Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 250.435
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 814-821, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153402

RESUMO

Abstract Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.


Resumo O esgoto não tratado e os resíduos industriais da cidade de Faisalabad, no Paquistão, são descartados no Rio Chenab através do dreno principal de Chakbandi (CMD). O presente projeto busca investigar os efeitos dessa poluição de água doce no corpo de peixes Ictalurus punctatus. Os espécimes deste peixe foram coletados a montante e a jusante da entrada do CMD no Rio Chenab. Brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos das regiões dorsolaterais dos peixes foram submetidos à histopatologia. Peixes de criação e peixes de áreas a montante foram utilizados como controle. Peixes coletados em locais experimentais poluídos mostraram danos significativos em órgãos selecionados. Os tecidos branquiais mostraram uma anormalidade na forma de elevação do epitélio primário, fusão, vacuolação, hipertrofia e necrose. Observou-se que os tecidos hepáticos estão sujeitos a degeneração de hepatócitos, necrose, hepatócitos mitocondriais granulares e dilatação de sinusoides. Os tecidos renais indicaram aumento do espaço dos arqueiros, glomérulos contraídos e néfrons degenerados. Edema, necrose e atrofia foram observados nos tecidos musculares de peixes de áreas poluídas. Peixes da área a montante apresentaram lamelas branquiais fundidas, infiltração de células inflamatórias, hipertrofia e vacuolização em hepatócitos. Os tecidos renais indicaram a presença de células tubulares nucleares, túbulos renais destrutivos, hemorragia e necrose no epitélio tubular. Os espaços intramiofibrilas também foram observados nos músculos. Amostras de peixes controle não indicaram variação em brânquias, fígado, rim e músculos. O presente estudo revelou uma forte correlação entre o grau de dano tecidual e a contaminação ambiental. As descobertas atuais também constituem avisos globais para proteger nossos corpos d'água e peixes para resguardar a população humana.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 437-447, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153362

RESUMO

Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the production of polycarbonate, a polymer commonly found in plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. The presence of BPA in food, water, air and dust has been of great concern in recent years not only due to environmental and ecological issues but also because of its supposed risk to public health related to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. In this study we evaluated the toxicity of bisphenol A in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) and determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of this chemical. BPA was used at concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 100 μM in E3 medium/0.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) from previously prepared stock solutions in 100% DMSO. Controls included embryos exposed only to E3 medium or supplemented with 0.5% DMSO. Camptothecin (CPT), a known inhibitor of cell proliferation was used as positive control at a concentration of 0.001 μM in E3 medium/0.5% DMSO. Adults zebrafish were placed for breeding a day before the experimental set up, then, viable embryos were collected and selected for use. Experiments were carried out in triplicates, according to specifications from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). One embryo/well (25 embryos per concentration) was distributed in 96 well microplates in presence or absence of the chemicals. The plates were kept in BOD incubators with a controlled temperature of 28.5 ºC and with photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. After 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h exposure, the exposed embryos were evaluated according to the following parameters: mortality, coagulation, rate of heartbeat, hatching and presence of morphological abnormalities. Photography was obtained by photomicroscopy. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA ladder assay. DNA was extracted by phenol:chloroform method and analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA fragments were visualized after ethidium bromide staining in ultraviolet transilluminator. The LC50 determined for BPA was 70 μM after 24 hours, 72 μM after 48 hours, 47 μM after 72 hours and 31 μM after 96 hours exposure. BPA induced morphological and physiological alterations such as yolk sac and pericardial edema, hatching delay or inhibition, spine deformation, decreasing in heartbeat rate and mortality. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BPA induced marked malformations in zebrafish embryos at concentrations above 25 μM corroborating the current concerns related to the widespread presence of BPA in the air, food and water used by humans as well as in the bodily fluids and tissues.


