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1.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112094

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a diurnal feeder that lives in close association with human populations. It is the principal vector of yellow fever, dengue fever and the Zika Virus. Issues of arboviral diseases have been on the ascendency in most countries including Ghana where Aedes mosquito is the main vector of yellow fever. A comparative study of the biting behavior of Ae. aegypti and the identification of subspecies were undertaken using molecular technique. Standard human landing technique was used to collect both indoor and outdoor biting mosquitoes at three zones located in the Upper East (Bolgatanga), Upper West (Nadowli), and Northern (Damongo) Regions of Ghana during the dry and rainy seasons between 0600 and 1800 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). All collected mosquitoes were identified morphologically using taxonomic keys. random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction was used to categorize Ae. aegypti into subspecies. Adult female Aedes mosquitoes identified formed 62% (n = 1,206) of all female mosquitoes collected. Aedes aegypti 98% and Aedes vittatus 2% were the only Aedes species identified. Bolgatanga recorded the largest number of Ae. aegypti 42%, whereas Nadowli 22% recorded the least. Aedes vittatus was observed in Nadowli. Aedes aegypti exhibited a bimodal biting behavior peaking at 0600-0800 GMT and 1500-1600 h GMT. Molecular findings revealed 69% Ae. aegypti aegypti and 31% Ae. aegypti formosus as the two subspecies (n = 110). This information is important for implementing effective vector control programs in the three regions of the northern Ghana.

2.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020196

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the most medically important mosquito species, due to its ability to spread viruses of yellow fever, dengue fever, and Zika in humans. In this study, the insecticidal activity of 17 plant essential oils was evaluated via topical application against two strains of Ae. aegypti mosquito, Orlando (insecticide-susceptible) and Puerto Rico (pyrethroid-resistant). Initial screens with the Orlando strain showed that cucumber seed oil (2017 sample) was the most toxic, followed by sandalwood and thyme oil. When the essential oils were mixed with permethrin, they failed to show any significant synergism of insecticidal activity. Sandalwood and thyme oils displayed consistently high mortality against the resistant Puerto Rico strain, with low resistance ratios of 2.1 and 1.4, respectively. In contrast, cucumber seed oil showed significantly less activity against Puerto Rico mosquitoes, with a resistance ratio of 45. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the 2017 sample of cucumber seed oil sample via flash column chromatography produced 11 fractions, and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the three active fractions were contaminated with 0.33, 0.36, and 0.33% of chlorpyrifos-methyl, an organophosphorus insecticide, whereas inactive fractions did not show any trace of it. These results suggested that the insecticidal activity of cucumber seed oil was probably due to the presence of the insecticide, later confirmed with a clean batch of cucumber seed oil obtained in 2018, which showed negligible insecticidal activity. These findings demonstrate clearly the need for essential oil analysis to confirm purity before any claims are made about pesticidal potency.

3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994659

RESUMO

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating autoimmune neuropathic condition characterized by extensive bilateral and confluent lesions in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. The basal ganglia and gray matter may also be involved. In most cases, the symptoms are preceded by viral infection or vaccination. In this report, we present a case of ADEM associated with optic neuritis presenting alongside two potential triggering factors: chikungunya virus infection and yellow fever immunization.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/virologia , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/complicações , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2065: 65-77, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578688

RESUMO

The recent resurgence of yellow fever virus (YFV) activity in the tropical regions of Africa and South America has sparked renewed interest in this infamous arboviral disease. Also, the development and production of viral vaccines involve several steps that need the monitoring of viral load throughout the process (antigen production, purification, and inactivation). Currently, these steps are followed by plaque lysis titration assay, whose results take about 7-10 days to come out and thus resulting in a laborious and time-consuming approach. With the advent of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we have a faster method to be applied during vaccine production and also to be effectively used for the diagnosis of YFV infection. The technique herein standardized proved to be effective for determining YF viral load both in vivo and in vitro, thus becoming a very important tool for laboratory analysis to verify the vaccination status of individuals, beyond acting as a quality control for vaccine production and diagnosis.

5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(1): 68-69, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725551

RESUMO

Yellow fever is an endemic disease in tropical areas in America and Africa. We report a case where the wild-type yellow fever virus was detected in a breast milk sample of a 33-year-old woman, from a rural area in the municipality of São Paulo, thus highlighting a potential risk for transmission of yellow fever virus through breast-feeding.

