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1.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

RESUMO

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Políticas , Saúde Pública
2.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274532

RESUMO

BackgroundThe SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has replaced the previously dominant Delta variant because of high transmissibility. It is responsible for the current increase in the COVID-19 infectivity rate worldwide. However, studies on the impact of the Omicron variant on the severity of COVID-19 are still limited in developing countries. Here, we compared the outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and Delta variants and associated with prognostic factors, including age, sex, comorbidities, and smoking. MethodsWe involved 352 patients, 139 with the Omicron variant and 213 with the Delta variant. The whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 were conducted using the Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencer. ResultsCt value and mean age of COVID-19 patients were not significantly different between both groups (Delta: 20.35 {+/-} 4.07 vs. Omicron: 20.62 {+/-} 3.75; p=0.540; and Delta: 36.52 {+/-} 21.24 vs. Omicron: 39.10 {+/-} 21.24; p=0.266, respectively). Patients infected with Omicron and Delta variants showed similar hospitalization (p=0.433) and mortality rates (p=0.565). Multivariate analysis showed that older age ([≥]65 years) had higher risk for hospitalization (OR=3.67 [95% CI=1.22-10.94]; p=0.019) and fatalities (OR=3.93 [95% CI=1.35-11.42]; p=0.012). In addition, patients with cardiovascular disease had higher risk for hospitalization (OR=5.27 [95% CI=1.07-25.97]; p=0.041), whereas patients with diabetes revealed higher risk for fatalities (OR=9.39 [95% CI=3.30-26.72]; p=<0.001). ConclusionsOur study shows that patients infected with Omicron and Delta variants reveal similar clinical outcomes, including hospitalization and mortality. In addition, our findings further confirm that older age, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes are strong prognostic factors for the outcomes of COVID-19 patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between preeclampsia and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is under study. Previous publications have hypothesized the existence of shared risk factors for both conditions or a deficient trophoblastic invasion as possible explanations for this association. The primary aim of this study was to examine baseline risk factors measured in the first-trimester combined screening for preeclampsia in pregnant women with COVID-19 compared with the general population. A secondary aim of this study was to compare risk factors among patients with mild and severe COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study conducted at Vall d'Hebron Hospital Campus (Catalonia, Spain). Study patients were 231 pregnant women undergoing the first-trimester screening for preeclampsia and positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between February 2020 and September 2021. The reference cohort were 13 033 women of the general population from six centers across Catalonia from May 2019 to June 2021. Based on the need for hospitalization, patients were classified in two groups: mild and severe COVID-19. First-trimester screening for preeclampsia included maternal history, mean arterial blood pressure, mean uterine artery pulsatility index (UtAPI), placental growth factor (PlGF), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). RESULTS: The proportion of cases at high risk for preeclampsia was significantly higher among the COVID-19 group compared with the general population (19.0% and 13.2%, respectively; p = 0.012). When analyzing risk factors for preeclampsia individually, women with COVID-19 had higher median body mass index (25.2 vs. 24.5, p = 0.041), higher UtAPI multiple of the median (MoM) (1.08 vs. 1.00, p < 0.001), higher incidence of chronic hypertension (2.8% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.015), and there were fewer smokers (5.7% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.007). The MoMs of PlGF and PAPP-A did not differ significantly between both groups (0.96 vs. 0.97, p = 0.760 and 1.00 vs. 1.01, p = 0.432; respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, there was a higher proportion of women at high risk for preeclampsia at the first-trimester screening than in the general population, mainly because of maternal risk factors, rather than placental signs of a deficient trophoblastic invasion.

4.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511126

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of this study is to longitudinally assess sociodemographic and psychological correlates of increased alcohol use during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) period among adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Pre-COVID period is defined as the 1-year period on or before 31 March 2020, and during-COVID period is defined as the period from 1st April 2020 to 30 March 2021. Univariable logistic regression models are used to evaluate the association of demographic characteristics, Area Deprivation Index (ADI), rurality, changes in Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale severity, and the risk of increased alcohol consumption (binge drinking, number of drinks and drinking regularity) from pre-COVID to during-COVID period. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Our study found that worsened anxiety symptoms, older age, being in college and current cigarette smoking status were associated with increased alcohol use among youth during the pandemic year. Socioeconomic position (measured by ADI) and rural status were not found to be associated with increased alcohol use among adolescents and young adults.

