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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.

2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e219320, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253013

RESUMO

Aim: This study analyzed the effect of whitening mouth rinses on water sorption (WS), solubility (SL), color change, and surface roughness of a nanofilled composite. Whitening perceptibility and acceptability (WID) were also studied. Methods: Forty specimens of Filtek Z350XT, shade EA2 were produced and randomly distributed (n=8) to AS ­ artificial saliva (control); LWE ­ Listerine Whitening Extreme; CLW ­ Colgate Luminous White; LCM ­ Listerine Cool Mint; and CP ­ Colgate Plax. They were immersed in the mouth rinses 2x/day, for one minute, during 28 days. The color was assessed using an Easyshade spectrophotometer (CIE-L*a*b* system). Surface roughness (Ra-µm) was measured with three parallel measures, using an RP-200 roughness meter. The WS and SL (µg/mm-3) were analyzed based on the ISO 4049 recommendations. The data were analyzed using one- and two-way ANOVA/Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results: Surface roughness significantly increased after immersion in AS and LCM, with no significant differences between the groups either before or after immersion. The ΔE* was not significantly different between the groups. All substances produced a ΔWID higher than the 50%:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. The WS and SL were not significantly affected by the mouth rinses. Conclusion: Whitening mouth rinses did not affect WS, SL, surface roughness, and color stability of a nanofilled composite, regardless of the presence of ethanol in the composition


Assuntos
Cor , Resinas Compostas , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Clareadores Dentários , Antissépticos Bucais
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e211711, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253790

RESUMO

Aim: The present study aimed to investigate if the Guatemalan dentist's options on tooth bleaching could be influenced by their time in clinical practice, the level of specialization or their working place. Methods: A representative sample of dentists working in clinical practice in Guatemala was selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire with information related to gender, professional characteristics (time since graduation in years and working place) and preferences regarding vital (at-home or in-office; type and concentration of bleaching agent) and the nonvital tooth bleaching (bleaching agent used). The analysis was performed and the association between preference for bleaching technique and independent variables were investigated using Fisher's exact test. Results: 200 dentists were interviewed. More than half of dentists were male (57.0%) with time since graduation between 11 and 20 years (n= 64; 32.3%). Dentists mostly (60.5%) preferred in-office technique for vital bleaching, with 10-20% Carbamide peroxide (CP) as the preferred agent (50%). For nonvital teeth, the preferred agent (46.8%) was 37% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP). About the associations, younger dentists (< 20 years of graduation) selected mostly in-office technique, while those with more than 20 years indicated more the at-home technique. Also, the dentists working in private practice chose more frequently in-office technique. Thus, the in-office technique was more popular among Guatemalan dentists, with 10-20% CP and 37% HP selected as favorite bleaching agents for vital and nonvital techniques, respectively. Conclusion: The time of clinical practice and working place influenced some choices


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Clareadores Dentários
4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e213859, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253923

RESUMO

Aim: This study evaluated the effect of a desensitizer agent (DES) during bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) on enamel microshear bond strength (µSBS). Methods: Sixty bovine incisors were obtained and randomly distributed into groups (n=15): (C) Control: no desensitizing or bleaching, (DES) desensitizing gel application, (CP) bleaching with 10% CP and (CP/DES) bleaching with 10% CP combined with DES. Bleaching was performed for 6 h/day for 14 consecutive days. DES was applied for 8 h only on the 7th and 14th days of therapy. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva among the CP or DES applications and submitted to µSBS testing at three postrestoration times (n=5): 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days after bleaching using a universal testing machine. Failure modes were observed under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Results: Immediately after bleaching (24 h), CP promoted lower µSBS than the C and DES groups (p<0.05) but with no differences from the CP/DES. µSBS increased in the DES, CP, and CP/DES groups (p<0.05) when bonding was performed for 7 or 14 days elapsed from bleaching. CP/DES exhibited the highest µSBS among the groups 14 days after bleaching (p<0.05). Cohesive failure in enamel was predominant in the CP groups, while adhesive failure was mostly observed for the other groups. Conclusion: The use of a desensitizer during at-home bleaching maintained the enamel immediate bond strength, and its application favored bonding when the restoration was delayed for 14 days


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Clareamento Dental , Esmalte Dentário , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150085, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525771