6.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(522)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826984

RESUMO

Flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, Zika, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus present substantial global health burdens. New vaccines are being sought to address safety and manufacturing issues associated with current live attenuated vaccines. Here, we describe a new insect-specific flavivirus, Binjari virus, which was found to be remarkably tolerant for exchange of its structural protein genes (prME) with those of the aforementioned pathogenic vertebrate-infecting flaviviruses (VIFs). Chimeric BinJ/VIF-prME viruses remained replication defective in vertebrate cells but replicated with high efficiency in mosquito cells. Cryo-electron microscopy and monoclonal antibody binding studies illustrated that the chimeric BinJ/VIF-prME virus particles were structurally and immunologically similar to their parental VIFs. Pilot manufacturing in C6/36 cells suggests that high yields can be reached up to 109.5 cell culture infectious dose/ml or ≈7 mg/liter. BinJ/VIF-prME viruses showed utility in diagnostic (microsphere immunoassays and ELISAs using panels of human and equine sera) and vaccine applications (illustrating protection against Zika virus challenge in murine IFNAR-/- mouse models). BinJ/VIF-prME viruses thus represent a versatile, noninfectious (for vertebrate cells), high-yield technology for generating chimeric flavivirus particles with low biocontainment requirements.

7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-12, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779533

RESUMO

The Flavivirus genus comprise several important human pathogens, including dengue, West Nile, Yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. These enveloped viruses affect more than 2 billion people in the world, mainly in less developed countries. Although some vaccines exist for some flaviviruses, these vaccines are not universally available due to many factors and since their infections are a world-wide public health issue, the development of antiviral molecules is fundamental. Flavivirus membranes, through the help of the envelope E glycoprotein, fuse with endosomal compartments in a pH-dependent way to release their genome into the cytoplasm and require specific lipids, such as bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP), for efficient fusion. The fundamental role the envelope E protein has on viral entry and membrane fusion suggest that it is an essential antiviral target. In this work, we have used atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to study the binding of the head-group of BMP to the tip of the envelope E proteins of ZIKV, DENV, TBEV and JEV viruses whose three-dimensional structures are known. Our results indicate that, apart from the fusion loop, there are different amino acid residues in different regions of the envelope E proteins of flaviviruses capable of binding the head-group of BMP. These regions should work together to accomplish the binding and fusion of the envelope and endosomal membranes and represent a new target to develop and design potent and effective antiviral agents capable of blocking flavivirus-endosome membrane fusion. [Formula: see text].

8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 283-290, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284351

RESUMO

A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit was developed to detect non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of yellow fever virus (YFV) using monoclonal antibody. NS1 protein was purified from the cultured YFV and used to immunize mice. Monoclonal antibody to NS1 was selected and conjugated with colloidal gold to produce the YFV NS1 RDT kit. The YFV RDTs were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity using positive and negative samples of monkeys from Brazil and negative human blood samples from Korea. Among monoclonal antibodies, clones 3A11 and 3B7 proved most sensitive, and used for YFV RDT kit. Diagnostic accuracy of YFV RDT was fairly high; Sensitivity was 0.0% and specificity was 100% against Dengue viruses type 2 and 3, Zika, Chikungunya and Mayaro viruses. This YFV RDT kit could be employed as a test of choice for point-of-care diagnosis and large scale surveys of YFV infection under clinical or field conditions in endemic areas and on the globe.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/análise , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Haplorrinos , Humanos , Imunização , Camundongos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Febre Amarela/sangue , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/fisiologia
9.
Nat Med ; 25(8): 1218-1224, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308506

RESUMO

Flaviviral infections result in a wide spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. Although the correlates of severe disease have been explored1-4, the pathophysiology that differentiates symptomatic from asymptomatic infection remains undefined. To understand the molecular underpinnings of symptomatic infection, the blood transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of individuals were examined before and after inoculation with the live yellow fever viral vaccine (YF17D). It was found that individuals with adaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity at baseline showed increased susceptibility to symptomatic outcome. YF17D infection in these individuals induced maladaptive ER stress, triggering downstream proinflammatory responses that correlated with symptomatic outcome. The findings of the present study thus suggest that the ER stress response and immunometabolism underpin symptomatic yellow fever and possibly even other flaviviral infections. Modulating either ER stress or metabolism could be exploited for prophylaxis against symptomatic flaviviral infection outcome.


Assuntos
Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/metabolismo , Adulto , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Febre Amarela/etiologia
10.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e35, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340247