5.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511202

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite high levels of illicit trade in the tobacco market, the South African government banned the sale of tobacco products in March 2020 as part of its COVID-19 response. The ban lasted five months. We assess how the ban affected the cigarette market for a sample of smokers by comparing the price, consumption, and competitive landscapes before (March), during (May and June), and after (September) the ban. METHODS: We conducted three online surveys of cigarette smokers, asking about smoking behavior before, during, and after the ban. We use descriptive statistics and OLS regressions to estimate the impact of the ban on the South African cigarette market, focusing on the price of cigarettes. RESULTS: Most smokers continued smoking despite the sales ban. During the ban, prices increased by over 240%. Purchases shifted away from the normally dominant brands of the multinational tobacco companies to local/regional producers. The covariates of price changed substantially during the sales ban, the most pronounced being inter-provincial effects. After the ban, the market shifted back to its preban state, with an overall increase in price of 3.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette sales continued despite the sales ban, further entrenching an already large illicit market. Had the government substantially increased the excise tax, rather than banned the sale of tobacco products, it would have achieved a similar public health outcome, received more revenue, and presumably not further entrenched the illicit market. IMPLICATIONS: South Africa temporarily banned the sale of tobacco as part of its COVID-19 response. Despite the ban, the sale of cigarettes did not cease; rather, it caused major disruption to the cigarette market. The ban inadvertently benefited manufacturers who were previously disproportionately involved in illicit activities; these manufacturers increased their market share even after the ban was lifted. The ban may have further entrenched South Africa's already large illicit market. Our results show that there are unintended consequences associated with a temporary ban on the sale of cigarettes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511656

RESUMO

BACHGROUND: In the early stages of the pandemic, the first reports began that alcohol consumption could increase the risk of becoming infected and worsening the prognosis disease. This is for two reasons: behavioral and socio-economic factors that characterize a part of this population can be the cause of viral spread and a direct or indirect negative action of ethanol on the immune system. METHODS: The data used for the preparation of these recommendations are based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature published before March 31, 2022 (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar). Furthermore, in the process of developing this work, we consulted the guidelines / position papers of the Italian Society on Alcohol and of the World Health Organization. RESULTS: It has been confirmed that AC is in COVID-19 era a risky behavior and that AUD and substance use disorder (SUD) patients are certainly at greater risk of contracting infection and also of having a worse course. CONCLUSIONS: In light of what has been said recommendations can be made: correctly inform the general population that AC negatively interacts with COVID-19 infection; reducing the COVID-19 risk by advocating healthy lifestyle habits (smoke, diet, physical exercise, etc) and preferential policies in population with comorbidities; implement actions that reduce the average consumption of alcohol by avoiding hazardous/harmful consumption. Abstension is better; identify alcohol consumption through a more in-depth alcohol history, using the AUDIT; AUDs patients are frail patients deserving a complete vaccination course; suggest a period of alcoholic abstention of at least thirty days before vaccination to be maintained for the following fifteen days; promoting health education campaigns for young people in order to promote vaccination culture and correct lifestyles.

