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1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955493

RESUMO

Despite recent efforts to curtail greenhouse gas emissions, current global emission trajectories are still following the business-as-usual RCP8.5 emission pathway. The resulting ocean warming and acidification have transformative impacts on coral reef ecosystems, detrimentally affecting coral physiology and health, and these impacts are predicted to worsen in the near future. In this study, we kept fragments of the symbiotic corals Acropora intermedia (thermally sensitive) and Porites lobata (thermally tolerant) for 7 weeks under an orthogonal design of predicted end-of-century RCP8.5 conditions for temperature and pCO2 (3.5 °C and 570 ppm above present-day respectively) to unravel how temperature and acidification, individually or interactively, influence metabolic and physiological performance. Our results pinpoint thermal stress as the dominant driver of deteriorating health in both species because of its propensity to destabilize coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis (bleaching). Acidification had no influence on metabolism but had a significant negative effect on skeleton growth, particularly when photosynthesis was absent such as in bleached corals or under dark conditions. Total loss of photosynthesis after bleaching caused an exhaustion of protein and lipid stores and collapse of calcification that ultimately led to A. intermedia mortality. Despite complete loss of symbionts from its tissue, P. lobata maintained small amounts of photosynthesis and experienced a weaker decline in lipid and protein reserves that presumably contributed to higher survival of this species. Our results indicate that ocean warming and acidification under business-as-usual CO2 emission scenarios will likely extirpate thermally-sensitive coral species before the end of the century, while slowing the recovery of more thermally-tolerant species from increasingly severe mass coral bleaching and mortality. This could ultimately lead to the gradual disappearance of tropical coral reefs globally, and a shift on surviving reefs to only the most resilient coral species.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958011

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOF), known for their tailorable porous structures and large specific surface area, are appealing for electrochromic applications as their abundant pores may greatly benefit the charge transport required for electrochromic switching. Herein, for the first time, a simple, scalable and cost-effective electrochemical deposition method for fabrication of high-performance and durable MOF-based electrochromic films with redox-active ligands was developed. The fabricated film can achieve rapid switching speed (both coloration and bleaching time < 5 s) because the inherent cavities of the MOF greatly facilitate ion insertion and extraction. In addition, the film constructed with optimized parameters shows a high optical contrast of 65%@700 nm and can be stably switched for 1,000 cycles with < 5% contrast attenuation, which is by far the best cycling performance for MOF-based electrochromic materials ever reported. Furthermore, our method enables scalable preparation of large-area MOF based electrochromic thin films without using large high-pressure reaction vessels, and the as-prepared film in this work could be switched well between colored and bleached states. This new method, therefore, opens up a new avenue to broaden the use of MOF-based thin films for electrochromic applications.

3.
Int J Legal Med ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960151

RESUMO

Blood at crime scenes is one of the most significant traces of evidence in investigation proceedings. Cleaning up these traces with household cleaning products, often containing bleaching agents, inhibits or complicates the detection of DNA. In this study, human blood was applied onto different floor coverings (carpet, laminate, parquet, PVC, tile) and subsequently cleaned with water and bleaching agents (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, DanKlorix®, Vanish Oxi Action®) at different times. Samples have been collected afterwards from the floors. The samples underwent a quantitative and qualitative DNA analysis. Cleaning smooth surfaces with water is usually sufficed to prohibit retrieving a DNA profile in most of the cases. Cleaning carpets was more difficult due to their absorbent surface whereas the use of bleaching agents caused an additional reduction of verifiable DNA concentrations. Retrieving partial or complete profiles after the use of bleaching agents was only possible when cleaning with low concentrations of 3% hydrogen peroxide.