RESUMO

Yellow fever is one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases, which still affects a significant number of people every year, mainly in tropical countries. Mortality can be high, even with intensive treatment due to multiple organ failure, including acute kidney injury (AKI). This disease can also be a burden on the health care system in developing countries, without mentioning the number of lives that could be spared with an early diagnosis and adequate monitoring and treatment. The pathophysiology of yellow fever-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is still to be completely understood, and the best clinical approach has not yet been determined. This manuscript presents the most recent scientific evidence of kidney involvement in yellow fever, since AKI plays an important role in the mortality rate. Recent outbreaks have occurred in Brazil and further studies are required to provide a better clinical control for patients with yellow fever.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Febre Amarela/complicações , Brasil , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007625, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New strategies for collecting post-mortem tissue are necessary, particularly in areas with emerging infections. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) has been proposed as an alternative to conventional autopsy (CA), with promising results. Previous studies using MIA addressed the cause of death in adults and children in developing countries. However, none of these studies was conducted in areas with an undergoing infectious disease epidemic. We have recently experienced an epidemic of yellow fever (YF) in Brazil. Aiming to provide new information on low-cost post-mortem techniques that could be applied in regions at risk for infectious outbreaks, we tested the efficacy of ultrasound-guided MIA (MIA-US) in the diagnosis of patients who died during the epidemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this observational study, we performed MIA-US in 20 patients with suspected or confirmed YF and compared the results with those obtained in subsequent CAs. Ultrasound-guided biopsies were used for tissue sampling of liver, kidneys, lungs, spleen, and heart. Liver samples from MIA-US and CA were submitted for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for detection of YF virus antigen. Of the 20 patients, 17 had YF diagnosis confirmed after autopsy by histopathological and molecular analysis. There was 100% agreement between MIA-US and CA in determining the cause of death (panlobular hepatitis with hepatic failure) and main disease (yellow fever). Further, MIA-US obtained samples with good quality for molecular studies and for the assessment of the systemic involvement of the disease. Main extrahepatic findings were pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumonia, acute tubular necrosis, and glomerulonephritis. One patient was a 24-year-old, 27-week pregnant woman; MIA-US assessed the placenta and provided adequate placental tissue for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: MIA-US is a reliable tool for rapid post-mortem diagnosis of yellow fever and can be used as an alternative to conventional autopsy in regions at risk for hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with limited resources to perform complete diagnostic autopsy.


Assuntos
Autopsia/métodos , Epidemias , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Estudos Prospectivos , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46581

RESUMO

A Febre do Mayaro é uma doença infecciosa febril aguda, cujo quadro clínico geralmente é de curso benigno, semelhante à Dengue e à Chikungunya. A Febre do Mayaro compõe a lista nacional de doenças de notificação compulsória imediata, conforme Portaria de Consolidação nº 4, de 28 de setembro de 2017.


Assuntos
Dengue , Febre de Chikungunya , Infecções por Arbovirus , Togaviridae , Infecções por Alphavirus , Febre Amarela
14.
Insects ; 10(5)2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083286

RESUMO

Brazil has experienced several arbovirus outbreaks in recent years, among which yellow fever stands out. The state of Minas Gerais faced outbreaks of sylvatic yellow fever in 2017 and 2018, with 1002 confirmed cases and 340 deaths. This work presents the results of survey efforts to detect the yellow fever virus in mosquitoes from two conservation areas in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A total of 867 mosquitoes of 20 species were collected between September 2017 and May 2018, the most abundant being Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox (von Humboldt, 1819) (31.3%), Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901 (19.1%) and Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar, 1921 (18.2%). Total RNA was extracted from the mosquitoes for real-time PCR analysis for yellow fever, chikungunya, mayaro, Zika and dengue viruses. The yellow fever infection rate was 8.2% for Hg. janthinomys (13 mosquitoes), which is the main vector of sylvatic yellow fever in Brazil. In addition to surveying the mosquito fauna of these conservation units, this work demonstrates the importance of monitoring the circulation of viruses near large urban centers.

15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 30: 25-31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We study the association between prior yellow fever immunization and clinical outcomes of dengue infections in individuals of varying sexes and ages. Serological interactions between dengue virus and other flaviviruses could drive antibody dependent enhancement, which is associated with disease severity in dengue infections. This effect may influence disease severity in individuals subsequently affected by related flaviviruses, such as dengue. We compare the severity of dengue episodes between patients vaccinated and non-vaccinated against yellow fever. METHODS: We evaluated the severity of 11,448 lab-confirmed dengue cases reported in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, in 7370 YF vaccinated patients compared to 4043 unvaccinated patients. We regressed dengue severity against YF vaccine status and a number of demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables as controls. We also evaluated the association between YF vaccination status and the clinical and laboratory symptoms of dengue patients. RESULTS: We did not find any evidence of increased risk for severe dengue in patients vaccinated against YF (odds ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval = 0.87-1.14). Most of the variables analyzed did not have a statistically significant association with YF vaccination status. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that YF vaccination in dengue-endemic areas increases the risk of severe dengue fever.