RESUMO

As cost-effective and high-efficient oxidants, the hypochlorite chemicals have been widely utilized for bleaching and disinfection. However, its potential applications in wastewater treatment and sludge disposal were less concerned. This paper mainly summarized the state-of-the-art applications of hypochlorite technology in wastewater and sludge treatment based on the main influencing factors and potential mechanisms of hypochlorite treatment. The results indicated that the hypochlorite approaches were not only effective in pollutants removal and membrane fouling mitigation for wastewater treatment, but also contributed to sludge dewatering and resource recovery for sludge disposal. The ClO- and large generated free active radicals (i.e., reactive chlorine species and reactive oxygen species), which possessed strong oxidative ability, were the primary contributors to the pollutants decomposition, and colloids/microbes flocs disintegration during the hypochlorite treatment process. The performance of hypochlorite treatment was highly associated with various factors (i.e., pH, temperature, hypochlorite types and dosage). In combination with the reasonable activators (i.e., Fe2+ and ultraviolet), auxiliary agents, and innovative processes (i.e., hydrothermal and electro-oxidation), the operational performance of hypochlorite technology could be further enhanced. Finally, the feasibility and benefits of hypochlorite application for wastewater and sludge treatment were analyzed, and the existing challenges and future research efforts that need to be made have also prospected. The review can hopefully provide a theoretical basis and technical guidance to extend the application of hypochlorite technology for wastewater treatment and sludge disposal on large scale.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542273

RESUMO

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on metal halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) have achieved impressive external quantum efficiencies; however, the lack of surface protection of QDs, combined with efficiency droop, decreases device operating lifetime at brightnesses of interest. The epitaxial incorporation of QDs within a semiconducting shell provides surface passivation and exciton confinement. Achieving this goal in the case of perovskite QDs remains an unsolved challenge in view of the materials' chemical instability. Here, we report perovskite QDs that remain stable in a thin layer of precursor solution of perovskite, and we use strained QDs as nucleation centers to drive the homogeneous crystallization of a perovskite matrix. Type-I band alignment ensures that the QDs are charge acceptors and radiative emitters. The new materials show suppressed Auger bi-excition recombination and bright luminescence at high excitation (600 W cm-2), whereas control materials exhibit severe bleaching. Primary red LEDs based on the new materials show an external quantum efficiency of 18%, and these retain high performance to brightnesses exceeding 4700 cd m-2. The new materials enable LEDs having an operating half-life of 2400 h at an initial luminance of 100 cd m-2, representing a 100-fold enhancement relative to the best primary red perovskite LEDs.

7.
Biophys J ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487708

RESUMO

Single-molecule (SM) approaches have provided valuable mechanistic information on many biophysical systems. As technological advances lead to ever-larger data sets, tools for rapid analysis and identification of molecules exhibiting the behavior of interest are increasingly important. In many cases the underlying mechanism is unknown, making unsupervised techniques desirable. The divisive segmentation and clustering (DISC) algorithm is one such unsupervised method that idealizes noisy SM time series much faster than computationally intensive approaches without sacrificing accuracy. However, DISC relies on a user-selected objective criterion (OC) to guide its estimation of the ideal time series. Here, we explore how different OCs affect DISC's performance for data typical of SM fluorescence imaging experiments. We find that OCs differing in their penalty for model complexity each optimize DISC's performance for time series with different properties such as signal/noise and number of sample points. Using a machine learning approach, we generate a decision boundary that allows unsupervised selection of OCs based on the input time series to maximize performance for different types of data. This is particularly relevant for SM fluorescence data sets, which often have signal/noise near the derived decision boundary and include time series of nonuniform length because of stochastic bleaching. Our approach, AutoDISC, allows unsupervised per-molecule optimization of DISC, which will substantially assist in the rapid analysis of high-throughput SM data sets with noisy samples and nonuniform time windows.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18134, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518595

