no intervention (ranged from 10% to 55% reductions; low-certainty evidence). Three studies assessed combining manipulation and modification with larviciding. This included filling or drainage of water bodies; filling, draining, or elimination of rain pools and puddles at water supply points and stream bed pools; and shoreline work, improvement and maintenance to drainage, clearing vegetation and undergrowth, and filling pools. There were mixed effect sizes for the reduction of entomological outcomes (moderate-certainty evidence). However, filling or draining water bodies probably makes little or no difference to malaria parasite prevalence, haemoglobin levels, or entomological inoculation rate when delivered with larviciding compared to no intervention (moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Habitat modification and manipulation interventions for preventing malaria has some indication of benefit in both epidemiological and entomological outcomes. While the data are quite mixed and further studies could help improve the knowledge base, these varied approaches may be useful in some circumstances.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Malária , Humanos , Adulto , Animais , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Larva , Ecossistema , Água , Hemoglobinas
9.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(12)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331034

RESUMO

In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of soil microbial communities at three, pilot-scale field sites simulating shallow infiltration for managed aquifer recharge (MAR). We evaluated shifts in microbial communities after infiltration across site location, through different soils, with and without carbon-rich amendments added to test plots. Our meta-analysis aims to enable more effective MAR basin design by identifying potentially important interactions between soil physical-geochemical parameters and microbial communities across several geographically separate MAR basins. We hypothesized infiltration and carbon amendments would lead to common changes in subsurface microbial communities at multiple field sites but instead found distinct differences. Sites with coarser (mainly sandy) soil had large changes in diversity and taxa abundance, while sites with finer soils had fewer significant changes in genera, despite having the greatest increase in nitrogen cycling. Below test plots amended with a carbon-rich permeable reactive barrier, we observed more nitrate removal and a decrease in genera capable of nitrification. Multivariate statistics determined that the soil texture (a proxy for numerous soil characteristics) was the main determinant of whether the microbial community composition changed because of infiltration. These results suggest that microbial communities in sandy soil with carbon-rich amendments are most impacted by infiltration. Soil composition is a critical parameter that links between microbial communities and nutrient cycling during infiltration and could influence the citing and operation of MAR to benefit water quality and supply.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Microbiota , Solo/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Carbono/análise , Oxirredução , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; : 160513, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36442629

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the significant global issues to public health. Compared to other aquatic environments, research on AMR in groundwater is scarce. In the study, a meta-analysis was conducted to explore the characteristics and risks of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in global groundwater, using a data set of antibiotic concentrations collected from publications during 2000-2021 and a large-scale metagenomes of groundwater samples (n = 330). The ecotoxicological risks of antibiotics in the global groundwater were evaluated using mixture risk quotient with concentration addition model to consider the synergistic effects of multiple antibiotics. Bioinformatic annotations identified 1413 ARGs belonging to 37 ARG types in the global groundwater, dominated by rifamycin, polyketide, and quinolone resistance genes and including some emerging ARGs such as mcr-family and carbapenem genes. Relatively, the level of ARGs in the groundwater from spring was significantly higher (ANOVA, p < 0.01) than those from the riparian zone, sand and deep aquifer. Similarly, metal resistance genes (MRGs) were prevalent in the global groundwater, and network analysis suggested the MRGs presented non-random co-occurrence with the ARGs in such environments. Taxonomic annotations showed Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Eukaryota, Acidobacteria and Thaumarchaeota were the dominant phylum in the groundwater, and the microbial community largely shaped profile of ARGs in the environment. Notably, the ARGs presented co-occurrence with mobile genetic elements, virulence factors and human bacterial pathogens, indicating potential dissemination risk of ARGs in the groundwater. Furthermore, an omics-based approach was used for health risk assessment of antibiotic resistome and screened out 152 risk ARGs in the global groundwater. Comparatively, spring and cold creek presented higher risk index, which deserves more attention to ensure the safety of water supply.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 160500, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435250

RESUMO

Inter-basin water transfer projects (IBTs) have significantly increased in number in recent decades due to the unremitting need to solve the problem of global water imbalance. However, given the complex challenges inherent in implementing and maintaining IBTs, there is a need to characterize the multi-faceted aspects of sustainability (or unsustainability) that result from these megaprojects. Through a systematic review of the literature, we sought to identify and characterize the positive and negative impacts that most often influence the sustainability of IBTs, focusing on impacts within the environmental, social, and economic pillars of sustainability. Based on an eligibility criterion, the systematic review selected 68 documents out of an initial total of 1567 for information quality analysis and content evaluation. The qualitative coding of the documents allowed us to characterize the landscape of impacts that result from IBTs across the three pillars of sustainability. The study findings revealed that the most frequently coded positive impacts related to the environmental pillar of sustainability, while the most frequently coded negative impacts related to both social and environmental pillars. In addition, the most frequently coded positive impact overall related to the economic benefits generated by the IBTs. Through a critical analysis of the study findings, we provide an assessment of future IBTs with a focus on the UN sustainable development goals.

