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1.
Lancet ; 399(10331): 1226, 2022 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339224
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e227903, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1355005

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the accuracy and the validity of orthodontic diagnostic measurements, as well as virtual tooth transformations using a generic open access 3D software compared to OrthoAnalyzer (3Shape) software; which was previously tested and proven for accuracy. Methods: 40 maxillary and mandibular single arch study models were duplicated and scanned using 3Shape laser scanner. The files were imported into the generic and OrthoAnalyzer software programs; where linear measurements were taken twice to investigate the accuracy of the program. To test the accuracy of the program format, they were printed, rescanned and imported into OrthAnalyzer. Finally, to investigate the accuracy of editing capabilities, linear and angular transformation procedures were performed, superimposed and printed to be rescanned and imported to OrthoAnalyzer for comparison. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups using the two software programs regarding the accuracy of the linear measurements (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the different formats among all the measurements, (p>0.05). The editing capabilities also showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). Conclusion: The generic 3D software (Meshmixer) was valid and accurate in cast measurements and linear and angular editing procedures. It can be used for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning without added costs


Assuntos
Software , Moldes Cirúrgicos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Dentários
4.
Phys Med Biol ; 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: X-ray-based imaging modalities including mammography and computed tomography (CT) are widely used in cancer screening, diagnosis, staging, treatment planning, and therapy response monitoring. Over the past few decades, improvements to these modalities have resulted in substantially improved efficacy and efficiency, and substantially reduced radiation dose and cost. However, such improvements have evolved more slowly than would be ideal because lengthy preclinical and clinical evaluation is required. In many cases, new ideas cannot be evaluated due to the high cost of fabricating and testing prototypes. Wider availability of computer simulation tools could accelerate development of new imaging technologies. This paper introduces the development of a new open-access simulation environment for X-ray-based imaging. APPROACH: The X-ray-based Cancer Imaging Simulation Toolkit (XCIST) is developed in the context of cancer imaging, but can more broadly be applied. XCIST is physics-based, written in Python and C/C++, and currently consists of three major subsets: digital phantoms, the simulator itself (CatSim), and image reconstruction algorithms; planned future features include a fast dose-estimation tool and rigorous validation. To enable broad usage and to model and evaluate new technologies, XCIST is easily extendable by other researchers. To demonstrate XCIST's ability to produce realistic images and to show the benefits of using XCIST for insight into the impact of separate physics effects on image quality, we present exemplary simulations by varying contributing factors such as noise and sampling. MAIN RESULTS: The capabilities and flexibility of XCIST are demonstrated, showing easy applicability to specific simulation problems. Geometric and X-ray attenuation accuracy are shown, as well as XCIST's ability to model multiple scanner and protocol parameters, and to attribute fundamental image quality characteristics to specific parameters. SIGNIFICANCE: This work represents an important first step toward the goal of creating an open-access platform for simulating existing and emerging X-ray-based imaging systems.

7.
iScience ; 25(10): 105079, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093379

RESUMO

Although open-access data are increasingly common and useful to epidemiological research, the curation of such datasets is resource-intensive and time-consuming. Despite the existence of a major source of COVID-19 data, the regularly disclosed case reports were often written in natural language with an unstructured format. Here, we propose a computational framework that can automatically extract epidemiological information from open-access COVID-19 case reports. We develop this framework by coupling a language model developed using deep neural networks with training samples compiled using an optimized data annotation strategy. When applied to the COVID-19 case reports collected from mainland China, our framework outperforms all other state-of-the-art deep learning models. The information extracted from our approach is highly consistent with that obtained from the gold-standard manual coding, with a matching rate of 80%. To disseminate our algorithm, we provide an open-access online platform that is able to estimate key epidemiological statistics in real time, with much less effort for data curation.