7.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490872

RESUMO

COVID-19 has to this point led to more than 5 million deaths and has imposed numerous measures restricting populations worldwide, including Latin America (LA). However, analyzing COVID-19 from the perspective of a syndemic, it demonstrates the relationship between the interaction of multiple comorbidities and the increase of contagion in people who are socially vulnerable. The number of deaths by COVID-19 in LA is strongly associated with multi-morbidities (diabetes, obesity, sedentary, smoking, among others) and disproportionately attacks communities located in poorer, low-income regions and ethnic minorities. This review aims to revisit the relationship between COVID-19 and both unhealthy living habits (i.e., sedentary lifestyle, poor nutritional habits, overweight and obesity, smoking) and cardiovascular disease in Latin American countries. In addition, this review aims to introduce strategies and policies that combat social inequalities and enable healthy living behaviors in LA countries. If LA countries do not work on public policies that decrease multi-morbidities and social inequalities, we will be unable to eliminate COVID-19, as well as possible other outbreaks that may arise in the future.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 423, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have performed comprehensive comparisons between hospitalized patients from different waves of COVID-19. Thus, we aimed to compare the clinical characteristics and laboratory data of patients admitted to the western part of Denmark during the first and second waves of COVID-19 in 2020. Furthermore, we aimed to identify risk factors for critical COVID-19 disease and to describe the available information on the sources of infection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of medical records from 311 consecutive hospitalized patients, 157 patients from wave 1 and 154 patients from wave 2. The period from March 7 to June 30, 2020, was considered wave 1, and the period from July 1st to December 31, 2020, was considered wave 2. Data are presented as the total study population, as a comparison between waves 1 and 2, and as a comparison between patients with and without critical COVID-19 disease (nonsurvivors and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)). RESULTS: Patients admitted during the first COVID-19 wave experienced a more severe course of disease than patients admitted during wave 2. Admissions to the ICU and fatal disease were significantly higher among patients admitted during wave 1 compared to wave 2. The percentage of patients infected at hospital decreased in wave 2 compared to wave 1, whereas more patients were infected at home during wave 2. We found no significant differences in sociodemographics, lifestyle information, or laboratory data in the comparison of patients from waves 1 and 2. However, age, sex, smoking status, comorbidities, fever, and dyspnea were identified as risk factors for critical COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, we observed significantly increased levels of C-reactive protein and creatinine, and lower hemoglobin levels among patients with critical disease. CONCLUSIONS: At admission, patients were more severely ill during wave 1 than during wave 2, and the outcomes were worse during wave 1. We confirmed previously identified risk factors for critical COVID-19 disease. In addition, we found that most COVID-19 infections were acquired at home.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Perinat Med ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A greater proportion of non-pregnant smokers attempted to stop smoking during compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to determine if a greater proportion of pregnant women also attempted to stop smoking during the pandemic rather than before. METHODS: The use of antenatal smoking cessation services and nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) in pregnant women was audited before (2019-2020) and during the COVID pandemic (2020-2021). Anonymised data from January 2019 to March 2021 were analysed from the Lambeth and Southwark smoking cessation service. RESULTS: A total of 252 pregnant women who smoked were referred to their local antenatal smoking cessation service, of which 90 (35.7%) (median age: 31 years [19-52 years]) chose to attend smoking cessation clinics. The COVID-19 pandemic was not associated with an increase in the number of women attending smoking cessation clinics, (2020-2021 n=46 [40.8%] of 110); compared to (2019-2020 n=44 [30.9%] of 142 referred pregnant women pre-pandemic) p=0.061. Eighty-two women utilised NRT to help them stop smoking and the frequency of NRT use did not change during the pandemic (2019-2020 n=39, 2020-2021 n=43; p=0.420). No significant difference in smoking cessation rates between the two periods was observed at either the four-week (p=0.285) or twelve-week follow-up (p=0.829). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation rates in pregnant women and the demand for antenatal smoking cessation services was unchanged during compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7211, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508515