4.
Ecology ; : e02990, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961452

RESUMO

Increasing ocean temperatures have widespread consequences for coral reefs, one of which is coral bleaching. We analyzed a global network of associations between coral species and Symbiodiniaceae for resistance to temperature stress and robustness to perturbations. Null networks were created by changing either the physiological parameters of the nodes or the structures of the networks. We developed a bleaching model in which each link, association, is given a weight based on temperature thresholds for specific host-symbiont pairs and links are removed as temperature increases. Resistance to temperature stress was determined from the response of the networks to the bleaching model. Ecological robustness, defined by how much perturbation is needed to decrease the number of nodes by 50%, was determined for multiple removal models that considered traits of the hosts, symbionts, and their associations. Network resistance to bleaching and robustness to perturbations differed from the null networks and varied across spatial scales, supporting that thermal tolerances, local association patterns, and environment play an important role in network persistence. Networks were more robust to attacks on associations than to attacks on species. Although the global network was fairly robust to random link removals, when links are removed according to the bleaching model, robustness decreases by about 20%. Specific environmental attacks, in the form of increasing temperatures, destabilize the global network of coral species and Symbiodiniaceae. On a global scale, the network was more robust to removals of links with susceptible Symbiodiniaceae than it was to removals of links with susceptible hosts. Thus, the symbionts convey more stability to the symbiosis than the hosts when the system is under an environmental attack. However, our results also provide evidence that the environment of the networks affects robustness to link perturbations. Our work shows that ecological resistance and robustness can be assessed through network analysis that considers specific biological traits and functional weaknesses. The global network of associations between corals and Symbiodiniaceae and its distribution of thermal tolerances are non-random, and the evolution of this architecture has led to higher sensitivity to environmental perturbations.

5.
J Food Biochem ; : e13148, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962370

RESUMO

The impact of dechlorophyllization (n-hexane: water partitioning, activated charcoal bleaching, and ChloroFiltr® decolorization) on major polyphenols of two herbal by-products (rosemary and thyme) was assessed. The aim was to produce decolorized extracts for food preservation and improve the quantification of their main phenolics. Activated charcoal bleaching and ChloroFiltr® decolorization effectively removed the chlorophyll a and b, whereas traces were detected after n-hexane: water partitioning. Dechlorophyllized thyme extracts prepared using activated charcoal and ChloroFiltr® had the lowest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) values based on 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assays. Conversely, rosemary extracts had positive RACI values following treatment with activated charcoal, whereas n-hexane led to a significant antioxidant loss. Chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses indicated that phenolic diterpenes (carnosol and carnosic acid), as well as rosmarinic acid were in general not significantly decreased (p Ëƒ .05) after activated charcoal treatment, while n-hexane maintained the flavonoids and phenolic acids with nonsignificant losses. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Commercial exploitation of polyphenol-rich plant based extracts as natural antioxidant agents is impeded by their high chlorophyll content, which when incorporated in food products can result in products that do not meet the consumer expectations for appearance. This study has shown that the activated charcoal bleaching has potentials to remove chlorophyll and retain antioxidant polyphenols in particular diterpenes in fresh herb by-products. Moreover, the commonly used n-hexane was less effective in removing chlorophyll but retained the major flavonoids and phenolic acids. Thus, the choice of chlorophyll removal methods depend on retaining the class of antioxidant polyphenols abundant in the plant matrix.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965648

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Although the 2 H/1 H ratio of the carbon-bound hydrogens (C-Hs) in α-cellulose extracted from higher plants has long been used successfully for climate, environmental and metabolic studies, the assumption that bleaching with acidified NaClO2 to remove lignin before pure α-cellulose can be obtained does not alter the 2 H/1 H ratio of α-cellulose C-Hs has nonetheless not been tested. METHODS: For reliable application of the 2 H/1 H ratio of α-cellulose C-H, we processed plant materials representing different phytochemistries and photosynthetic carbon assimilation modes in isotopically contrasting bleaching media (with an isotopic difference of 273 mUr). All the isotope ratios were measured by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). RESULTS: Our results show that H from the bleaching medium does appear in the final pure α-cellulose product, although the isotopic alteration to the C-H in α-cellulose due to the incorporation of processing H from the medium is small if isotopically "natural" water is used to prepare the processing medium. However, under prolonged bleaching such an isotope effect can be significant, implying that standardizing the bleaching process is necessary for reliable 2 H/1 H measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The currently adopted method for removing lignin for α-cellulose extraction from higher plant materials with acidified NaClO2 bleaching method is considered acceptable in terms of preserving the isotopic fidelity if isotopically "natural" water is used to prepare the bleaching solution.

