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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasma is considered the gold standard for HIV viral load (VL) testing, however its use is challenging due to the need for phlebotomy and centrifugation services, as well as cold chain for transporting to laboratories for testing. The use of Dried Blood Spot (DBS) specimen has allowed a rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) monitoring in remote areas in many African countries, however, the VL in DBS may overestimate the copies of viral RNA result at the clinically relevant range of 1000 copies/ml, due to proviral DNA and intracellular RNA. The characteristics of the cobas® Plasma Separation Card (PSC) specimen are similar to fresh plasma (gold standard), so a better performance of HIV VL is expetected in PSC specimen and can be an alternative to DBS. This study aims to evaluate the performance of cobas® PSC for VL testing at primary health care facilities in Mozambique. METHODOLOGY: HIV-1 infected adults on ART were enrolled consecutively in two health facilities in Mozambique, between August 2018 and October 2018. Capillary and venous cobas® PSC, DBS and fresh plasma specimens were collected from each patient. All specimens were tested for VL using CAP/CTM v2.0. Sensitivity and specificity of viral load using DBS, capillary and venous PSC specimens were estimated. Viral load obtained in fresh plasma specimen was used as reference and a threshold of 1000 copies/ml was considered for the analyses. RESULTS: From the total 613 patients included for the study, 2444 specimens including DBS (613), plasma (613), venous cobas® PSC (609) and capillary cobas® PSC (609) were collected and 2407 results were obtained. Sensitivity and specificity of the VL using venous cobas®PSC specimen at 1000 copies/ml threshold were 99.8% and 98.1% respectively, whereas for capillary cobas® PSC sensitivity was 99.6% and specificity was 97.2%. For DBS VL, sensitivity was 96.9% and specificity was 81.8%. Misclassification rate was more prominent in DBS specimens (5.9%), but lower in venous and capillary cobas®PSC with a rate of 0.3% and 0.7% respectively. CONCLUSION: The cobas® PSC specimen has improved performance over DBS for more accurate VL testing aligned with plasma testing. The use of this specimen type can increase the rates of reliable VL results and this will improve the quality of VL monitoring of HIV-positive patients in low-income settings.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, HIV counseling and testing (HCT) rates are low and the cascade (or continuum) of care is poor. Perhaps more importantly, low disclosure rates and low uptake of joint testing are also related to both (1) limitations on access to services and (2) the availability of trained staff. We describe the implementation and impact of a disclosure support implemented by peer educators (PE). METHODS: Ten PEs, previously trained in basic HIV and post-test counseling, completed additional training on providing disclosure support for newly-diagnosed persons living with HIV (PLH). RESULTS: Of the 6,092 persons who received HCT, 677 (11.1%) tested positive. Any newly-diagnosed PLH who was tested when PEs were present (606 / 677) was approached about participating in the disclosure program; of these, 94.2% of PLH (n = 574) agreed to participate. Of these, at follow-up (between 1 day and 3 months later, depending on client inclination and availability) 91.9% (n = 528) said that they had disclosed their HIV infection, of whom 66.9% (n = 384) were female and 24.1% (n = 144) male. In turn, 92.7% of partners (n = 508) who had received HIV-related exposure information were tested; of these, 78.7% (n = 400) were found to be HIV-positive. Of the latter, 96.3% (n = 385) were then seen by health care providers and referred for further diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Supporting newly-diagnosed PLH is important both for their own health and that of others. For the newly-diagnosed, there are extensive challenges related to understanding the implications of their illness; social support from clinical care teams can be vital in planning and coping. Our study has shown that such support of PLH is also crucial to disclosure, in part via improving awareness of positive health implications for (and from) family, friends and other support networks.