RESUMO

With the COVID-19 pandemic, documenting whether health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 contamination and identifying risk factors is of major concern. In this multicenter prospective cohort study, HCWs from frontline departments were included in March and April 2020 and followed for 3 months. SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed at month 0 (M0), M1, and M3 and RT-PCR in case of symptoms. The primary outcome was laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3. Risk factors of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3 were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Among 1062 HCWs (median [interquartile range] age, 33 [28-42] years; 758 [71.4%] women; 321 [30.2%] physicians), the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3 was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] [12.5; 16.9]). Risk factors were the working department specialty, with increased risk for intensive care units (odds ratio 1.80, 95% CI [0.38; 8.58]), emergency departments (3.91 [0.83; 18.43]) and infectious diseases departments (4.22 [0.92; 18.28]); current smoking was associated with reduced risk (0.36 [0.21; 0.63]). Age, sex, professional category, number of years of experience in the job or department, and public transportation use were not significantly associated with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at M3. The rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in frontline HCWs was 14.6% at the end of the first COVID-19 wave in Paris and occurred mainly early. The study argues for an origin of professional in addition to private life contamination and therefore including HCWs in the first-line vaccination target population. It also highlights that smokers were at lower risk.Trial registration The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04304690 first registered on 11/03/2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Melanthiaceae , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pandemias , Paris/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Total Environ ; : 155697, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523346

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic spread rapidly worldwide in the year 2020, which was initially restrained by drastic mobility restrictions. In this work, we investigated the use of illicit drugs (amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, cocaine and cannabis), and licit substances of abuse (alcohol and tobacco) during the earlier months (March-July 2020) of the pandemic restrictions in four Spanish (Bilbao and its metropolitan area, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Castellón and Santiago de Compostela) and two Portuguese (Porto and Vila do Conde) locations by wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). The results show that no methamphetamine was detected in any of the locations monitored, while amphetamine use was only detectable in the two locations from the Basque Country (Bilbao and its metropolitan area and Vitoria-Gasteiz), with high estimated average usage rates (700-930 mg day-1 1000 inhabitant-1). The remaining substances were detected in all the investigated catchment areas. In general, no remarkable changes were found in population normalized loads compared to former years, except for cocaine (i.e. its main metabolite, benzoylecgonine). For this drug, a notable decrease in use was discernible in Castellón, while its usage in Porto and Santiago de Compostela seemed to continue in a rising trend, already initiated in former years. Furthermore, two events of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) dumping in the sewage network were confirmed by enantiomeric analysis, one in Santiago de Compostela just prior the lockdown and the second one in the Bilbao and its metropolitan area in July after relieving the more stringent measures. The latter could also be associated with a police intervention. The comparison of WBE with (web) survey data, which do not provide information at a local level, points towards contradictory conclusions for some of the substances, thereby highlighting the need for stable WBE networks capable of near real-time monitoring drug use.

12.
Arch Bronconeumol ; 58 Suppl 1: 39-50, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501222

RESUMO

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic. Till now, it affected 452.4 million (Spain, 11.18 million) persons all over the world with a total of 6.04 million of deaths (Spain, 100,992). It is observed that 75% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have at least one COVID-19 associated comorbidity. It was shown that people with underlying chronic illnesses are more likely to get it and grow seriously ill. Individuals with COVID-19 who have a past medical history of cardiovascular disorder, cancer, obesity, chronic lung disease, diabetes, or neurological disease had the worst prognosis and are more likely to develop acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia. COVID-19 can affect the respiratory system in a variety of ways and across a spectrum of levels of disease severity, depending on a person's immune system, age and comorbidities. Symptoms can range from mild, such as cough, shortness of breath and fever, to critical disease, including respiratory failure, shock and multi-organ system failure. So, COVID-19 infection can cause overall worsening of these previous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, etc. This review aims to provide information on the impact of the COVID-19 disease on pre-existing lung comorbidities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Transtornos Respiratórios , COVID-19/complicações , Comorbidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 217: 107263, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinal abnormalities are being increasingly reported in COVID-19, in addition to the well-known symptoms of this disease accounting for the neurological involvement. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether ganglion cell layer thickness (GCLT) was different in recovered COVID-19 patients compared to controls in the subacute stage and to determine whether it correlated with COVID-19-related neurological symptoms or pneumonia. METHODS: This study involved 40 patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. All the participants underwent ophthalmological examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and neurological examination. The clinical and biochemical properties of the patients were noted and their correlations with GCLT were sought. RESULTS: The duration after COVID-19 infection was 113 ± 62 (mean ± SD) days. At this subacute stage, there was no significant difference between the GCLT measurements of the COVID-19 patients and the controls (14 ± 4.0 µm [median ± IQR] vs 16 ± 4.8 µm, respectively). When we analyzed the relationships with neurological symptoms in the patient group, we found that patients with cognitive symptoms had lower GCLT values compared to those without (13 ± 3 µm vs. 16 ± 4 µm, respectively; p = 0.002). Patients who suffered headache during the acute infection also had lower GCLT values compared to those without (14 ± 4 µm vs. 18 ± 5 µm, respectively; p = 0.015). The GCLT values did not differ significantly with respect to anosmia, ageusia, sleep disturbances, having had COVID-19 pneumonia, or smoking status. Age, duration after COVID-19, and blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, glucose, vitamin D and vitamin B12 were not in correlation with GCLT in our study. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight an association between GCLT values and neurological symptoms such as cognitive disturbance (brain fog) and headache in patients who had recovered after non-severe COVID-19 infection. Neuroretinal involvement by SARS-CoV2 might be linked to central neurological symptoms. The patients with lower GCLT values may benefit from close monitoring for neurological problems.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564394