12.
Indoor Air ; 32(11): e13129, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36437646

RESUMO

This systematic review investigates the emissions from ultrasonic humidifiers (e.g., cool mist humidifiers) within indoor air environments, namely soluble and insoluble metals and minerals as well as microorganisms and one organic chemical biocide. Relationships between ultrasonic humidifier fill water quality and the emissions in indoor air are studied, and associated potential adverse health outcomes are discussed. Literature from January 1, 1980, to February 1, 2022, was searched from online databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to produce 27 articles. The results revealed clear positive proportional relationships of the concentration of microorganisms and soluble metals/minerals between fill water qualities and emitted airborne particles, for both microbial (n = 9) and inorganic (n = 15) constituents. When evaluating emissions and the consequent health outcomes, ventilation rates of specific exposure scenarios affect the concentrations of emitted particles. Thus, well-ventilated rooms may alleviate inhalation risks when the fill water in ultrasonic humidifiers contains microorganisms and soluble metals/minerals. Case reports (n = 3) possibly due to the inhalation of particles from ultrasonic humidifier include hypersensitivity pneumonitis in adults and a 6-month infant; the young infant exhibited nonreversible mild obstructive ventilator defect. In summary, related literature indicated correlation between fill water quality of ultrasonic humidifier and emitted particles in air quality, and inhalation of the emitted particles may cause undesirable health outcomes of impaired respiratory functions in adults and children.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Umidificadores , Lactente , Criança , Humanos , Ultrassom , Aerossóis , Minerais
13.
Eur J Public Health ; 2022 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Replacing single-use products with reusable ones may reduce the environmental impact of healthcare. This study aimed to broadly assess the environmental effects of that substitution. METHODS: A systematic review of comparative cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessments (LCAs) of single-use and reusable healthcare products was conducted. The main outcomes assessed were changes in the environmental impact that resulted after switching from single-use to reusable products. As no standardized transparency checklist was available, one was developed here using DIN ISO 14040/14044. The final checklist included 22 criteria used to appraise the included studies. RESULTS: After screening, 27 studies were included in the analysis. The healthcare products were assigned to four categories: invasive medical devices, non-invasive medical devices, protection equipment and inhalers. The outcomes revealed a reduction in mean effect sizes for all environmental impacts except water use. Non-invasive medical devices have greater relative mitigation potential than invasive devices. On average, information on 64% of the transparency checklist items was reported. Gaps included the reporting of data quality requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Switching to reusable healthcare products is likely to reduce most impacts on the environment except water use, but the effect size differs among product categories. Possible study limitations include location bias, no systematic search of the grey literature and small samples for some impacts. This study's strengths are its approach to product categories and developed transparency catalogue. This catalogue could be useful to inform and guide a future process towards creating a standardized transparency checklist for the systematic reviews of LCAs.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361844