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 219, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) and tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) are haematophagous insects of medical and veterinary importance due to their respective role in the biological and mechanical transmission of trypanosomes. Few studies on the distribution and relative abundance of both families have been conducted in Mozambique since the country's independence. Despite Nicoadala, Mozambique, being a multiple trypanocidal drug resistance hotspot no information regarding the distribution, seasonality or infection rates of fly-vectors are available. This is, however, crucial to understanding the epidemiology of trypanosomosis and to refine vector management. METHODS: For 365 days, 55 traps (20 NGU traps, 20 horizontal traps and 15 Epsilon traps) were deployed in three grazing areas of Nicoadala District: Namitangurine (25 traps); Zalala (15 traps); and Botao (15 traps). Flies were collected weekly and preserved in 70% ethanol. Identification using morphological keys was followed by molecular confirmation using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Trap efficiency, species distribution and seasonal abundance were also assessed. To determine trypanosome infection rates, DNA was extracted from the captured flies, and submitted to 18S PCR-RFLP screening for the detection of Trypanosoma. RESULTS: In total, 4379 tabanids (of 10 species) and 24 tsetse flies (of 3 species), were caught. NGU traps were more effective in capturing both the Tabanidae and Glossinidae. Higher abundance and species diversity were observed in Namitangurine followed by Zalala and Botao. Tabanid abundance was approximately double during the rainy season compared to the dry season. Trypanosoma congolense and T. theileri were detected in the flies with overall infection rates of 75% for tsetse flies and 13% for tabanids. Atylotus agrestis had the highest infection rate of the tabanid species. The only pathogenic trypanosome detected was T. congolense. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low numbers of tsetse flies captured, it can be assumed that they are still the cyclical vectors of trypanosomosis in the area. However, the high numbers of tabanids captured, associated to their demonstrated capacity of transmitting trypanosomes mechanically, suggest an important role in the epidemiology of trypanosomosis in the Nicoadala district. These results on the composition of tsetse and tabanid populations as well as the observed infection rates, should be considered when defining strategies to control the disease.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2072, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350288

RESUMO

Many nations use ecological compensation policies to address negative impacts of development projects and achieve No Net Loss (NNL) of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Yet, failures are widely reported. We use spatial simulation models to quantify potential net impacts of alternative compensation policies on biodiversity (indicated by native vegetation) and two ecosystem services (carbon storage, sediment retention) across four case studies (in Australia, Brazil, Indonesia, Mozambique). No policy achieves NNL of biodiversity in any case study. Two factors limit their potential success: the land available for compensation (existing vegetation to protect or cleared land to restore), and expected counterfactual biodiversity losses (unregulated vegetation clearing). Compensation also fails to slow regional biodiversity declines because policies regulate only a subset of sectors, and expanding policy scope requires more land than is available for compensation activities. Avoidance of impacts remains essential in achieving NNL goals, particularly once opportunities for compensation are exhausted.

5.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 1): 51, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The PRECISE (PREgnancy Care Integrating translational Science, Everywhere) Network is a new and broadly-based group of research scientists and health advocates based in the UK, Africa and North America. METHODS: This paper describes the protocol that underpins the clinical research activity of the Network, so that the investigators, and broader global health community, can have access to 'deep phenotyping' (social determinants of health, demographic and clinical parameters, placental biology and agnostic discovery biology) of women as they advance through pregnancy to the end of the puerperium, whether those pregnancies have normal outcomes or are complicated by one/more of the placental disorders of pregnancy (pregnancy hypertension, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth). Our clinical sites are in The Gambia (Farafenni), Kenya (Kilifi County), and Mozambique (Maputo Province). In each country, 50 non-pregnant women of reproductive age will be recruited each month for 1 year, to provide a final national sample size of 600; these women will provide culturally-, ethnically-, seasonally- and spatially-relevant control data with which to compare women with normal and complicated pregnancies. Between the three countries we will recruit ≈10,000 unselected pregnant women over 2 years. An estimated 1500 women will experience one/more placental complications over the same epoch. Importantly, as we will have accurate gestational age dating using the TraCer device, we will be able to discriminate between fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Recruitment and follow-up will be primarily facility-based and will include women booking for antenatal care, subsequent visits in the third trimester, at time-of-disease, when relevant, during/immediately after birth and 6 weeks after birth. CONCLUSIONS: To accelerate progress towards the women's and children's health-relevant Sustainable Development Goals, we need to understand how a variety of social, chronic disease, biomarker and pregnancy-specific determinants health interact to result in either a resilient or a compromised pregnancy for either mother or fetus/newborn, or both. This protocol has been designed to create such a depth of understanding. We are seeking funding to maintain the cohort to better understand the implications of pregnancy complications for both maternal and child health.