Resumo Bisfenol A (BPA) é um monômero utilizado na produção de policarbonato, um polímero comumente encontrado em plásticos, resinas epóxi e papéis térmicos. A presença de BPA em alimentos, água, ar e poeira tem sido motivo de grande preocupação nos últimos anos, não só devido a questões ambientais e ecológicas, mas também ao suposto risco para a saúde pública relacionado ao seu potencial mutagênico e carcinogênico. Neste estudo avaliamos a toxicidade do bisfenol A em embriões de peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) e determinamos a concentração letal 50% (LC50) deste composto químico. O BPA foi usado na faixa de concentração entre 1 μM e 100μM em meio E3/0,5% de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), preparado a partir de soluções estoques em 100% DMSO. Os controles negativos incluíram embriões expostos apenas ao meio E3 ou suplementado com 0,5% DMSO. Camptotecina (CPT), um conhecido inibidor da proliferação celular, foi usado como controle positivo a uma concentração de 0,001 μM em meio E3/0,5% DMSO. Peixes-zebra adultos foram colocados para reprodução um dia antes da montagem experimental, em seguida, embriões viáveis foram coletados e selecionados para uso. Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata, de acordo com as especificações da Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE). Um embrião/ poço (25 embriões por concentração) foi distribuído em microplacas de 96 poços na presença ou ausência dos compostos químicos. As placas foram mantidas em incubadoras BOD com temperatura controlada de 28,5 ºC e com fotoperíodo de 14h claro:10h escuro. Após 24h, 48h, 72h e 96h, os embriões expostos foram avaliados de acordo com os seguintes parâmetros: mortalidade, presença de coagulação, taxa do batimento cardíaco, eclosão e presença de anormalidades morfológicas. Fotografias foram obtidas por fotomicroscopia. A apoptose foi avaliada pelo ensaio de DNA ladder. O DNA foi extraído pelo método fenol:clorofórmio e analisado por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 2%. Fragmentos de DNA foram visualizadas após coloração com brometo de etídio em um transiluminador ultravioleta. A LC50 determinada para o BPA foi 70 μM após 24 horas, 72 μM após 48 horas, 47 μM após 72 horas e 31 μM após exposição por 96 horas. O BPA induziu alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas como edema de saco vitelino e edema pericárdico, atraso no tempo ou inibição da eclosão, deformação da coluna vertebral, diminuição da taxa de batimentos cardíacos e mortalidade. Em conclusão, este estudo demonstrou que o BPA induziu grande número de malformações em embriões de peixe-zebra em concentrações acima de 25 μM, corroborando as preocupações atuais relacionadas a presença generalizada do BPA no ar, alimento e água usados pelos seres humanos bem como nos fluidos e tecidos corporais.

3.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(2): 163-169, Mar,-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153124

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of coconut water and to analyze the use of coconut water solution for the conservation of human corneas. Methods: This was an experimental and controlled study performed at the Eye Bank of the General Hospital of Fortaleza. The coconut water-based solution was prepared at the Goat Seed Technology Laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the State University of Ceará. Discarded corneas from the Eye Bank were divided into two groups for sequential experiments: G1, coconut water-based solution (experimental group), and G2, conservative treatment with OPTISOL GS® (control group). The osmolality of corneas in G1 was analyzed sequentially at 275, 300, 325, 345, 365, and 400 mOsm/L. The viability of the corneas was determined by specular microscopy and biomicroscopy on the first, third, and seventh days. Results: Corneas preserved in a solution of 365 and 345 mOsm/L had a transparency of 8 mm until the third day and had diffuse edema in the periphery, central folds, and partial epithelium loss until the seventh day. The 365-mOsm/L solution was associated with the worst results during follow-up. Corneas placed in Optisol-GS retained their original aspects. Conclusions: Coconut water-based preservative partially maintained corneal transparency and epithelial integrity, especially during the first three days of follow-up. The coconut water-based solutions used were not effective for use as preservatives in a human eye bank.