8.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 559, 2022 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088355

RESUMO

A curated database of shark and ray biological data is increasingly necessary both to support fisheries management and conservation efforts, and to test the generality of hypotheses of vertebrate macroecology and macroevolution. Sharks and rays are one of the most charismatic, evolutionary distinct, and threatened lineages of vertebrates, comprising around 1,250 species. To accelerate shark and ray conservation and science, we developed Sharkipedia as a curated open-source database and research initiative to make all published biological traits and population trends accessible to everyone. Sharkipedia hosts information on 58 life history traits from 274 sources, for 170 species, from 39 families, and 12 orders related to length (n = 9 traits), age (8), growth (12), reproduction (19), demography (5), and allometric relationships (5), as well as 871 population time-series from 202 species. Sharkipedia relies on the backbone taxonomy of the IUCN Red List and the bibliography of Shark-References. Sharkipedia has profound potential to support the rapidly growing data demands of fisheries management, international trade regulation as well as anchoring vertebrate macroecology and macroevolution.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Tubarões , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Internacionalidade
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(9): e34472, 2022 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data anonymization and sharing have become popular topics for individuals, organizations, and countries worldwide. Open-access sharing of anonymized data containing sensitive information about individuals makes the most sense whenever the utility of the data can be preserved and the risk of disclosure can be kept below acceptable levels. In this case, researchers can use the data without access restrictions and limitations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to highlight the requirements and possible solutions for sharing health surveillance event history data. The challenges lie in the anonymization of multiple event dates and time-varying variables. METHODS: A sequential approach that adds noise to event dates is proposed. This approach maintains the event order and preserves the average time between events. In addition, a nosy neighbor distance-based matching approach to estimate the risk is proposed. Regarding the key variables that change over time, such as educational level or occupation, we make 2 proposals: one based on limiting the intermediate statuses of the individual and the other to achieve k-anonymity in subsets of the data. The proposed approaches were applied to the Karonga health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) core residency data set, which contains longitudinal data from 1995 to the end of 2016 and includes 280,381 events with time-varying socioeconomic variables and demographic information. RESULTS: An anonymized version of the event history data, including longitudinal information on individuals over time, with high data utility, was created. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed anonymization of event history data comprising static and time-varying variables applied to HDSS data led to acceptable disclosure risk, preserved utility, and being sharable as public use data. It was found that high utility was achieved, even with the highest level of noise added to the core event dates. The details are important to ensure consistency or credibility. Importantly, the sequential noise addition approach presented in this study does not only maintain the event order recorded in the original data but also maintains the time between events. We proposed an approach that preserves the data utility well but limits the number of response categories for the time-varying variables. Furthermore, using distance-based neighborhood matching, we simulated an attack under a nosy neighbor situation and by using a worst-case scenario where attackers have full information on the original data. We showed that the disclosure risk is very low, even when assuming that the attacker's database and information are optimal. The HDSS and medical science research communities in low- and middle-income country settings will be the primary beneficiaries of the results and methods presented in this paper; however, the results will be useful for anyone working on anonymizing longitudinal event history data with time-varying variables for the purposes of sharing.


Assuntos
Anonimização de Dados , Privacidade , Demografia , Revelação , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos
10.
JAMA Pediatr ; 176(9): 948, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066567
11.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18513, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082942