RESUMO

Globally, species are migrating in an attempt to track optimal isotherms as climate change increasingly warms existing habitats. Stony corals are severely threatened by anthropogenic warming, which has resulted in repeated mass bleaching and mortality events. Since corals are sessile as adults and with a relatively old age of sexual maturity, they are slow to latitudinally migrate, but corals may also migrate vertically to deeper, cooler reefs. Herein we describe vertical migration of the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica from less than 10 m depth to > 30 m. We suggest that this range shift is a response to rapidly warming sea surface temperatures on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline. In contrast to the vast latitudinal distance required to track temperature change, this species has migrated deeper where summer water temperatures are up to 2 °C cooler. Comparisons of physiology, morphology, trophic position, symbiont type, and photochemistry between deep and shallow conspecifics revealed only a few depth-specific differences. At this study site, shallow colonies typically inhabit low light environments (caves, crevices) and have a facultative relationship with photosymbionts. We suggest that this existing phenotype aided colonization of the mesophotic zone. This observation highlights the potential for other marine species to vertically migrate.

9.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482591

RESUMO

Anthropogenic climate change is a rapidly intensifying selection pressure on biodiversity across the globe and, particularly, on the world's coral reefs. The rate of adaptation to climate change is proportional to the amount of phenotypic variation that can be inherited by subsequent generations (i.e., narrow-sense heritability, h2 ). Thus, traits that have higher heritability (e.g., h2  > 0.5) are likely to adapt to future conditions faster than traits with lower heritability (e.g., h2  < 0.1). Here, we synthesize 95 heritability estimates across 19 species of reef-building corals. Our meta-analysis reveals low heritability (h2 < 0.25) of gene expression metrics, intermediate heritability (h2  = 0.25-0.50) of photochemistry, growth, and bleaching, and high heritability (h2  > 0.50) for metrics related to survival and immune responses. Some of these values are higher than typically observed in other taxa, such as survival and growth, while others were more comparable, such as gene expression and photochemistry. There was no detectable effect of temperature on heritability, but narrow-sense heritability estimates were generally lower than broad-sense estimates, indicative of significant non-additive genetic variation across traits. Trait heritability also varied depending on coral life stage, with bleaching and growth in juveniles generally having lower heritability compared to bleaching and growth in larvae and adults. These differences may be the result of previous stabilizing selection on juveniles or may be due to constrained evolution resulting from genetic trade-offs or genetic correlations between growth and thermotolerance. While we find no evidence that heritability decreases under temperature stress, explicit tests of the heritability of thermal tolerance itself-such as coral thermal reaction norm shape-are lacking. Nevertheless, our findings overall reveal high trait heritability for the majority of coral traits, suggesting corals may have a greater potential to adapt to climate change than has been assumed in recent evolutionary models.

10.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(182): 20210532, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465209

RESUMO

Coral reefs are constructed by calcifying coral animals that engage in a symbiosis with dinoflagellate microalgae harboured in their tissue. The symbiosis takes place in the presence of steep and dynamic gradients of light, temperature and chemical species that are affected by the structural and optical properties of the coral and their interaction with incident irradiance and water flow. Microenvironmental analyses have enabled quantification of such gradients and bulk coral tissue and skeleton optical properties, but the multi-layered nature of corals and its implications for the optical, thermal and chemical microenvironment remains to be studied in more detail. Here, we present a multiphysics modelling approach, where three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the light field in a simple coral slab morphology with multiple tissue layers were used as input for modelling the heat dissipation and photosynthetic oxygen production driven by photon absorption. By coupling photon, heat and mass transfer, the model predicts light, temperature and O2 gradients in the coral tissue and skeleton, under environmental conditions simulating, for example, tissue contraction/expansion, symbiont loss via coral bleaching or different distributions of coral host pigments. The model reveals basic structure-function mechanisms that shape the microenvironment and ecophysiology of the coral symbiosis in response to environmental change.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17418, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465829

RESUMO

Hyperalgesia has become a major problem restricting the clinical application of tooth bleaching. We hypothesized that transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a pain conduction tunnel, plays a role in tooth hyperalgesia and inflammation after bleaching. Dental pulp stem cells were seeded on the dentin side of the disc, which was cut from the premolar buccal tissue, with 15% (90 min) or 40% (3 × 15 min) bleaching gel applied on the enamel side, and treated with or without a TRPA1 inhibitor. The bleaching gel stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, ATP, and extracellular ATP in a dose-dependent manner, and increased the mRNA and protein levels of hyperalgesia (TRPA1 and PANX1) and inflammation (TNFα and IL6) factors. This increment was adversely affected by TRPA1 inhibitor. In animal study, the protein levels of TRPA1 (P = 0.0006), PANX1 (P < 0.0001), and proliferation factors [PCNA (P < 0.0001) and Caspase 3 (P = 0.0066)] increased significantly after treated rat incisors with 15% and 40% bleaching gels as detected by immunohistochemistry. These results show that TRPA1 plays a critical role in sensitivity and inflammation after tooth bleaching, providing a solid foundation for further research on reducing the complications of tooth bleaching.