RESUMO Objetivos: As características físico-químicas e o baixo custo da água de coco foram fundamentais para o este estudo. Analisar o uso de solução a base de água de coco como meio de conservação de córneas humanas em banco de olhos. Métodos: Estudo experimental e controlado realizado no Banco de Olhos do Hospital Geral de Fortaleza. Utilizou-se solução à base de água de coco preparada no laboratório de Tecnologia de Sêmen de Caprinos do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Estadual do Ceará. Foram usadas córneas de descartes divididas em dois grupos: G1 (Conservante com água de coco) - grupo experimental e G2 (grupo Conservante com OPTISOL GS®) grupo controle, em experimentos sequenciais. A osmolaridade do G1 foi analisada sequencialmente com 275, 300, 325, 345, 365 e 400 mOsm/L. A viabilidade das córneas foram realizadas por microscopia especular e biomicroscopia nos 1º, 3º e 7º dias. Resultados: As córneas em solução de 365 e 345 mOsm/L apresentavam transparência nos 8mm centrais até o 3º dia, com edema em toda periferia, dobras centrais e edema 2+, com perda parcial do epitélio até 7º dia, sendo o de maior osmolaridade com melhor transparência durante o seguimento. Grupo com 275, 300 e 400 mOsm/L, córnea opaca, edema difuso, perda total do epitélio no 3º dia. As córneas em Optisol mantiveram seus aspectos. Conclusões: O conservante à base de água de coco manteve em parte a transparência corneana e a integridade epitelial, especialmente nos primeiros 3 dias de seguimento. A solução conservante com água de coco nas formulações utilizadas não se mostrou eficaz para o uso em banco de olhos humanos.

4.
Biochimie ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794341

RESUMO

Water transport in the brain is tightly controlled by blood-brain-barrier (BBB) composed of capillary endothelial cells expressing AQP1/AQP11 and glial foot processes expressing AQP4. Here we examined each AQP mRNA expression in acute hyponatremic and hypernatremic mouse models of wild type (WT) and AQP11 KO mice (KO). The expressions of AQP1, AQP4 and AQP11 mRNAs were quantified by real-time qRT-PCR analysis of whole brain RNA. Acute hyponatremia enhanced AQP4 expression without changing AQP1 expression in KO, whereas it did not change the expression of all AQPs in WT. On the other hand, acute hypernatremia increased AQP4 but decreased AQP1 expression by half in KO, whereas it decreased AQP1 and AQP11 by half without changing AQP4 expression in WT. Enhanced AQP4 expression by osmotic challenges with sodium in KO seems to be a compensation for the loss of AQP11. A stronger hypertonic stimulation with mannitol decreased all AQPs by 30-80% in WT. Since AQP4 plays an important role in the regulation of brain edema at BBB, the results suggest that AQP11 may also be involved in the osmotic regulation of the brain.

5.
JBJS Case Connect ; 11(2)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798119

RESUMO

CASE: A 25-year-old man presented with progressive pain and swelling of the left foot for 4 years. The images showed a contrast-enhanced mixed lesion (osteolytic and blastic) of the first metatarsal bone with surrounding soft-tissue edema. The differential diagnoses favored chronic osteomyelitis or neoplasia, most likely benign. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of osteoblastoma as immature bone trabeculae rimmed by osteoblasts appeared. Then, the patient was successfully treated with wide surgical excision of the first metatarsal bone and reconstruction using a nonvascularized fibular autograft. After 3 years of follow-up, the graft was well incorporated and no recurrence was encountered. CONCLUSION: Osteoblastoma is rare in metatarsals; only 12 cases have been reported. It may have similar clinical and radiological picture to osteomyelitis. Wide surgical excision followed by fibular autograft reconstruction is an effective treatment option.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6615685, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816617