RESUMO

Protein arginine methylation is an understudied epigenetic mechanism catalyzed by enzymes known as Protein Methyltransferases of Arginine (PRMTs), while the opposite reaction is performed by Jumonji domain- containing protein 6 (JMJD6). There is increasing evidence that PRMTs are deregulated in prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, the expression of two PRMT members, PRMT2 and PRMT7 as well as JMJD6, a demethylase, was analyzed in PCa. Initially, we retrieved data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to explore the differential expression of various PRMT family members in patients with PCa and then applied immunohistochemistry in a patient cohort across the spectrum of PCa, including non-neoplastic prostate tissue and lymph node metastatic foci. The results from the TCGA analysis revealed that PRMT7, PRMT6 and PRMT3 expression increased while PRMT2, PRMT9 and JMJD6 levels decreased in the tumor compared to non-neoplastic prostate. Results from the GEO datasets were similar, albeit not identical with the TCGA results, with PRMT7 and PRMT3 being upregulated and PRMT2 and JMJD6 being downregulated in the tumor compared to non-neoplastic tissue in some of them. In addition, PRMT7 levels decreased with stage and grade progression in the TCGA analysis. In the patient cohort, both PRMTs and JMJD6 were overexpressed in PCa compared to non-neoplastic tissue, and nuclear PRMT2 and JMJD6 were upregulated in lymph node metastasis, too. PRMT7 and JMJD6 expression were upregulated with the progression of stage and JMJD6 was also increased with the elevation of grade. After androgen ablation therapy, nuclear expression of PRMT7 and JMJD6 were elevated compared to untreated tumors. PRMT2, PRMT7 and JMD6 were also correlated with markers of EMT and cell cycle regulators. Finally, our findings indicate that PRMTs and JMJD6 are involved in prostate cancer progression and revealed a potential interplay of PRMTs with EMT mediators, underscoring the need for therapeutic targeting of arginine methylation in prostate cancer.

12.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083577
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36045595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The percent Angoff (PA) method has been recommended as a reliable method to set the cut score instead of a fixed cut point of 60% in the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE). The yes/no Angoff (YNA) method, which is easy for panelists to judge, can be considered as an alternative because the KMLE has many items to evaluate. This study aimed to compare the cut score and the reliability depending on whether the PA or the YNA standard-setting method was used in the KMLE. METHODS: The materials were the open-access PA data of the KMLE. The PA data were converted to YNA data in 5 categories, in which the probabilities for a "yes" decision by panelists were 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. SPSS for descriptive analysis and G-string for generalizability theory were used to present the results. RESULTS: The PA method and the YNA method counting 60% as "yes," estimated similar cut scores. Those cut scores were deemed acceptable based on the results of the Hofstee method. The highest reliability coefficients estimated by the generalizability test were from the PA method and the YNA method, with probabilities of 70%, 80%, 60%, and 50% for deciding "yes," in descending order. The panelist's specialty was the main cause of the error variance. The error size was similar regardless of the standard-setting method. CONCLUSION: The above results showed that the PA method was more reliable than the YNA method in estimating the cut score of the KMLE. However, the YNA method with a 60% probability for deciding "yes" also can be used as a substitute for the PA method in estimating the cut score of the KMLE.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Licenciamento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia
14.
J Food Sci ; 87(9): 3695, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121275
15.
Preprint em Português | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-4692

RESUMO

Academic publishing has undergone many changes with the digital age, making room for new ideas, no longer watertight and associated with the traditional aspects, used for decades, but interactive, modern and with freely accessible possibilities. The objective of this project was to present a new publishing model including, in addition to the traditional aspects, several sections that allow the inclusion of multimedia, infographics, videos, videocasts, postcasts, sounds, images, data publication (data papers), continuing education and university interactivity. A digital review was carried out on the most traditional journals in the medical field, placing the status quo of national and international publishing and raising all the structural needs for the creation of a new model regarding the institutional repository to house all the data and submissions in long term. In conclusion, it was possible to transform a traditional journal with 80 years of continuous publication into a modern project integrated with Open Science and Open Access.


La publicación académica ha sufrido muchos cambios con la era digital, dando lugar a nuevas ideas. Ya no debe ser estanco y se asociaba a los aspectos tradicionales, vigentes desde hacía décadas, posibilidades interactivas, modernas y de libre acceso. El objetivo de este proyecto fue presentar un nuevo modelo editorial que incluye, además de los aspectos tradicionales, varias secciones que permiten la inclusión de multimedia, infografías, videos, videocasts, postcasts, sonidos, imágenes, publicación de datos (data papers), educación continua y interactividad universitaria. Se realizó una revisión digital de las revistas más tradicionales del ámbito médico, situando el statu quo de la edición nacional e internacional y planteando todas las necesidades estructurales para la creación de un nuevo modelo en cuanto al repositorio institucional para albergar todos los datos y artículos el largo plazo. En conclusión, se logró transformar una revista tradicional con 80 años de publicación continua en un proyecto moderno integrado con Ciencia Abierta y Acceso Abierto.