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, combined with the Korean government's response to the pandemic on tobacco consumption and national smoking cessation services among the Korean population. We obtained tobacco sale data from the Ministry of Finance and analysed the data on smokers' visits to national smoking cessation clinics during the pandemic from a member of the National Assembly. We also conducted an online search to understand smokers' thoughts about their tobacco use during the pandemic. We found that after the emergence of COVID-19 in 2020, the sale of conventional cigarettes increased from 3063.70 to 3209.70 million packs (4.77%). The number of smokers who visited clinics sharply decreased in the first half of 2020. The six-month quit rate decreased from 38.5% in 2017 to 22.3% in early 2020. We also found that smokers increased their consumption and began to switch from conventional cigarettes to heated tobacco products. The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened tobacco control policies and programs in Korea in the last two years; however, based on our experience during this period and considering the WHO recommendation, we should sustain and reinforce tobacco control policies and national smoking cessation services today and in the future.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564465

RESUMO

Perinatal maternal anxiety and depression negatively affect intrauterine fetal development, birth outcome, breastfeeding initiation, duration, and milk composition. Antenatal classes potentially reduce the anxiety of pregnant women and may thus contribute to healthy infant development. The study investigates the relationship between participation in online or in-person antenatal classes and levels of anxiety and depression in Polish women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study group included 1774 adult, non-smoking pregnant women. We compared the state anxiety (STAI-State) and depression levels (EPDS) in women who (i) attended antenatal classes in-person, (ii) attended online classes, and (iii) did not attend any of them. The statistical analyses included a GLM model and trend analysis, while controlling for maternal trait anxiety, age, pregnancy complications, trimester of pregnancy, previous pregnancies, and COVID-19 infections. We observed statistically significant differences in the level of anxiety (and depression). Women who did attend antenatal classes in person had the lowest levels of anxiety and depression. Considering the importance of maternal mental well-being on fetal development, birth outcome, and breastfeeding, in-person participation in antenatal classes should be recommended to pregnant women.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564728

RESUMO

There is a lack of research using objective measures about teachers' physical characteristics and lifestyle. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between frequency of breakfast consumption and body size, body composition, blood pressure and lifestyle factors in teachers from Hungary. The study analyzed data collected from 99 female primary school teachers (50.6 ± 6.6 year) before the COVID-19 pandemic. Anthropometric and resting blood pressure measurements were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to assess lifestyle factors (i.e., physical activity level, smoking status and eating breakfast). The frequency of eating breakfast was classified as rarely or never (0-2 days), some days (3-5 days) and regularly (6-7 days). Sixty-five percent of female teachers consumed breakfast 6-7 days/week, and this regular eating habit was positively associated with a lower risk of obesity (OR 0.29; CI: 0.10-0.80). In our sample, a higher frequency of breakfast consumption was not significantly associated with smoking (OR 2.65; CI: 0.17-1.37), hypertension (OR 0.61; CI: 0.23-1.65) and inactivity (OR 2.80; CI: 0.26-1.84). A beneficial effect of eating breakfast regularly was found on body composition in female teachers. Further studies should focus on the health behaviors of teachers and their relationship with physical activity or diagnosed diseases in urban and rural areas.