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke, accompanied with high mortality and morbidity, may produce heavy economic burden to societies and families. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore effective therapies. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is a noninvasive, nondrug treatment method that has been proved able to save ischemic penumbra by improving hypoxia, microcirculation, and metabolism and applied in various ischemic diseases. Herewith, we fully evaluated the effect of HBO on ischemic stroke and investigated its potential mechanism in the rat ischemia/reperfusion(I/R) model. Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups-sham group, MCAO group, and MCAO+HBO group. In the latter two groups, the middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed (MCAO) for 2 hours, and then the occlusion was removed in order to establish the ischemic/reperfusion model. Subsequently, HBO was performed immediately after I/R (2 hours per day for 3 days). 72 hours after MCAO, the brain was dissected for our experiment. Finally, the data from three groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and followed by a Bonferroni test. In this article, we reported that HBO effectively reduced the infarction and edema and improved neurological functions to a certain extent. As shown by western blot analysis, HBO significantly reduced autophagy by regulating autophagy-related proteins (mTOR, p-mTOR, Atg13, LC3B II and LC3B II) in the hippocampus 72 hours after I/R, which was accompanied by inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in hippocampus. The results suggest that HBO may improve cerebral I/R injury, possibly via inhibiting HIF-1α, the upstream molecule of autophagy, and therefore, subsequently inhibiting autophagy in the rat model of ischemic stroke.

7.
Arch Razi Inst ; 76(1): 139-147, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818966

RESUMO

Iranian Naja oxiana (the Elapidae family) known as cobra snake inhabits in the northwestern part of Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the edematogenic potency of the crude venom with intraplantar injection into mice. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of three different drugs (i.e., promethazine, dexamethasone, and piroxicam) on paw edema were examined. Moreover, the gelatinase activity of this venom was assessed using the zymography method. Paw edema was induced by the intraplantar injection of different concentrations of the venom (0.5-5 μg dissolved in 50 μl of normal saline) into the mice (six in each group). It was estimated through the measurement of the increase in the paw thickness (%) with a digital caliper. The paws were pretreated and the rate of changes was measured after the venom injection. Pathological findings in the treated paws were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Paw thickness reached its maximum amount within 5 min and resolved after 1 h. This venom had no gelatinase activity using the zymography method ruling out its role in edema. It caused non-hemorrhagic diffuse edema with the infiltration of inflammatory cells (i.e., leukocytes and lymphocytes) in the dermis. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with drugs significantly inhibited the venom-induced (1 μg/paw) edema; however, all the mice died unexpectedly a day after piroxicam injection. This in vitro and in vivo preliminary study demonstrated for the first time that N. oxiana venom-induced non-hemorrhagic edema in a short time. Dexamethasone (phospholipase A2 inhibitor; 1 mg/kg) and promethazine (H1 inhibitor; 5 mg/kg) decreased the venom-induced edema (p <0.001). It is suggested to carry out further studies to identify different mediators in venom-induced edema formation.

8.
Dermatol Online J ; 27(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818987

RESUMO

Vulvar lesions are clinically challenging for physicians because the differential diagnosis may include many entities. Vulvar edema is one of the most frequent symptoms and is normally attributed to a local cause. Herein, we present a case report of vulvar Crohn disease (VCD) in a 9-year-old girl, in which skin lesions preceded the systemic gastrointestinal symptoms. Both clinical features and histopathological findings guided us to an early Crohn disease (CD) diagnosis. Dermatologists often have the opportunity to detect systemic diseases at early stages. A good knowledge of the CD skin manifestations could lead to an early CD diagnosis, especially in children. The suspicion of CD in those cases in which cutaneous involvement precedes digestive symptoms is crucial to prevent future psychological and physical consequences.