12.
J Oral Sci ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470987

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of some whitening toothpastes on the surface roughness and coloration susceptibility of a composite resin, as well as their whitening effectiveness. METHODS: This study was carried out in two different stages. In experiment A, samples were divided into 7 subgroups to compare the surface roughness and coloration susceptibility of the composite resin: distilled water, conventional toothpaste, and 5 different whitening toothpastes. In experiment B, samples were divided into 8 subgroups to compare the whitening effectiveness of the whitening toothpastes: conventional toothpaste, 5 other whitening toothpastes, and two bleaching groups. After toothbrushing simulation, the color and surface roughness of the samples were measured. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance, paired t-test and Tukey post-hoc test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences among the surface roughness values for the groups for any period before and after brushing (P > 0.05). In terms of the coloration susceptibility of the composite resin and the whitening effects of the toothpastes, no statistically significant differences were evident among the groups for any period before and after brushing (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that effective toothbrushing is more important than the type of toothpaste employed.

13.
Nanoscale ; 13(34): 14337-14345, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473162

RESUMO

Conjugated fluorescent materials are getting more and more attention in the biomedical arena due to their high fluorescence intensity, non-bleaching and good biocompatibility. However, conjugated fluorescent materials are still not widely used in the field of anti-counterfeiting and pattern encryption due to their extremely low solubility and enormous difficulties in processing. Here, we use a facile approach to fabricate conjugated polymer fluorescent nanoparticles through a classic micro-emulsion method to address these issues. The particle size, loading materials and fluorescence intensity can be tuned as demanded. Later, these particles are transformed into invisible inks for inkjet printers to achieve micro-scale pattern encryption. These patterns show an ultra-high accuracy of around 30 micrometres. They can be used as QR codes for information encryption with 3 times more information encryption and great anti-counterfeiting ability. Finally, we establish an identification recognition system to check their validity. The scenario is the patient identification system of a hospital. The results show that these tags can be read in less than 3 seconds and they can last for 12 months at least. This facile approach holds great potential and bright prospects in the field of privacy protection, information encryption and anti-counterfeiting.

14.
Dental Press J Orthod ; 26(4): e2119124, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this experimental in vitro study was to evaluate whether dental bleaching performed before orthodontic treatment change the shear bond strength (SBS) of monocrystalline and polycrystalline esthetic brackets. METHODS: Sixty (60) bovine incisors teeth were used and randomly divided into the following six groups (n=10): SCP (without bleaching/polycrystalline brackets); SCM (without bleaching/monocrystalline brackets); 1CP (one bleaching session/polycrystalline brackets); 1CM (one bleaching session/monocrystalline brackets); 3CP (three bleaching sessions/polycrystalline brackets); and 3CM (three bleaching sessions/monocrystalline brackets). The brackets were bonded seven days after the bleaching sessions. The samples were submitted to the SBS test in a universal testing machine (Instron model 4411) at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey tests were performed at a 5% level of significance. After the mechanical test, samples were evaluated to determine the adhesive remnant index (ARI). RESULTS: The SBS values were significantly higher for the monocrystalline brackets, when compared with the polycrystalline type (p< 0.0001), and significantly higher with three bleaching sessions than without bleaching (p< 0.0436). The ARI showed predominance of failures between the bracket and resin for all the groups (score 3). CONCLUSION: Three dental bleaching sessions increased the SBS values. Monocrystalline brackets showed higher SBS values than the polycrystalline type.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Clareamento Dental , Animais , Bovinos , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Estética Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Resistência ao Cisalhamento
15.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate color change of three resin-based restorative materials after two laser-assisted in-office tooth bleaching protocols using Er,Cr:YSGG and diode (980 nm) lasers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nanohybrid composite resin (EP), a Bis-GMA free composite resin (EPBio) and a resin-matrix CAD-CAM ceramic (HC) were tested. Ninety specimens were prepared and stored in artificial saliva. Group 1 received an in-office bleaching treatment using 40% H2 O2. The same bleaching procedure was assisted by Er,Cr:YSGG laser in Group 2 and by a diode laser (980 nm) in Group 3. Color measurements were performed using a double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer at four time intervals (before, 24 h, 15 and 30 days), converted to L*, a*, and b* units of the CIELAB color space and assessed on the basis of 50:50% acceptability (ΔΕab * = 2.7 and ΔΕ00  = 1.77) and 50:50% perceptibility (ΔΕab * = 1.2 and ΔΕ00  = 0.81) thresholds. Three-way ANOVA with repeated measurements was used for statistical analysis of the data. RESULTS: Color and whiteness changes did not exceed the established 50:50% acceptability thresholds. EP presented the highest color change after the bleaching followed by EPBio and HC (p ≤ 0.05). Three-way ANOVA revealed that type of material and time interval significantly affected color change (p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The tested bleaching treatments assisted by Er,Cr:YSGG and diode (980 nm) lasers did not induce unacceptable color and whiteness changes in the resin-based restorative materials. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The tested Er,Cr:YSGG and diode (980 nm) laser-assisted tooth bleaching protocols which may be recommended to accelerate the clinical procedures cannot affect the color of the existing resin-based restorations in case they are accidentally exposed on the bleaching gel and laser irradiation.