17.
Addiction ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491743

RESUMO

AIM: To measure whether the prevalence of use and real-world effectiveness of different smoking cessation aids has changed in England since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Representative monthly cross-sectional surveys, January 2015-June 2021. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 7300 adults (≥18 y) who had smoked within the previous 12 months and had made ≥1 quit attempt during that period. MEASUREMENTS: The independent variable was the timing of the COVID-19 pandemic (pre-pandemic [January 2015-February 2020] vs pandemic [April 2020-June 2021]). We analysed (i) the association between the pandemic period and self-reported use (vs non-use) during the most recent quit attempt of: prescription medication (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]/varenicline/bupropion), NRT bought over-the-counter, e-cigarettes, traditional behavioural support and traditional remote support (telephone support/written self-help materials/websites) and (ii) the interaction between the pandemic period and use of these cessation aids on self-reported abstinence from quit date to survey. Covariates included age, sex, social grade, level of cigarette addiction and characteristics related to the quit attempt. FINDINGS: After adjustment for secular trends, there was a significant increase from the pre-pandemic to pandemic period in the prevalence of use of traditional remote support by past-year smokers in a quit attempt (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.42-3.33); specifically telephone support (OR = 7.16; 95% CI, 2.19-23.45) and websites (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.41-4.08). There was also an increase in the prevalence of use of prescription medication (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.08-2.00); specifically varenicline (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.52). There were no significant changes in prevalence of use of other cessation aids after adjustment for secular trends. People who reported using prescription medication (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.84) and e-cigarettes (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.62-2.16) had greater odds of reporting abstinence than people who did not. There were no significant interactions between the pandemic period and use of any cessation aid on abstinence, after adjustment for covariates and use of the other aids, although data were insensitive to distinguish no change from meaningful modest (OR = 1.34) effects (Bayes factors 0.72-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: In England, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with an increase in use of remote support for smoking cessation and varenicline by smokers in a quit attempt up to June 2021. The data were inconclusive regarding an association between the pandemic and changes in the real-world effectiveness of popular smoking cessation aids.

18.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274514

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the health-related quality of life and coping strategies among COVID-19 survivors in Bangladesh. MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study of 2198 adult, COVID-19 survivors living in Bangladesh. Data were collected from previously diagnosed COVID-19 participants (confirmed by an RT-PCR test) via door-to-door interviews in the eight different divisions in Bangladesh. For data collection, Bengali translated Brief COPE inventory and WHO Brief Quality of Life (WHO-QOLBREF) questionnaires were used. The data collection period was from June 2020 to March 2021. ResultsMales 72.38% (1591) were more affected by COVID-19 than females 27.62% (607). Age showed significant correlations (p<0.005) with physical, psychological and social relationships; whereas, gender showed only significant correlation with physical health (p<0.001). Marital status, occupation, living area, and co-morbidities showed significant co-relation with all four domains of QoL (p<0.001). Education and affected family members showed significant correlation with physical and social relationship (p<0.001). However, smoking habit showed significant correlations with both social relationship and environment (p<0.001). Age and marital status showed a significant correlation with avoidant coping strategy (p<0.001); whereas gender and co-morbidities showed significant correlation with problem focused coping strategies (p<0.001). Educational qualification, occupation and living area showed significant correlation with all three coping strategies (p<0.001). ConclusionSurvivors of COVID-19 showed mixed types of coping strategies; however, the predominant coping strategy was avoidant coping, followed by problem focused coping, with emotion focused coping reported as the least prevalent. Marital status, occupation, living area and co-morbidities showed a greater effect on QoL in all participants. This study represents the real scenario of nationwide health associated quality of life and coping strategy during and beyond the Delta pandemic.