Assuntos
Dengue/patologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Demografia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/normas
16.
J Med Primatol ; 48(4): 211-217, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Free-ranging non-human primates (NHPs) can host a variety of pathogenic microorganisms, such as arboviruses, which include the yellow fever virus (YFV). This study aimed to detect the circulation of YF and other arboviruses in three wild Alouatta caraya populations in forests in southern Brazil. METHODS: We collected 40 blood and serum samples from 26 monkeys captured/recaptured up to four times from 2014 to 2016, searching for evidence of arboviruses by virus isolation, PCR, and neutralization tests. RESULTS: Viral isolation and genome detection were negative; however, we detected neutralizing antibodies against the Saint Louis, Ilhéus, and Icoaraci viruses in three NHPs. CONCLUSIONS: Saint Louis Encephalitis, Ilhéus, and Icoaraci viruses circulated recently in the region. Future studies should investigate the role of NHPs, other vertebrate hosts and wild vectors in the region's arbovirus circulation and the potential risks of the arboviruses to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans.

17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1248-1249, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870138

RESUMO

In 2018, yellow fever with hepatitis was diagnosed for 2 unvaccinated travelers returning to France from Brazil. Hepatitis persisted for >6 months; liver enzyme levels again increased 2 months after disease onset with no detection of yellow fever virus RNA or other pathogens. Persistent hepatitis with hepatic cytolysis rebound probably resulted from immune response.


Assuntos
Hepatite/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Biópsia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Hepatite/etiologia , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/virologia
18.
J Med Entomol ; 56(4): 1154-1158, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927005

RESUMO

The Togolese Republic has a tropical and humid climate which constitutes an ideal environment for mosquitoes to breed and transmit diseases. The Aedes mosquito is known to transmit yellow fever (YF), dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in West Africa. Togo has been suffering from YF virus transmission, despite vaccination efforts. Unfortunately, there is scarcity in the data that reflect mosquito spatial distribution in Togo, specifically possible YF vectors. In the current study, mosquito surveillance efforts targeted areas with confirmed YF cases between July and August 2012. Indoor mosquitoes were collected using knockdown insecticide spraying, whereas Biogents (BG) traps were used to collect outdoor mosquito adults. Mosquito larval surveillance was conducted as well. In total, 17 species were identified. This investigation revealed the presence of medically important vectors in Togo, especially the Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) which was collected in the four regions. Screening of all pools of female Aedes mosquitoes for YF, by real-time PCR, showed negative results. This is the first record for Coquillettidia flavocincta (Edwards) (Diptera: Culicidae) species in West Africa. This preliminary work serves as a baseline for further mosquito distribution studies in Togo.

19.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(3): 300-304, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629101

RESUMO

Importance: Yellow fever virus (YFV) is a reemerging, potentially lethal arboviral disease that has been occurring recently in Africa and South America. Poor levels of immunization have facilitated the viral spread in southeastern Brazil, leading to an unprecedented outbreak that started in late 2016. Although human cases have been linked to sylvatic mosquitoes, the concern is that YFV may spread to urban centers infested with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and start a true urban cycle. Objective: To describe the ocular findings in patients with acute YFV infection. Design, Setting, Participants: Two adults with an acute YFV infection in southeastern Brazil underwent an ophthalmologic and ocular ultrasonographic examination in early 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Ocular findings in patients with acute YFV infection. Results: Both patients presented with increased choroidal thickness bilaterally seen on ocular ultrasonography. A man in his late 50s who had not been vaccinated previously also presented with bilateral, midperipheral, 360° choroidal detachment and yellowish subretinal lesions. After clinical deterioration and liver transplant, the man died. A woman in her early 30s who had been vaccinated previously for YFV presented with increased retinal venous congestion bilaterally. She was discharged with mild conjunctival chemosis and icterus. Conclusions and Relevance: These reports describe different patterns of ocular findings associated with YFV acute infection. However, the exact mechanism involved in the retinal and choroidal findings remains unclear.


Assuntos
Corioide/patologia , Retina/patologia , Febre Amarela/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
FP Essent ; 476: 11-17, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615405

RESUMO

Due to rapid globalization and ease of travel, mosquito-borne viral infections are now a concern for family physicians throughout the United States. Zika virus infection is one such concern. It is spread via mosquito bites or by sexual contact with an infected individual. Most patients are asymptomatic, and when symptoms occur, they are mild and nonspecific. The main concern is the potential of the infection to cause fetal anomalies. Dengue is another mosquito-borne viral infection. Symptoms of initial infection are mild, and may include arthralgias. Subsequent infection with a different serotype can cause life-threatening hemorrhagic fever or shock. Chikungunya virus infection is widespread in the Americas and symptoms are similar to those of dengue. However, it can cause a postviral chronic inflammatory rheumatism in up to half of patients. Yellow fever occurs mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and can cause hepatic failure. Encephalitis viruses, most commonly West Nile in the United States and others such as Japanese encephalitis virus, can cause neuroinvasive disease, most often in older adults. Vaccines are available for yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses but the keys to prevention are insect avoidance, mosquito eradication, and use of mosquito repellants.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Dengue , Febre Amarela , Infecção por Zika virus , Animais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/terapia , Dengue/transmissão , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/terapia , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/terapia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
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