9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819174

RESUMO

Envenomation and death resulting from snakebites represent a significant public health problem worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The WHO has defined snakebite as a neglected tropical health concern. Bites from Macrovipera lebetina obtusa usually cause life-threatening systemic hemodynamic disturbances, reduced functionality of the kidneys, and other serious symptoms, including hypotension shock, edema, and tissue necrosis, at the bite site. Herein, we highlight five cases of M. l. obtusa envenomation that presented with wide-ranging manifestations. Many recovered cases were left with long-term musculoskeletal disabilities. In a particular case, a 15-year-old male patient was envenomed in his palm by an 80-cm M. l. obtusa. Within 12 hours, swelling extended to near the shoulder. Fasciotomy was performed on the forearm and part of the upper arm of this patient. Symptoms of severe localized pain and swelling, dizziness, weakness, low blood pressure, and itching around the bite area were documented. The patient remained in the hospital for 13 days.

10.
World Neurosurg ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: H3 K27M mutation in gliomas has prognostic implications. Previous MRI studies have reported variable rates of tumoral enhancement, necrotic changes and peritumoral edema in H3 K27M-mutant gliomas, with no distinguishing imaging features compared to wild-type gliomas. Herein, we aimed to construct MRI a machine-learning (ML)- based radiomic model to predict H3 K27M mutation in midline gliomas. METHODS: A total of 109 cases from three academic centers were included in this study. 50 cases had H3 K27M mutation and 59 were wild-type cases. Conventional MRI sequences (T1-W, T2-W, T2-FLAIR, post-contrast T1-W and ADC maps) were used for feature extraction. A total of 651 radiomics features per each sequence were extracted. Patients were randomly selected with a 7:3 ratio to create training (n = 76) and test (n= 33) data sets. An extreme gradient boosting algorithm, namely XGBoost, was used in ML-based model development. Performance of the model was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Pediatric patients accounted for a larger proportion of the study cohort (60 pediatric (55%) vs 49 adult (45%) patients). XGBoost with additional feature selection had an AUC of 0.791 and 0.737 in the training and test data sets, respectively. The model achieved accuracy, precision (positive predictive value), recall (sensitivity) and F1(harmonic mean of precision and recall) measures of 72.7%, 76.5%, 72.2% and 74.3%, respectively, in the test set. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-institutional study suggests that ML-based radiomic analysis of multi-parametric MRI images can be a promising noninvasive technique to predict H3 K27M mutation status in midline gliomas.

11.
J Int Med Res ; 49(4): 300060521990967, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820466

RESUMO

POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) syndrome is rare, with polyneuropathy and monoclonal plasma cell disorder generally considered as essential diagnostic symptoms. We report two cases of POEMS syndrome without monoclonal protein expression. The first case was a 72-year-old man who had experienced recurrent edema of the lower limbs for 2 years and abdominal distention for 2 months. The other case was a 62-year-old man with a 5-year history of recurrent numbness of the extremities and muscle weakness, which had become serious over the preceding 3 months. Both patients had various symptoms that matched those of POEMS syndrome, but neither had monoclonal protein expression. However, a diagnosis of POEMS syndrome was made in each case. Both patients were treated with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, after which their symptoms improved and laboratory test results normalized. The findings in these two cases suggest the possibility that POEMS syndrome may occur without monoclonal protein expression. The diagnostic criteria of POEMS syndrome may thus need further investigation.