RESUMO

The plant-microbe holobiont has garnered considerable attention in recent years, highlighting its importance as an ecological unit. Similarly, manipulation of the microbial entities involved in the rhizospheric microbiome for sustainable agriculture has also been in the limelight, generating several commercial bioformulations to enhance crop yield and pest resistance. These bioformulations were termed biofertilizers, with the consistent existence and evolution of different types. However, an emerging area of interest has recently focused on the application of these microorganisms for waste valorization and the production of "bio-organic" fertilizers as a result. In this study, we performed a bibliometric analysis and systematic review of the literature retrieved from Scopus and Web of Science to determine the type of microbial inoculants used for the bioconversion of waste into "bio-organic" fertilizers. The Bacillus, Acidothiobacillus species, cyanobacterial biomass species, Aspergillus sp. and Trichoderma sp. were identified to be consistently used for the recovery of nutrients and bioconversion of wastes used for the promotion of plant growth. Cyanobacterial strains were used predominantly for wastewater treatment, while Bacillus, Acidothiobacillus, and Aspergillus were used on a wide variety of wastes such as sawdust, agricultural waste, poultry bone meal, crustacean shell waste, food waste, and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sewage sludge ash. Several bioconversion strategies were observed such as submerged fermentation, solid-state fermentation, aerobic composting, granulation with microbiological activation, and biodegradation. Diverse groups of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) with different enzymatic functionalities such as chitinolysis, lignocellulolytic, and proteolysis, in addition to their plant growth promoting properties being explored as a consortium for application as an inoculum waste bioconversion to fertilizers. Combining the efficiency of such functional and compatible microbial species for efficient bioconversion as well as higher plant growth and crop yield is an enticing opportunity for "bio-organic" fertilizer research.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas , Eliminação de Resíduos , Fertilizantes/análise , Biomassa , Alimentos , Esgotos/microbiologia , Bibliometria , Solo
15.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276186, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is essential for maintaining human life, health, and dignity. Untreated water consumption causes 1.8 million deaths annually, over 99.8% of which happen in developing nations and 90% of which include children. Point-of-use water treatment enables people without reliable access to safe drinking water to reduce contamination and minimize microbial risk levels. This Systematic Review and Meta-analysis was, therefore, used to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant evidence about water treatment practices and their associated factors among Ethiopian households. METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and other databases were searched for studies published before May 5, 2022. The final synthesis included twelve investigations. Microsoft Excel was used to extract the data, and STATA 16 was used for the analysis. The Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical assessment checklist for prevalence studies was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Egger's test and funnel plot were used to assess publication bias. I2 statistics were calculated to check for study heterogeneity. The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used to analyze the pooled effect size, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals across studies. Analysis of subgroups was done by publication year and geographic region. RESULTS: Of the 550 identified articles, 12 studies were eligible for analysis (n = 4849 participants). The pooled prevalence estimate of point-of-use water treatment practice among Ethiopian homes was 36.07% (95% CI: 21.94-50.19, I2 = 99.5%). Receiving training from Community health workers (OR, 1.7; 95% CI: 1.33-2.08), female headship (OR, 2.52; 95% CI: 1.60-3.44), and household wealth (OR, 1.6; 95% CI: 1.19-2.16) were significantly associated with point-of-use water treatment practice. CONCLUSION: Despite the absence of safely managed water sources, very few homes routinely treated their drinking water. Adoption of water treatment practices necessitates ongoing communication and assistance from health extension personnel. Moreover, program planners must be aware of the many user categories that households may fall under to guarantee that ongoing training messages and treatment products reach every home.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Razão de Chances
16.
Rev Environ Health ; 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181734

RESUMO

The contamination of water due to heavy metals (HMs) is a big concern for humankind; particularly in developing countries. This research is a systematic review, conducted by searching google scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, Springer, and Scopus databases for related published papers from 2010 to July 2021, resulting in including 40 articles. Among the analyzed HMs in the presented review, the average content of Cr, Pb, Ba, Al, As, Zn, and Cd exceeded the permissible limits suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and 1,053 Iranian standards. Also, the rank order of Hazard Quotient (HQ) of HMs was defined as Cd>As>Cr>Pb>Li for children which means Cd has the highest non-carcinogenic risk and Li has the least. This verifies to the current order As>Cr>Pb>Fe=Zn=Cu>Cd for adults. The corresponded values of HQ and Hazard Index (HI) in most cities and villages were investigated and the results indicated a lower than 1 value, which means consumers are not at non-carcinogenic risk (HQ). Carcinogenic risk (CR) of As in the adult and children consumers in most of the samples (58.82% of samples for both groups) were investigated too, and it was more than>1.00E-04 value, which determines that consumers are at significant CR.

17.
Prev Vet Med ; 208: 105770, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181747

RESUMO

Animals such as rodents and birds may play a key role in the distribution of Blastocystis sp., either as introducers of the parasite into the water or as receptors of an infection already established in the water. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence and subtype distributions of Blastocystis sp. in rodents, birds, and water supplies at a global scale through a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. The standard protocol of preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statements were applied. Eligible prevalence studies on Blastocystis sp. in rodents, birds, and water supplies, published between 1 January 2000 and 20 January 2022 were collected using a systematic literature search in online databases (Scopus and Web of Science) and search engines (PubMed and Google Scholar). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed. The point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. The variances between studies (heterogeneity) were computed by I2 index. In total, 20 articles (24 datasets) for birds, 18 articles (18 datasets) for rodents, and 10 articles (12 datasets) for water supply were included for the final meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in birds, rodents, and water was estimated to be 29% (95% CI 12-47%), 18% (95% CI 12-23%), and 10% (95% CI 6%-15%), respectively. Considering the subtypes, Blastocystis sp. with subtypes ST7 in birds, ST4 in rodents, and ST1 in water supplies were the highest reported subtypes. The present results highlight the role of birds, rodents, and water as a reservoir for human-infected Blastocystis sp. Therefore, this global estimate could be beneficial for preventive and control measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis , Blastocystis , Doenças dos Roedores , Humanos , Animais , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Prevalência , Roedores , Fezes/parasitologia , Aves , Abastecimento de Água , Filogenia
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1018092, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36249215