16.
Eur Biophys J ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499211

RESUMO

Bacteriophages with long DNA genomes are of interest due to their diverse mutations dependent on environmental factors. By lowering the ionic strength of a hydrophobic (PPh4Cl) antagonistic salt (at 1 mM), single long T4 DNA strand fluctuations were clearly observed, while condensed states of T4 DNA globules were formed above 5-10 mM salt. These long DNA strands were treated with fluorescently labeled probes, for which photo bleaching is often unavoidable over a short time of measurement. In addition, long (few tens of [Formula: see text]) length scales are required to have larger fields of view for better sampling, with shorter temporal resolutions. Thus, an optimization between length and time is crucial to obtain useful information. To facilitate the challenge of detecting large biomacromolecules, we here introduce an effective method of live image data analysis for direct visualization and quantification of local thermal fluctuations. The motions of various conformations for the motile long DNA strands were examined for the single- and multi-T4 DNA strands. We find that the unique correlation functions exhibit a relatively high-frequency oscillatory behavior superimposed on the overall slower decay of the correlation function with a splitting of amplitudes deriving from local activities of the long DNA strands. This work shows not only the usefulness of an image-time correlation for analyzing large biomacromolecules, but also provides insight into the effects of a hydrophobic antagonistic salt on active T4 bacteriophage long DNA strands, including thermal translocations in their electrostatic interactions.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118010, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488160

RESUMO

Plastic pollution is an emerging stressor that increases pressure on ecosystems such as coral reefs that are already challenged by climate change. However, the effects of plastic pollution in combination with global warming are largely unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the cumulative effects of microplastic pollution with that of global warming on reef-building coral species and to compare the severity of both stressors. For this, we conducted a series of three controlled laboratory experiments and exposed a broad range of coral species (Acropora muricata, Montipora digitata, Porites lutea, Pocillopora verrucosa, and Stylophora pistillata) to microplastic particles in a range of concentrations (2.5-2500 particles L-1) and mixtures (from different industrial sectors) at ambient temperatures and in combination with heat stress. We show that microplastic can occasionally have both aggravating or mitigating effects on the corals' thermal tolerance. In comparison to heat stress, however, microplastic constitutes a minor stressor. While heat stress led to decreased photosynthetic efficiency of algal symbionts, and increased bleaching, tissue necrosis, and mortality, treatment with microplastic particles had only minor effects on the physiology and health of the tested coral species at ambient temperatures. These findings underline that while efforts to reduce plastic pollution should continue, they should not replace more urgent efforts to halt global warming, which are immediately needed to preserve remaining coral reef ecosystems.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495630