13.
Radiology ; : 203651, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825511

RESUMO

Background Ischemic lesion net water uptake (NWU) at noncontrast head CT enables quantification of cerebral edema in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Purpose To assess whether favorable venous outflow (VO) profiles at CT angiography are associated with reduced NWU and good functional outcomes in patients with AIS due to LVO. Materials and Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study evaluated consecutive patients with AIS due to LVO who underwent thrombectomy triage between January 2013 and December 2019. Arterial collateral vessel status (Tan scale) and venous output were measured at CT angiography. Venous outflow was graded with use of the cortical vein opacification score, which quantifies opacification of the vein of Labbé, sphenoparietal sinus, and superficial middle cerebral vein. Favorable VO was regarded as a score of 3-6 and unfavorable VO as a score of 0-2. NWU was determined at follow-up noncontrast CT. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine the association between favorable VO profiles and NWU after treatment and good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale, ≤2). Results A total of 580 patients were included. Of the 580 patients, 231 had favorable VO (104 women; median age, 73 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 62-81 years]) and 349 had unfavorable VO (190 women; median age, 77 years [IQR, 66-84 years]). Compared with patients with unfavorable VO, those with favorable VO exhibited lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (median, 12.5 [IQR, 7-17] vs 17 [IQR, 13-21]), higher Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (median, 9 [IQR, 7-10] vs 7 [IQR, 6-8]), and less NWU after treatment (median, 7% [IQR, 4.6%-11.5%] vs 17.9% [IQR, 12.3%-22.2%]). In a multivariable regression analysis, NWU mean difference between patients with unfavorable VO and those with favorable VO was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.9, 7.3; P < .001) regardless of arterial CT angiography collateral vessel status (b coefficient, 0.72 [95% CI: -0.59, 2.03; P = .28]). Favorable VO (odds ratio [OR]: 4.1 [95% CI: 2.2, 7.7]; P < .001) and reduced NWU after treatment (OR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.73, 0.83]; P < .001) were independently associated with good functional outcomes. Conclusion Favorable venous outflow (VO) correlated with reduced ischemic net water uptake (NWU) after treatment. Reduced NWU and favorable VO were associated with good functional outcomes regardless of CT angiography arterial collateral vessel status. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

14.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; : 15459683211006337, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very early exercise has been reported to exacerbate motor dysfunction; however, its mechanism is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effect of very early exercise on motor recovery and associated brain damage following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. METHODS: Collagenase solution was injected into the left striatum to induce ICH. Rats were randomly assigned to receive placebo surgery without exercise (SHAM) or ICH without (ICH) or with very early exercise within 24 hours of surgery (ICH+VET). We observed sensorimotor behaviors before surgery, and after surgery preexercise and postexercise. Postexercise brain tissue was collected 27 hours after surgery to investigate the hematoma area, brain edema, and Il1b, Tgfb1, and Igf1 mRNA levels in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. NeuN, PSD95, and GFAP protein expression was analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: We observed significantly increased skillful sensorimotor impairment in the horizontal ladder test and significantly higher Il1b mRNA levels in the striatum of the ICH+VET group compared with the ICH group. NeuN protein expression was significantly reduced in both brain regions of the ICH+VET group compared with the SHAM group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that very early exercise may be associated with an exacerbation of motor dysfunction because of increased neuronal death and region-specific changes in inflammatory factors. These results indicate that implementing exercise within 24 hours after ICH should be performed with caution.

15.
J Artif Organs ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826034

RESUMO

Baseline cerebral regional saturation (rSO2) measured using the INVOS 5100C (Medtronic, MN, USA) varies widely among patients with cardiac and/or renal diseases. To identify significant correlates of baseline rSO2 and to investigate intraoperative rSO2 changes, we conducted a retrospective study in 494 patients undergoing on-pump cardiovascular surgery. Correlations between preoperative blood laboratory test variables and baseline rSO2 before anesthesia were examined. Intraoperative rSO2 changes were analyzed. Of all the variables examined, log-transformed B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) most significantly and negatively correlated with baseline rSO2 (r = - 0.652, p < 0.0001). Intraoperatively, rSO2 showed the lowest value during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (median rSO2: 56.2% during CPB vs. 63.9% at baseline, p < 0.0001). Although rSO2 during CPB correlated positively with hemoglobin concentration and oxygen delivery during CPB (r = 0.192, p < 0.0001; and r = 0.172, p = 0.0001, respectively), it correlated much more closely with baseline rSO2 (r = - 0.589, p < 0.0001). Thus, patients showing low baseline rSO2 primarily associated with preoperatively high BNP continued to show low rSO2 even during CPB independent of hemodynamics artificially controlled by CPB. Our findings suggest that low baseline rSO2 in patients with high BNP due to cardiac and/or renal diseases is more likely to result from tissue edema causing alterations in optical pathlength and thus in calculated rSO2 values, not readily modifiable with CPB, rather than actual cerebral hemodynamic alterations readily modifiable with CPB. These may partly explain why the INVOS oximeter is a trend monitor requiring baseline measures.