7.
Microbes Environ ; 35(1)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969531

RESUMO

The Vietnamese Mekong delta is one of the largest rice-producing areas globally. Methylobacterium spp. are persistent colonizers of the rice plant and exert beneficial effects on plant growth and health. Sixty-one Methylobacterium strains belonging to seven species were predominantly isolated from the phyllosphere of rice cultivated in six Mekong delta provinces. Inoculation tests revealed that some strains exhibited plant growth-promoting activity. Moreover, three strains possessed the novel characteristics of inducing leaf bleaching and killing rice seedlings. These results revealed the complex diversity of Methylobacterium in Mekong delta rice and that healthy and productive rice cultivation requires a proper balance of Methylobacterium.

8.
Med Mycol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915818

RESUMO

Previously we found that three components of a commonly used mammalian cell culture medium incorporated into agar killed cryptococci (Granger and Call 2019). The components were L-cystine, iron [Fe(III)], and pyridoxal (CIP). We now report on a buffered solution at neutral pH of the three components, which was highly fungicidal without agar. We showed that CIP fungicidal activity, identical to the findings with cell culture medium, was inactivated by visible light and was unstable with storage in the dark. Congeners replacing either pyridoxal or L-cystine in CIP revealed structural requirements for fungicidal activity. Replacing pyridoxal in CIP with 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde produced a solution that was equally fungicidal and maintained fungicidal activity upon storage in the dark for up to 50 days. We employed methods for excluding iron from CIP and found that fungicidal activity was not affected. Upon mixing L-cystine and pyridoxal in buffer at pH 7.0, diode array spectroscopy revealed a red-shift of absorbance maximum from 391 nm to 398 nm. Our findings point to Schiff base reaction between the pyridoxal aldehyde group of C1 with the alpha amino group(s) of cystine to yield a fungicidal compound. Light at wave length approximately 400 nm inactivates this complex accompanied by bleaching of the pyridine ring of pyridoxal. Our findings may be useful for design of a class of fungicidal compounds formed through Schiff base reaction of disulfide compounds with aromatic ring-bearing aldehydes.

9.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are multiple treatment options to enhance a patient's smile, from conservative bleaching procedures to composite resins, porcelain veneers, or full-coverage crowns. Treating patients with porcelain veneers is a commonly used approach in esthetic dentistry. Provisional restorations for veneers can be time-consuming to make and difficult to retain. This article illustrates a technique for fabricating indirect snap-on provisional restorations for veneer cases, describing both analog and digital approaches. CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS: The present article presents an alternative provisionalization technique using snap-on restorations for dental veneers. Application of these techniques will allow for ease of cleansability by the patient leading to healthier soft tissues before the final cementation. Delivery of veneers is more predictable with healthy soft tissue, as bleeding and inflammation may affect the bonding process. CONCLUSIONS: This technique is an effective provisionalization option in most veneer cases. This approach seems to be well accepted by patients and a good alternative in helping to maintain optimal gingival health with interim restorations before delivery. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of snap-on provisionals for veneer restorations will allow the clinician to have an efficient technique with better tissue response before cementation. This prevents inflammation and facilitates a controlled delivery process.

10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917214

RESUMO

A novel polysaccharide extracted from green algae Chaetomorpha linum (PS) was characterized, using infrared spectroscopy, HPLC-FID, gel filtration high-pressure chromatography, thin layer chromatography and spectrum visible UV. Natural antioxidant potential of PS was evaluated based on DPPH free radical, ferrous iron-chelating, ß carotene bleaching inhibition activities and DNA nicking assay. Functional properties were estimated based on Water Holding Capacity (WHC), Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), emulsifying activity and foaming ability. Overall, data showed attractive chemical, functional and biological properties with an antioxidant capacity of PS in beef sausages during storage for 12 days. Indeed, as compared to standard formulation (with addition of vitamin C), samples formulated with PS presented lower values in terms of lipid oxidation (TBARS, MetMb), while preserving color properties compared with untreated samples. Furthermore, lower changes in pH, moisture, and the highest values of heme iron were obtained. Successful inhibition of microbial proliferation was proved. Endowed with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, PS could thus be used as a natural conservative in functional foods.