6.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 1): 58, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354359

RESUMO

The PRECISE Network is a cohort study established to investigate hypertension, fetal growth restriction and stillbirth (described as "placental disorders") in Kenya, Mozambique and The Gambia. Several pregnancy or birth cohorts have been set up in low- and middle-income countries, focussed on maternal and child health. Qualitative research methods are sometimes used alongside quantitative data collection from these cohorts. Researchers affiliated with PRECISE are also planning to use qualitative methods, from the perspective of multiple subject areas. This paper provides an overview of the different ways in which qualitative research methods can contribute to achieving PRECISE's objectives, and discusses the combination of qualitative methods with quantitative cohort studies more generally.We present planned qualitative work in six subject areas (health systems, health geography, mental health, community engagement, the implementation of the TraCer tool, and respectful maternity care). Based on these plans, with reference to other cohort studies on maternal and child health, and in the context of the methodological literature on mixed methods approaches, we find that qualitative work may have several different functions in relation to cohort studies, including informing the quantitative data collection or interpretation. Researchers may also conduct qualitative work in pursuit of a complementary research agenda. The degree to which integration between qualitative and quantitative methods will be sought and achieved within PRECISE remains to be seen. Overall, we conclude that the synergies resulting from the combination of cohort studies with qualitative research are an asset to the field of maternal and child health.

7.
AIDS Care ; : 1-9, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397744

RESUMO

An observational retrospective study was conducted over a 5-year period to assess survival and predictors of death in people with HIV-positive serology undergoing antiretroviral treatment with first-line regimens at the Military Hospital of Nampula, Mozambique. We collected data from 332 patient records. Kaplan-Meier boundary product estimator, log-rank, Gehan-Breslow, Tarone-Ware, time-dependent Cox models and estimates of hazard ratios (HR), with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Meantime survival for females and males was 54.8 months [95% CI 50.32-55.40] and 49.7 months [95% CI 45.89-53.53], respectively. Cox regressions indicated higher death rates significantly or potentially associated with: male sex (HR = 1.3; [95% CI 0.7-2.39]); suspected diagnosis reported only by the physician (HR = 3.6; [95% CI 1.8-7.4]); disease stages III (HR=1.2 [95% CI 0.3-3.6]) or IV (HR 1.4 [95% CI 0.4-5.8]); first TCD4+ lymphocyte count lower than 350 cells per ml (HR = 3.2; [95% CI 0.9-11.2]) or between 350-500 cells per ml (HR = 1.3; [95% CI 0.3-5.8]); or do not present cells count (HR = 3.6; [95% CI 1.2-10.2]). The above variables were significant for HIV prognosis and as predictors of death and should be considered in the clinical care of these patients.

8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 127, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is frequently associated with chronic respiratory impairment despite microbiological cure. There are only a few clinical research studies that describe the course, type and severity as well as associated risk factors for lung impairment (LI) in TB patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at TB Research Clinic of Instituto Nacional de Saúde in Mavalane, Maputo, from June 2014 to June 2016. PTB patients were prospectively enrolled and followed for 52 weeks after TB diagnosis. Lung function was evaluated by spirometry at 8, 26 and 52 weeks after TB treatment initiation, and spirometric values of below the lower limit of normality were considered as LI. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed to summarize the proportion of patients with different lung outcomes at week 52, including type and severity of LI. Risk factors were analysed using multinomial regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 69 PTB patients were enrolled, of which 62 had a valid spirometry result at week 52 after TB treatment start. At week 8, 26 and 52, the proportion of patients with LI was 78, 68.9 and 64.5%, respectively, and 35.5% had moderate or severe LI at week 52. The majority of patients with LI suffered from pulmonary restriction. Female sex, low haemoglobin and heavy smoking were significantly associated with LI. CONCLUSION: Moderate or severe LI can be observed in a third of cured TB patients. Further research is urgently needed to gain deeper insight into the characteristics of post TB LI, the causal pathways and potential treatment strategies.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232018, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352972