A editoração acadêmica tem muitas ideias com novas ideias, promovendo mudanças para novas áreas. Deixou de ser estanque e associado aos aspectos tradicionais, vigentes por extensões e possibilidades interativas, modernas, de acesso livre. O objetivo deste foi apresentar novo modelo de editoração projeto, além de aspectos tradicionais, seções diversas que permitem inclusão da multimídia, infografia, vídeos, videocasts, postcasts, sons, educação, publicação de dados (data papers), continuada e interatividade universitária . Foi realizada revisão digital sobre o tradicional como as revisões da área médica em situação o tradicionais da editoração nacional e para a criação de novas necessidades de status novo modelo no que se refere a todos os dados institucionais internacionais para albergar em todos os prazos e submissões. Em conclusão, foi possível transformar um periódico com 80 anos de publicação contínua em projeto moderno e integrado com a Ciência Aberta e Open Access.

16.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 78(Suppl 1): S123-S132, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147406

RESUMO

Background: Present article was an attempt to study correlation of scientometrics and altmetrics of scholarly output of Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI) during the period from 2010 to 2018. Methods: The study was carried out by "DIMENSIONS", Webometric Analyst 4.1, VOSviewer, version 1.6.10, database to identify year-wise number of publications, their accessibility, altmetric attention, field citation ratio, and relative citation ratio of top 100 articles between 2010 and 2018. Pearson correlation test was used to assess data statistically using SPSS software, version 21. Results: The study found that maximum publications were in 2015, i.e. 21.44% followed by 2018, i.e. 11.52% with 1053 articles open access and 318 articles closed access (1371). Total 317 altmetric attention received by total 1371 articles, and "Clinical Sciences" category published most of publications with 0.55 mean field citation ratio (FCR) and 0.31 mean relative citation ratio (RCR). The positive correlation value between citations and altmetric scores obtained was 0.88. It was also observed that the topmost article among the top 100 has a maximum RCR (8.24) and FCR (19.3). Conclusion: Present study found that articles published in MJAFI are getting favorable attention at both academic as well as social platform; however, the constant improvement and rigorous maintenance of standards is utmost important by publishing high-quality evidence-based studies and its subsequent dissemination at both academic and non-academic platform, which might be beneficial to not only medical field but also well-being of entire human race.

17.
Remedial Spec Educ ; 43(4): 270-280, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36052401

RESUMO

Open-science reforms, which aim to increase credibility and access of research, have the potential to benefit the research base in special education, as well as practice and policy informed by that research base. Awareness of open science is increasing among special education researchers. However, relatively few researchers in the field have experience using multiple open-science practices, and few practical guidelines or resources have been tailored to special education researchers to support their exploration and adoption of open science. In this paper, we described and provided guidelines and resources for applying five core open-science practices-preregistration, registered reports, data sharing, materials sharing, and open-access publishing-in special education research.

20.
New Phytol ; 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975694

RESUMO

All organisms emit odour, providing 'open-access' olfactory information for any receiver with the right sensory apparatus. Characterizing open-access information emitted by groups of organisms, such as plant species, provides the means to answer significant questions about ecological interactions and their evolution. We present a new conceptual framework defining information reliability and a practical method to characterize and recover information from amongst olfactory noise. We quantified odour emissions from two tree species, one focal group and one outgroup, to demonstrate our approach using two new R statistical functions. We explore the consequences of relaxing or tightening criteria defining information and, from thousands of odour combinations, we identify and quantify those few likely to be informative. Our method uses core general principles characterizing information while incorporating knowledge of how receivers detect and discriminate odours. We can now map information in consistency-precision reliability space, explore the concept of information, and test information-noise boundaries, and between cues and signals.

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