11.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922919

RESUMO

In this study, the efficacy of xylano-pectinolytic enzymes in scouring of banana fibers has been reported. Maximum efficiency of bioscouring was recorded using xylanase and pectinase doses of 15 and 4.8 IU, respectively (produced by a bacterial isolate) at a material-to-liquor proportion of 1:25 having 8.5 pH, treatment time of 1 h, speed of 50 rpm, temperature 50 °C, 3 mM EDTA and 1% Tween-80, with maximum sugar release, enhanced fiber water absorbing power and the finest optical characteristics. Enzymatic treatment resulted in 13.27% increase in whiteness, 16.14% increase in brightness and 8.63% decrease in yellowness as compared to raw banana fibers. The bioscouring also resulted in 50% reduction in scouring chemicals, in order to achieve the similar optical characteristics as obtained by the chemically treated fibers with 100% scouring and bleaching. It decreased the consumption of environment polluting chemicals and energy. Therefore, this has proven to be an environment safe method for removing the non-cellulosic impurities. This is the first report mentioning the scouring of banana fibers using xylano-pectinolytic enzymes.

12.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 110-115, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929216

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare to effect of phototherapy and surface flattening after immediately bleaching on the shear bond strength to bleached enamel. Methods: Ninety-six human upper incisors were divided into 4 groups (n = 24). Group NB: no bleached, group P: phototherapy with YSGG laser, group F: 0.5 mm surface flattening, group PF: 0.5 mm surface flattening and phototherapy with Er;Cr:YSGG laser. Then, each group was assigned to 2 subgroups according to adhesive mode (n = 12) as; subgroup S (self-etching mode), subgroup T (total-etching mode) which are universal adhesives. All surface conditionings and restorations were performed with composite resin materials immediately after bleaching. Shear bond strength test was performed by using universal testing machine. The surfaces were also evaluated with SEM. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA post-hoc Tukey tests. Results: The lowest SBS values were achieved in FS (13.72 ± 2.29) while the highest ones in PT (28.01 ± 6.81). However, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). All surface conditioning methods provided SBS values similar to the control (P > 0.05). All subgroups of self-etching mode were significantly lower than their total-etching counterparts (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study showed that surface removal and phototherapy have a potential clinical application for eliminate to undesirable effect of bleaching treatment. Surface conditioning with either flattening and/or phototherapy may provide clinicians to restore bleached teeth at the same visit with bleaching and reduce chair-time.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934811

RESUMO

Objective: To probe into the effect of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on color and translucency of human enamel during tooth bleaching. Materials and methods: Twenty enamel slabs were randomly assigned to be whitened by acidic 30% hydrogen peroxide (HP), neutral 30% HP, alkaline 30% HP, and distilled water, respectively, monitored by a colorimeter and Raman spectrometer simultaneously. Afterward, the parameter differences of color, translucency, Raman relative intensity, and LIF intensity between baseline and post-treatment of each bleaching cycle were calculated. Results: The results demonstrated that the three bleaching groups resulted in increasingly prominent whitening outcome over time compared with control group, and no statistical difference was detected between them. Accordingly, the bleaching groups also engendered a same decrease tendency in fluorescence intensity (FI). However, less demineralization effect occurred on the enamel surface in neutral HP group. The correlation analysis further excluded the effect of demineralization on all the optical parameters (p > 0.05). Besides, various degrees of dependency were detected between FI and translucency parameter (TP), masking effect (ME), C*ab, W*, b*. In addition, ΔFI was associated with parameters of ΔC*ab, ΔW*, Δb*, ΔE, Δa*, and ΔME. ΔFI% was correlated with ΔC*ab, Δb*, ΔW*, and ΔE values. Conclusions: Thirty percent HP with different pH values could result in same variation tendency of enamel color, translucency, and FI. Plus, FI showed a strong association with enamel color and translucency alteration, which is promising for future application as a nondestructive testing method to evaluate bleaching effect and might be a novel way to investigate tooth bleaching mechanism.