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In many African countries, laboratory reference values are not established for the local healthy adult population. In Mozambique, reference values are known for young adults (18-24yo) but not yet established for a wider age range. Our study aimed to establish hematological, biochemical and immunological reference values for vaccine trials in Mozambican healthy adults with high-risk for HIV acquisition. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort and site development study in Mozambique between November 2013 and 2014 enrolled 505 participants between 18 to 35 years old. Samples from these healthy participants, were analyzed to determine reference values. All volunteers included in the analysis were clinically healthy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C virus, and syphilis negative. Median and reference ranges were calculated for the hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters. Ranges were compared with other African countries, the USA and the US National Institute of Health (NIH) Division of AIDS (DAIDS) toxicity tables. RESULTS: A total of 505 participant samples were analyzed. Of these, 419 participants were HIV, hepatitis B and C virus and syphilis negative including 203 (48.5%) females and 216 (51.5%) males, with a mean age of 21 years. In the hematological parameters, we found significant differences between sex for erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCH and MCHC as well as white blood cells, neutrophils and platelets: males had higher values than females. There were also significant differences in CD4+T cell values, 803 cells/µL in men versus 926 cells/µL in women. In biochemical parameters, men presented higher values than women for the metabolic, enzymatic and renal parameters: total and direct bilirubin, ALT and creatinine. CONCLUSION: This study has established reference values for healthy adults with high-risk for HIV acquisition in Mozambique. These data are helpful in the context of future clinical research and patient care and treatment for the general adult population in the Mozambique and underline the importance of region-specific clinical reference ranges.

10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400352

RESUMO

The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was created to conduct research that could inform programmatic decision-making related to schistosomiasis. SCORE included several large cluster randomized field studies involving mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel. The largest of these were studies of gaining or sustaining control of schistosomiasis, which were conducted in five African countries. To enhance relevance for routine practice, the MDA in these studies was coordinated by or closely aligned with national neglected tropical disease control programs. The study protocol set minimum targets of at least 90% for coverage among children enrolled in schools and 75% for all school-age children. Over the 4 years of intervention, an estimated 3.5 million treatments were administered to study communities. By year 4, the median village coverage was at or above targets in all studies except that in Mozambique. However, there was often a wide variation behind these summary statistics, and all studies had several villages with very low or high coverage. In studies where coverage was estimated by comparing the number of people treated with the number eligible for treatment, denominator estimation was often problematic. The SCORE experiences in conducting these studies provide lessons for future efforts that attempt to implement strong research designs in real-world contexts. They also have potential applicability to country MDA campaigns against schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases, most of which are conducted with less logistical and financial support than was available for the SCORE study efforts.

11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20236, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443358

RESUMO

Patients lost to follow-up (LTFU) over the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cascade have poor clinical outcomes and contribute to onward HIV transmission. We assessed true care outcomes and factors associated with successful reengagement in patients LTFU in southern Mozambique.Newly diagnosed HIV-positive adults were consecutively recruited in the Manhiça District. Patients LTFU within 12 months after HIV diagnosis were visited at home from June 2015 to July 2016 and interviewed for ascertainment of outcomes and reasons for LTFU. Factors associated with reengagement in care within 90 days after the home visit were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards model.Among 1122 newly HIV-diagnosed adults, 691 (61.6%) were identified as LTFU. Of those, 557 (80.6%) were approached at their homes and 321 (57.6%) found at home. Over 50% had died or migrated, 10% had been misclassified as LTFU, and 252 (78.5%) were interviewed. Following the visit, 79 (31.3%) reengaged in care. Having registered in care and a shorter time between LTFU and visit were associated with reengagement in multivariate analyses: adjusted hazards ratio of 3.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81-6.92; P < .001] and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-1.00; P = .045), respectively. The most frequently reported barriers were the lack of trust in the HIV-diagnosis, the perception of being in good health, and fear of being badly treated by health personnel and differed by type of LTFU.Estimates of LTFU in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa are likely to be overestimated in the absence of active tracing strategies. Home visits are resource-intensive but useful strategies for reengagement for at least one-third of LTFU patients when applied in the context of differentiated care for those LTFU individuals who had already enrolled in HIV care at some point.

12.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-17, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427049