19.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274486

RESUMO

ObjectivesTo investigate how differential access to key interventions to reduce sexually transmitted infections (STI), HIV, and their sequelae changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. MethodsBritish participants (18-59y) completed a cross-sectional web survey one year (March to April 2021) after the initial lockdown in Britain. Quota-based sampling and weighting resulted in a quasi-representative population sample. We compared Natsal-COVID data with Natsal-3, a household-based probability sample cross-sectional survey (16-74y) conducted in 2010-12. Reported unmet need for condoms because of the pandemic and uptake of chlamydia testing/HIV testing/cervical cancer screening were analysed among sexually-experienced participants (18-44y) (n=2869, Natsal-COVID; n=8551, Natsal-3). Odds ratios adjusted for age (aOR) and other potential confounders (AOR) describe associations with demographic and behavioural factors. ResultsIn 2021, 6.9% of women and 16.2% of men reported unmet need for condoms because of the pandemic. This was more likely among participants: aged 18-24 years, of Black or Black British ethnicity, and reporting same-sex sex (past five years) or one or more new relationships (past year). Chlamydia and HIV testing were more commonly reported by younger participants, those reporting condomless sex with new sexual partners, and men reporting same-sex partners; a very similar distribution to 10 years previously (Natsal-3). However, there were differences during the pandemic, including stronger associations with chlamydia testing for men reporting same-sex partners; with HIV testing for women reporting new sexual partners; and with cervical screening among smokers. ConclusionsOur study suggests differential access to key primary and secondary STI/HIV prevention interventions continued during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the available evidence does not suggest substantial changes in inequalities in since 2010-12. While the pandemic might not have exacerbated inequalities in access to primary and secondary prevention, it is clear that large inequalities persisted, typically among those at greatest STI/HIV risk. Key MessagesO_LIMany MSM, people of Black ethnicity and young people (i.e. groups most impacted by STIs) reported unmet need for condoms because of the pandemic C_LIO_LIWe compared inequalities in access to key interventions using Natsal-COVID (2021) and Natsal-3 (2010-12). C_LIO_LIDuring the pandemic (Natsal-COVID), there were stronger associations with chlamydia testing for MSM and with HIV testing for women reporting new sexual partners. C_LIO_LIThere were stronger associations with cervical screening among smokers during the pandemic compared to 2010-12 (Natsal-3). C_LIO_LIHowever, we did not find strong evidence that vulnerable groups were at additional risk during the pandemic when compared to 2010-12. C_LI

20.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22274912

RESUMO

BackgroundAgainst the background of the current COVID-19 infection dynamics with the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), above all the Omicron VOC, the immunity of healthcare workers (HCWs) against SARS-CoV-2 continues to be of high importance. Vaccination plays a central role in reducing the severity and potentially the spread of the disease. In healthcare, this is important to prevent disease-related staff shortages. However, there is a lack of data on factors influencing the humoral immune response. AimThe aim of our study was to determine factors influencing the level of Anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination in healthcare workers. Methods1,750 study participants were recruited who met the following inclusion criteria: age [≥] 18 years, PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination, working in health care. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG titres were determined by SERION ELISA agile SARS-CoV-2 IgG. ResultsMean Anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG levels increased significantly with the number of COVID-19 vaccinations (92.2 BAU/ml for single dose, 140.9 BAU/ml for two doses and 1,144.3 BAU/ml after threefold vaccination). Hybrid COVID-19 immunized respondents (after infection and vaccination) had significantly higher antibody titres compared with participants after infection only (525.4 BAU/ml vs. 105.7 BAU/ml). Anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG titres declined significantly with time after administration of the second vaccine dose. Smoking and high age were associated with lower titres. ConclusionBoth recovered and vaccinated HCWs presented a predominantly good humoral immune response with decreasing antibody levels over the temporal course. Smoking and higher age limited the humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity. This reduced immune response is an important aspect as people with these risk factors are recognized as people with an increased risk for a severe course of disease.

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