RESUMO

Background: Poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) is linked to adverse health, and quality of life, particularly during emergencies. Although in recent times increased emphasis is being laid upon MHM during humanitarian crises-pandemics, disasters and conflicts, the essential components of complete MHM during an emergency are not clearly spelt out. We conducted a systematic review to examine, analyse and describe the existing evidence related to the challenges experienced by women and girls in practicing MHM during humanitarian crises and / or public health emergencies. Methods: We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses 2020 guidelines and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022328636). We searched online repositories: PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO for articles published between January 2000 and April 2022. For presenting key findings, we used the descriptive statistics and thematic analysis approach. Results: We identified a total of 1,078 published articles, out of which 78 were selected for a full-text review, and finally 21 articles were included. The pooled prevalence of lack of access to sanitary pads during humanitarian crises was 34 percent (95 percent CI 0.24-0.45). The prevalence of safe and proper sanitary pad disposal practices ranged from 11 to 85 per cent, with a pooled prevalence of 54 per cent (95 per cent CI 0.21-86). Qualitative analyses projected three themes that emerged on MHM during humanitarian crises (1) Availability and affordability of menstrual products, and accessibility to water, sanitation and health (WASH) services, (2) Availability of support system and coping with "period poverty," and (3) Gender dimensions of menstrual hygiene management. Most studies reported non-availability of MHM products and WASH services during emergencies. Existence of barriers at systemic and personal level posed challenges in practicing menstrual hygiene. Privacy was identified as a common barrier, as emergency shelters were reportedly not women-friendly. Conclusion: Availability of limited evidence on the subject is suggestive of the need to invest resources for strengthening primary research in low- and middle-income countries and more specifically during emergencies. Context-specific state level policies on MHM during emergencies would help to guide district and sub-district managers in strengthening systems and address barriers for the provision of MHM services during emergencies. Systematic review registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42022328636, identifier CRD42022328636.


Assuntos
Higiene , Socorro em Desastres , Países em Desenvolvimento , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Qualidade de Vida , Água
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231147

RESUMO

Inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) among urban poor women is a major urban policy concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There was a paucity of systematic information on WASH among the urban poor during the pandemic. We reviewed the opportunities and challenges faced by the urban poor in LMICs during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the PRISMA guidelines to conduct a comprehensive search of 11 databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL, between November 2019 and August 2021. We used thematic analysis to synthesize the qualitative data and meta-analyses to estimate the pooled prevalence. We screened 5008 records, conducted a full-text review of 153 studies, and included 38 studies. The pooled prevalence of shared water points was 0.71 (95% CI 0.37-0.97), non-adherence to hygiene practices was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08-0.24), non-adherence to face masks was 0.27 (95% CI 0.0-0.81), and access to shared community toilets was 0.59 (95% CI 0.11-1.00). Insufficient facilities caused crowding and long waiting times at shared facilities, making physical distancing challenging. Women reported difficulty in maintaining privacy for sanitation, as men were present due to the stay-at-home rule. Due to unaffordability, women reported using cloth instead of sanitary pads and scarves instead of masks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Pandemias , Água , Abastecimento de Água
20.
Waste Manag Res ; : 734242X221122604, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134678

RESUMO

The irrational functioning of the food sector can negatively impact the environment and resources for future generations. The aim of this study is to analyse the assessment of sustainability indicators related to meal production processes and waste in the food service through a systematic literature review. The hypothesis is that these indicators are still little explored. This review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols. The databases consulted were Lilacs, Science Direct, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, OpenGrey and Greylit. Six different search strategies were applied, combining the terms sustainability and food service, plus manual searches. The search took place until April 2020 and there was no language restriction of the studies. After removing duplicates, 770 publications were identified through the search process, with 44 having been included in this review. Most publications carried out the quantification of food waste (38/44), while in 7/44 there were questionnaires, checklists and water footprint assessments. Most studies identified high indicators of waste, as well as little awareness of sustainability. Factors such as controlled portioning, omnivorous menus and dissatisfaction with the menu were reported to have caused the greatest losses in the process. This review identified a restricted assessment of sustainability in food service, countering the need to deepen these indicators and the effect of meal production processes on sustainable development.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...