RESUMO

This paper explores individual, interpersonal- and household-level factors influencing HIV-related sexual risk behaviour among adolescent girls who participated in an intervention to reduce HIV risk in a rural setting in Mozambique. Twenty-eight adolescent girls ages 13-19, 30 heads of household, and 53 influential men participated in in-depth interviews at two time points. Comparative analysis compared girls who reported reducing risk behaviours over time to girls who did not and identified factors that respondents described as influential to behaviour change. Among the twenty girls self-reporting sexual risk at the first time point, half had reduced these behaviours one year later. Changes in girls' behaviours were contingent upon household- and interpersonal-level factors, particularly households' economic stability and family members' financial support. Future interventions with adolescents in similar settings should evaluate and leverage household and family support to achieve sexual risk reduction.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e033985, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A Demographic and Health Platform was established in Magude in 2015, prior to the deployment of a project aiming to evaluate the feasibility of malaria elimination in southern Mozambique, named the Magude project. This platform aimed to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of the Magude project, through the identification of households and population; and the collection of demographic, health and malaria information. SETTING: Magude is a rural district of southern Mozambique which borders South Africa. It has nine peripheral health facilities and one referral health centre with an inpatient ward. INTERVENTION: A baseline census enumerated and geolocated all the households, and their resident and non-resident members, collecting demographic and socio-economic information, and data on the coverage and usage of malaria control tools. Inpatient and outpatient data during the 5 years (2010 to 2014) before the survey were obtained from the district health authorities. The demographic platform was updated in 2016. RESULTS: The baseline census conducted in 2015 reported 48 448 (92.1%) residents and 4133 (7.9%) non-residents, and 10 965 households. Magude's population is predominantly young, half of the population has no formal education and the main economic activities are agriculture and fishing. Houses are mainly built with traditional non-durable materials and have poor sanitation facilities. Between 2010 and 2014, malaria was the most common cause of all-age inpatient discharges (representing 20% to 40% of all discharges), followed by HIV (12% to 22%) and anaemia (12% to 15%). In early 2015, all-age bed-net usage was between 21.8% and 27.1% and the reported coverage of indoor residual spraying varied across the district between 30.7% and 79%. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that Magude has limited socio-economic conditions, poor access to healthcare services and low coverage of malaria vector control interventions. Thus, Magude represented an area where it is most pressing to demonstrate the feasibility of malaria elimination. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02914145; Pre-results.

14.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 45, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377510

RESUMO

Objective: To identify and to measure entry level competencies (knowledge, skills, attitudes, judgements) for nurses to practice safely and effectively in the Kingdom of Eswatini. Introduction: Eswatini, formerly known as Swaziland, is a small sub-Saharan country between South Africa and Mozambique. There are four nursing programs approved by the Eswatini Nursing Council (ENC) that provide nursing education in the areas of general nursing, midwifery, mental health and community health. The mandate of the ENC is to protect the public and to this end licensed nurses must be able to meet standardized entry level requirements. Methods: We identified gaps in expected competencies of new nurses led to comprehensive strategies by many stakeholders to close the gaps. Nursing competencies were categorized into seven learning domains with specific, measurable indicators included in each domain. Specific clinical skills essential for entry to practice were identified. Results: Provision of Quality Care; Information Management Systems; Emergency/Trauma/Disaster Management; Infection Prevention & Control; Leadership and Management; Ethics/Legal Issues/Professional Conduct; and Prevention/Treatment & Care of HIV, AIDS, TB are the seven competency domains that are measured on a newly developed standardized entry to practice multiple choice examination. Essential clinical skills are also assessed prior to obtaining licensure. Conclusion: Implementing these standards will ensure that nurses in Eswatini have the appropriate skill set to deliver care to their patients, improve their communities' health, and enable the kingdom to make advances towards universal health coverage and attainment of the sustainable development goals.

15.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 20(1): 9, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mozambique has high maternal mortality which is compounded by limited human resources for health, weak access to health services, and poor development indicators. In 2011, the Mozambique Ministry of Health (MoH) approved the distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of post-partum haemorrhage (PPH) at home births where oxytocin is not available. Misoprostol can be administered by a traditional birth attendant or self-administered. The objective of this paper is to examine, through applying a human rights lens, the broader contextual, policy and institutional issues that have influenced and impacted the early implementation of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH. We explore the utility of rights-based framework to inform this particular program, with implications for sexual and reproductive health programs more broadly. METHODS: A human rights, health and development framework was used to analyse the early expansion phase of the scale-up of Mozambique's misoprostol program in two provinces. A policy document review was undertaken to contextualize the human rights, health and development setting in Mozambique. Qualitative primary data from a program evaluation of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH was then analysed using a human rights lens; these results are presented alongside three examples where rights are constrained. RESULTS: Structural and institutional challenges exacerbated gaps in the misoprostol program, and sexual and reproductive health more generally. While enshrined in the constitution and within health policy documents, human rights were not fully met and many individuals in the study were unaware of their rights. Lack of information about the purpose of misoprostol and how to access the medication contributed to power imbalances between the state, health care workers and beneficiaries. The accessibility of misoprostol was further limited due to dynamics of power and control. CONCLUSIONS: Applying a rights-based approach to the Mozambican misoprostol program is helpful in contextualising and informing the practical changes needed to improve access to misoprostol as an essential medicine, and in turn, preventing PPH. This study adds to the evidence of the interconnection between human rights, health and development and the importance of integrating the concepts to ensure women's rights are prioritized within health service delivery.