16.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a new retinoblastoma treatment associated with high rates of globe salvage that has been widely adopted for primary treatment of retinoblastoma but is less frequently used as secondary treatment for refractory retinoblastoma. This systematic review aims to summarize the reported outcomes of intra-arterial chemotherapy for refractory retinoblastoma. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies published on PubMed, Medline, and Embase from 2011 to 2021 reporting globe salvage rates following intra-arterial chemotherapy for secondary treatment of refractory retinoblastoma. RESULTS: Our search yielded 316 studies, and 24 met inclusion criteria. The 24 included studies were comprised of 1366 patients and 1757 eyes. Among these, 1184 (67%) eyes received secondary indication treatment, and globe salvage was achieved for 776 of these 1184 eyes (64%). Sixteen studies reported cannulation success rates from 71.8 to 100%. Pooled analysis of subjects revealed 21 patients (2.6%) with metastatic disease and 26 deaths (3%) during study follow-up periods (7-74 months). The most common ocular complications were vitreous hemorrhage (13.2%), loss of eyelashes (12.7%), and periocular edema (10.5%). The most common systemic complications were nausea/vomiting (20.5%), neutropenia (14.1%), fever (8.2%), and bronchospasm (6.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial chemotherapy is associated with high rates of globe salvage and low rates of serious complications in patients with refractory retinoblastoma. Unfortunately, current literature is predominantly comprised of retrospective case studies, and further high-quality evidence is necessary to inform clinical practice.

17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826180

RESUMO

Nerve root enlargement with increased contrast uptake has been reported in dogs and humans secondary to nerve root compression. In cats, nerve root enlargement and contrast uptake only have been reported in association with inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, but not as a sequela to nerve root compression. An 8-year-old oriental short hair cat was presented with acute neurologic deficits consistent with left-sided sciatic nerve deficit and possible L6-S1 myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and identified compression of the cauda equina and L7 nerve root associated with intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) at L6-L7 as well as widespread sciatic nerve enlargement with moderate rim enhancement. A hemilaminectomy was performed to evacuate herniated disc material. The nerve root was biopsied and submitted for histological evaluation. Interstitial nerve edema was diagnosed. Follow-up MRI 3 months postoperatively showed complete remission of the changes. Nerve root thickening together with contrast enhancement may represent nerve edema in cats secondary to IVDH.

18.
J Vet Intern Med ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonographically detected gallbladder wall edema (GBWE) is a marker for anaphylaxis in dogs. Cardiac disease can cause GBWE with similar signs and should be included as a differential diagnosis to prevent interpretation errors. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Document GBWE associated with cardiac disease. ANIMALS: Fourteen client-owned animals. METHODS: Prospective case series with abdominal focused assessment with abdominal sonography in trauma, triage and tracking (AFAST), and thoracic focused assessment with abdominal sonography in trauma, triage, and tracking (TFAST) performed at triage. Animals with GBWE and cardiac disease were enrolled. A board-certified radiologist reviewed images to confirm cardiac disease, GBWE, and characterize the caudal vena cava (CVC) and hepatic veins. RESULTS: Thirteen dogs and 1 cat had GBWE associated with cardiac disease. Gallbladder findings included mural thickness ranging from 3 to 5 mm, mild to moderate sludge (n = 3), and mild to moderate luminal distension (n = 6). CVC and hepatic venous distension were found in 5/6. Cardiac diagnoses in dogs included 11 with pericardial effusion (PCE) and 1 each with dilated cardiomyopathy and right-sided myocardial failure. Severity of PCE was rated as mild (n = 1), moderate (n = 6), or severe (n = 4). Seven of 11 had pericardiocentesis performed. Nine of 13 had ascites with 4 having abdominal fluid scores of 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 2), 3 (n = 1), and 4 (n = 0). Lung ultrasound findings were as follows: dry lung (n = 6), B-lines (n = 4), and nodules (n = 1). The cat had moderate PCE, ascites scored as 1, and severe right-sided ventricular enlargement associated with a ventricular septal defect. Primary presenting complaints included acute weakness (n = 9), acute collapse (n = 5), gastrointestinal signs (n = 3), respiratory distress (n = 2), and need for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Ultrasonographically detected GBWE was associated with PCE in this small cohort of cases.