14.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 32(1): 12-18, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the whitening efficacy of a 16% carbamide peroxidase (CP) gel after 42 months of clinical follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective clinical study was carried out involving 95 participants. CP 16% was applied for 90 minutes a day for 4 weeks using individualized trays. Tooth color was assessed using spectrophotometry at baseline, 1 week after the end of treatment, and every 6 months until completing 42 months of follow-up. Color parameters were compared using analysis of variance for repeated measures. The analysis by teeth groups was performed using two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: The mean baseline L* was 81.7 ± 5.2 versus 83.6 ± 8.8 after 42 months (P<.01). L* showed a decrease of 2.3 after 30 months. The values corresponding to a* before treatment were 0.4 ± 1.1 versus -1.0 ± 1.0 after 42 months (P<.01). The initial values corresponding to b* were 23.4 ± 3.3 versus 15.8 ± 1.3 after 42 months (P<.01). Values of ΔE00 and ΔE, at the end of the treatment were 4.6 ± 1.2 and 7.8 ± 1.8, respectively. Teeth groups remained stable after 42 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The home application of 16% CP gel for 90 minutes a day for 4 weeks using individualized trays resulted in whitening that remained stable over the 42 months of follow-up. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment with 16% CP is an effective and safe tooth whitening procedure, and the color obtained remains stable over the long term.

15.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910399

RESUMO

In this work we present how the optical properties of ZnSe nanowires are modified by the presence of Ag nanoparticles on the sidewalls of the ZnSe nanowires. In particular we show that the low-temperature luminescence of the ZnSe nanowires changes its shape, enhancing the phonon-replicas of impurity related recombination and affecting rise and decay times of the transient absorption bleaching at room temperatures, with an increase of the former and a decrease of the latter. In contrast, the deposition of Au NPs on the ZnSe nanowires does not change the optical properties of the sample. We suggest that the mechanism underlying these experimental observations is energy transfer via a resonant interaction based on the fact that the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag nanoparticles spectrally overlaps with absorption and emission of ZnSe while the Au LSPR does not.

16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912964

RESUMO

Thermal-stress events that cause coral bleaching and mortality have recently increased in frequency and severity. Yet few studies have explored conditions that moderate coral bleaching. Given that high light and high ocean temperature together cause coral bleaching, we explore whether corals at turbid localities, with reduced light, are less likely to bleach during thermal-stress events than corals at other localities. We analyzed coral bleaching, temperature, and turbidity data from 3,694 sites worldwide with a Bayesian model and found that Kd 490, a measurement positively related to turbidity, between 0.080 and 0.127 reduced coral bleaching during thermal-stress events. Approximately 12% of the world's reefs exist within this "moderating turbidity" range, and 30% of reefs that have moderating turbidity are in the Coral Triangle. We suggest that these turbid nearshore environments may provide some refuge through climate change, but these reefs will need high conservation status to sustain them close to dense human populations.