16.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 49, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The healthcare system in Mozambique is striving to reduce the high maternal and child mortality rates and stay on par with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG 3.1). A key strategy to curb maternal and child mortality is to promote the use of professional childbirth services proven to be highly effective in averting maternal deaths. Currently, little is known about the use of childbirth services in Mozambique. The present study investigated the prevalence of professional healthcare delivery services and identified their sociodemographic correlates. METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data on 7080 women aged 15-49 years who reported having a child during the past 5 years. The data were collected from the 2011Mozambique Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variables were the choice of childbirth services that included 1) place of delivery (respondent's home versus health facility), and mode of delivery (caesarean section versus vaginal birth). Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate regression methods. RESULTS: The prevalence of health facility and C-section delivery was 70.7 and 5.6%, respectively. There was a difference in the use of professional birthing services between urban and rural areas. Having better educational status and living in households of higher wealth quintiles showed a positive association with the use of facility delivery services among both urban and rural residents. Regarding ethnicity, women of Portugais [2.688,1.540,4.692], Cindau [1.876,1.423,2.474] and Xichangana [1.557,1.215,1.996] had relatively higher odds of using facility delivery services than others. Antenatal care (ANC) visits were a significant predictor of facility delivery services both in urban [OR = 1.655, 95%CI = 1.235,2.218] and rural [OR = 1.265, 95%CI = 1.108,1.445] areas. Among rural women, ANC visit was a significant predictor of C-section delivery [1.570,1.042,2.365]. CONCLUSION: More than a quarter of the women in Mozambique were not using health facility delivery services, with the prevalence being noticeably lower in the rural areas.

17.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obstacles for computational tools in psychiatry include gathering robust evidence and keeping implementation costs reasonable. We report a systematic review of automated speech evaluation for the psychosis spectrum and analyze the value of information for a screening program in a healthcare system with a limited number of psychiatrists (Maputo, Mozambique). METHODS: Original studies on speech analysis for forecasting of conversion in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, diagnosis of manifested psychotic disorder, and first-episode psychosis (FEP) were included in this review. Studies addressing non-verbal components of speech (e.g., pitch, tone) were excluded. RESULTS: Of 168 works identified, 28 original studies were included. Valuable speech features included direct measures (e.g., relative word counting) and mathematical embeddings (e.g.: word-to-vector, graphs). Accuracy estimates reported for schizophrenia diagnosis and CHR conversion ranged from 71 to 100% across studies. Studies used structured interviews, directed tasks, or prompted free speech. Directed-task protocols were faster while seemingly maintaining performance. The expected value of perfect information is USD 9.34 million. Imperfect tests would nevertheless yield high value. CONCLUSION: Accuracy for screening and diagnosis was high. Larger studies are needed to enhance precision of classificatory estimates. Automated analysis presents itself as a feasible, low-cost method which should be especially useful for regions in which the physician pool is insufficient to meet demand.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231358, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria data reported through Mozambique's routine health information system are used to guide the implementation of prevention and control activities. Although previous studies have identified issues with the quality of aggregated data reported from public health facilities in the country, no studies have evaluated the quality of routine indicators recorded in health facility registries. This study addresses this issue by comparing indicators calculated from data from exit interviews and re-examinations of patients with data based on registry records from health facilities in order to measure the quality of registry data and data reporting in three provinces in Mozambique. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,840 outpatients from 117 health facilities in Maputo, Zambézia, and Cabo Delgado Provinces interviewed and examined as part of a malaria-specific health facility survey. Key indicators based on exit interview / re-examination data were compared to the same indicators based on records from health facility registries. Multivariable regression was performed to identify factors associated with indicators matching in re-examination / exit interview data and health facility registries. Aggregated indicators abstracted from facility registries were compared to those reported through the routine health management information system (HMIS) for the same time period. RESULTS: Sensitivity of exit interview / re-examination data compared with those recorded in facility registries was low for all indicators in all facilities. The lowest sensitivities were in Maputo, where the sensitivity for recording negative RDT results was 9.7%. The highest sensitivity was for recording positive RDT results in Cabo Delgado, at 75%. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with agreement between gold standard and registry data showed patients were less likely to be asked about having a fever in the triage ward in Maputo and Cabo Delgado (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.75 and 0.39 respectively), and in the outpatient ward in Cabo Delgado (aOR = 0.37), compared with the emergency department. Patients with positive RDT were also more likely to have RDT results recorded in all three provinces when patients had been managed according to national treatment guidelines during initial examination. Comparison of retrospective data abstracted from facility registries to HMIS data showed discrepancies in all three provinces. The proportion of outpatient cases with suspected and confirmed malaria were similar in registry and HMIS data across all provinces (a relatively low difference between registry and HMIS data of 3% in Maputo and Zambézia), though the total number of all-cause outpatient cases was consistently higher in the HMIS. The largest difference was in Maputo, where a total of 87,992 all-cause outpatient cases were reported in HMIS, compared with a total of 42,431 abstracted from facility registries. CONCLUSION: This study shows that care should be taken in interpreting trends based solely on routine data due to data quality issues, though the discrepancy in all-cause outpatient cases may be indicative that register availability and storage are important factors. As such, simple steps such as providing consistent access and storage of registers that include reporting of patient fever symptoms might improve the quality of routine data recorded at health facilities.