RESUMO

Quantum dots (QDs) allow for a significant amount of strain relaxation, which is helpful in GaN systems where a large lattice mismatch needs to be accommodated. InGaN QDs with a large indium composition are intensively investigated for light emitters requiring longer wavelengths. These are especially important for developing high-efficiency white light sources. Understanding the carrier dynamics in this large lattice-mismatched system is essential to improving the radiative efficiency while circumventing high defect density. This work investigates femtosecond carrier and photon dynamics in self-organized In0.27Ga0.73N/GaN QDs grown by molecular beam epitaxy using transient differential absorption spectroscopy, which measures the differential absorption coefficient (Δα) with and without an optical pump. Due to 3D quantum confinement and the small effective mass of InGaN, the low density of states in the conduction band is easily filled with electrons. In contrast, the GaN barrier region is replete with a high density of electrons due to a large effective mass. This contrast in carrier density creates a unique phenomenon in the dynamics, showing a change in the differential absorption coefficient (Δα) sign from negative to positive with time. The ultrafast microscopic processes indicate that right after the optical pump and first photon absorption, the valence (conduction) band states are depleted (replete) of electrons. This ground-state bleaching process makes Δα negative, and the probe beam is not absorbed. The electrons are then gradually transferred from the GaN barrier into InGaN QDs, which absorb the second photon from the probe beam (excited-state absorption), making Δα positive. The presence of excited-state carriers with a long lifetime is indicative of the enhanced availability of carriers for radiative recombination. This effect also promotes stimulated emission and amplified spontaneous emission, which can be used to develop lasers and superluminescent LEDs, respectively. Measurements with multiple pump powers and temperatures further confirm that the efficacy of InGaN QDs is enhanced by this effective mass contrast and 3D reservoir of carriers from the GaN barrier. This effect can be used to improve the internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based light emitters.

19.
Macromol Biosci ; : e2100192, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480515

RESUMO

Electron microscopy is crucial for imaging biological ultrastructure at nanometer resolution. However, electron irradiation also causes specimen damage, reflected in structural and chemical changes that can give rise to alternative signals. Here, luminescence induced by electron-beam irradiation is reported across a range of materials widely used in biological electron microscopy. Electron-induced luminescence is spectrally characterized in two epoxy (Epon, Durcupan) and one methacrylate resin (HM20) over a broad electron fluence range, from 10-4 to 103 mC cm-2 , both with and without embedded biological samples. Electron-induced luminescence is pervasive in polymer resins, embedded biomaterial, and occurs even in fixed, whole cells in the absence of resin. Across media, similar patterns of intensity rise, spectral red-shifting, and bleaching upon increasing electron fluence are observed. Increased landing energies cause reduced scattering in the specimen shifting the luminescence profiles to higher fluences. Predictable and tunable electron-induced luminescence in natural and synthetic polymer media is advantageous for turning many polymers into luminescent nanostructures or to fluorescently visualize (micro)plastics. Furthermore, these findings provide perspective to direct electron-beam excitation approaches like cathodoluminescence that may be obscured by these nonspecific electron-induced signals.

20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3766641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471637

RESUMO

Tooth bleaching is becoming increasingly popular among patients with tooth staining, but the safety of bleaching agents on tooth structure has been questioned. Primarily thriving on the biofilm formation on enamel surface, Streptococcus mutans has been recognized as a major cariogenic bacterial species. The present study is aimed at investigating how cold-light bleaching would change enamel roughness and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans. Human premolars were divided into 72 enamel slices and allocated into 3 groups: (1) control, (2) cold-light bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Beyond™), and (3) 35% hydrogen peroxide (Beyond™) alone. Biofilms of Streptococcus mutans were cultivated on enamel slices in 5% CO2 (v/v) at 37°C for 1 day or 3 days. Enamel surfaces and biofilms were observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to quantify the roughness of enamel surface, and the amounts of biofilms were measured by optical density of scattered biofilm and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cold-light bleaching significantly increased (p < 0.05) surface roughness of enamel compared to controls, but significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) adhesion of Streptococcus mutans on enamel in the bacterial cultures of both 1 day and 3 days. In conclusion, cold-light bleaching could roughen enamel surface but inhibit Streptococcus mutans adhesion at the preliminary stage after the bleaching treatment.

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