17.
Eur J Med Chem ; 189: 112049, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945666

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as a promising therapeutic method in cancer treatment. The discovery of effective photosensitizer, which is the key factor of PDT, is highly desired. This paper reports the synthesis of novel chlorin derivatives, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-[2:3]-[(methoxycarbonyl, carboxy)methano] chlorin I and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-[2:3]- {[methoxycarbonyl, (2-hydroxyethyl)amide]methano}chlorin II. Their structures were characterized with UV-vis, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and HRMS spectroscopies. Photophysical and photochemical experiments results showed that compound I and II had an absorption maximum around 650 nm, with molar extinction coefficients of 1 × 104 M-1 cm-1. They had strong fluorescence emission in 650-660 nm upon excitation with 419-422 nm light. ESR showed that singlet oxygen was produced upon irradiation of compounds with 650 nm light in the presence of molecular oxygen. The photo-bleaching test indicated that the structure of compounds was stable. These new compounds exhibit excellent anti-tumor effects and lower toxicity compared to m-THPC in vitro and in vivo. Compound I and II had high tumor selectivity, which could induced tumor cells shrinkage and necrosis under 650 nm laser irradiation. Flow cytometry revealed that the compounds might mediate PDT effect at late apoptotic phase. These results make these compound I and II promising candidates for future study in photo-diagnosis and photodynamic therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972557

RESUMO

Increasingly, the auto-fluorescent coenzymes NAD(P)H and FAD are being tracked by multi-photon fluorescence lifetime microscopy (FLIM) and used as versatile markers for changes in mammalian metabolism. The cellular redox state of different cell model systems, organoids and tissue sections is investigated in a range of pathologies where the metabolism is disrupted or reprogrammed; the latter is particularly relevant in cancer biology. Yet, the actual optimized process of acquiring images by FLIM, execute a correct lifetime fitting procedure and subsequent processing and analysis can be challenging for new users. Questions remain of how to optimize FLIM experiments, whether any potential photo-bleaching affects FLIM results and whether fixed specimens can be used in experiments. We have broken down the multi-step sequence into best-practice application of FLIM for NAD(P)H and FAD imaging, with images generated by a time-correlated-single-photon-counting (TCSPC) system, fitted with Becker & Hickl software and further processed with open-source ImageJ/Fiji and Python software.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135767, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972930

RESUMO

A healthy symbiotic relationship between corals and Symbiodiniaceae relies on suitable temperature and adequate nutrients including trace metals. Besides global warming, trace metal deficiency has been shown to cause coral bleaching, a phenomenon responsible for extensive coral reef degradation around the world. How trace metal deficiency impacts Symbiodiniaceae and coral symbiosis is poorly understood, however. In this study, we applied RNA-seq to investigate how Fugacium kawagutii responds to the deficiency of five trace metals (Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ni2+). We identified 685 to 2805 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from these trace metal deficiency conditions, among which 372 were commonly regulated by all the five trace metals and were significantly enriched in energy metabolism (e.g. fatty acid synthesis). Furthermore, genes associated with extracellular matrix (ECM), cell surface structure and cell adhesion were impacted, suggesting that the ability of recognition and adhesion of F. kawagutii may be altered by trace metal deficiencies. In addition, among the five metals, Fe2+ deficiency exhibited the strongest influence, with Fe-rich redox elements and many antioxidant synthesis genes being markedly down-regulated, indicative of adaptive reduction of Fe demand but a compromised ability to combat oxidative stress. Overall, deficiency of trace metals (especially Fe) seems to repress growth and ability of ROS scavenging, elevate energy metabolism and innate immunity, and alter cell adhesion capability, with implications in symbiosis disruption and coral bleaching.

20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 230: 115581, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887882

RESUMO

Removal of non-cellulosic polymers from vegetable pulp to obtain cellulose nanofibers (CNF) is normally achieved by chemical pre-treatments which requires several washing steps. In the present study, it is demonstrated how incubation of sugar beet pulp at pH 9, followed by treatment with polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and subsequent bleaching can be done in a one-pot procedure to make CNF. The new method consumes 67% less water and removes non-cellulosic polysaccharides with similar efficiency as a chemical method. In addition, CNF produced by the new method contained slightly more pectin and formed gels with 2.7 times higher storage modulus. Nanopapers cast from chemically- and enzymatically produced CNF showed similar mechanical properties. However, without the pH 9 incubation step, the enzymes accessibility to cell-wall polymers was limited resulting in lower gel and paper strengths. In conclusion, the new method offers a sustainable route for producing high quality CNF from sugar beet waste.

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