19.
Nurse Educ Today ; 90: 104433, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Africa. Nurses' ability to undertake cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can significantly impact the survival of patients who experience cardiac arrest. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the effects of CPR training among Registered Nurse-Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN-BSN) students in Mozambique. DESIGN: A one-group pretest-posttest repeated-measures quasi-experimental design. SETTING: Auditorium of a general hospital and 2 Anne manikins, but no automatic external defibrillator. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two RN-BSN students. METHODS: Students' attitudes and self-efficacy on CPR were measured by self-reported questionnaires three times (before, immediately after, and 20 weeks post intervention). Data were analyzed by the paired t-test and repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Attitude and self-efficacy scores of students on CPR significantly increased immediately after CPR training, but decreased 20 weeks after the intervention (p < .001). Sociodemographic characteristics did not significantly differ throughout the measurements of attitude or self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: CPR manikin training positively affected attitude and self-efficacy in CPR among RN-BSN nursing students immediately, but not at 20 weeks, after the training. There is a need for research to repeatedly quantify parameters in a controlled study at different intervals and develop an instructor-training course customized to Mozambique.

20.
Malar J ; 19(1): 133, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conceptualizing gender dynamics and ways of bridging entrenched gender roles will contribute to better health promotion, policy and planning. Such processes are explored in relation to malaria in Mozambique. METHODS: A multi-method, qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) explored the perspectives of community members, leaders and stakeholders on malaria. The study was conducted in Nampula Province, in an intervention district for the Tchova Tchova Stop Malaria (TTSM) gender-sensitive community dialogues, and in a non-intervention district. RESULTS: Participants (n = 106) took part in six FGDs and five IDIs in each district. Those exposed to TTSM commonly stated that the programme influenced more equalitarian gender roles, attitudes and uptake of protective malaria-related practices. These positive changes occurred within the context of an observed, gendered decision-making matrix, which aligns inward- or outward-facing decisions with malaria prevention or treatment. Decisions more dependent on male or elder sanctioning at community level are outward-facing decisions, while decisions falling within women's domain at household level are inward-facing decisions. Related to prevention, using bed nets was largely an inward-facing prevention decision for women, who were generally tasked with hanging, washing and making nets usable. Net purchase and appropriation for malaria prevention (rather than for instance for fishing) was men's prerogative. Regular net use was associated with sleeping together more regularly, bringing couples closer. Attending antenatal care to access intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy was often an outward-facing prevention decision, under the purview of older, influential women and ultimately needing sanctioning by men. With respect to seeking care for malaria symptoms, women typically sought help from traditional healers first. This inward-facing treatment decision was within their control, in contrast to the frequently transport-dependent, outward-facing decision to attend a health facility. Sharing decisions was described as a feature of a "harmonious household," something that was said to be encouraged by the TTSM intervention and that was both lived and aspirational. CONCLUSIONS: TTSM community dialogues helped communication on both interpersonal (couple) and community levels, ultimately encouraging malaria-related behaviours. Leveraging ways of bringing men and women together to share decision making will improve malaria intervention success.

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