19.
Hand Surg Rehabil ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812083

RESUMO

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is both a limb-and life-threatening disease that affects skin, hypodermis as well as superficial fascia and deep fascia by rapidly progressive necrosis. Although this serious infection frequently occurs in the extremities, upper limb NF is a rare clinical presentation. The present study attempted to evaluate the clinical profiles, paraclinical findings, treatment modalities, outcomes and predictors of morbidity and mortality in patients with NF of the upper extremity. The validity of the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotising Fasciitis (LRINEC) scoring system was also assessed. Nineteen patients who were treated between January 2010 and December 2019 for NF of the upper extremity were eligible for this study. Data including demographics, clinical signs, paraclinical findings, treatment and outcomes were collected retrospectively from our medical records. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze predictive factors for mortality and morbidity. The mean age was 62 years, with a male predominance. The most common comorbidity was diabetes mellitus (42%). Main clinical manifestations were pain (79%), tense edema (79%) and a large infiltrated swollen erythematous plaque (58%). Severe sepsis and septic shock were identified in 32% and 21% of patients, respectively. Thirteen of our 19 patients (68%) were identified as having a high or intermediate likelihood of NF based of the LRINEC scoring system, while the other 6 (32%) were classified as having low likelihood. All patients received systemic broad spectrum antibiotic therapy in addition to surgical debridement. Two patients (10%) died and one (5%) required amputation. Mortality was associated with septic shock (p = 0.006), delay in surgery >24 h (p = 0.018), creatininemia >141 mmol/l (p = 0.018) and LRINEC score ≥ 8 (p = 0.035). Otherwise, anemia (p = 0.021), hypercreatininemia (p = 0.001) and delayed surgical debridement (p = 0.001) were risk factors for morbidity and mortality. The surviving patients underwent reconstructive surgery (skin grafting after wound preparation by using vacuum therapy) with positive outcome. Early diagnosis coupled with emergent surgical debridement and broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic therapy are the keystones of a successful outcome. The LRINEC score was not strongly correlated to the true diagnosis of NF and was a prognostic tool rather than a diagnostic one.

20.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 456-461, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of domestic imatinib (made in China) in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia chronic phase(CML-CP). METHODS: Fifty-seven newly diagnosed CML-CP patients who did not receive any other anti-CML treatment were treated by domestic imatinib 400 mg once a day. The hematological, cytogenetic and molecular reactions and safety were observed and evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were treated for ≥3 and 6 months, among which 50 patients were treated for ≥12 months. After 3 months of treatment, 49 patients underwent hematological examination, 47 patients (95.9%) achieved complete hematological response (CHR), 49 patients underwent cytogenetic examination, 39 patients (79.6%) achieved major cytogenetic response (MCyR), and 12 patients (24.5%) achieved complete cytogenetic response (CCyR). 49 patients underwent the level of BCR-ABL test, including 41 patients (83.7%) with BCR-ABLIS≤10%, and 5 patients (10.2%) with major molecular response (MMR: BCR-ABLIS ≤ 0.1%). After 6 months of treatment, 49 patients underwent hematological examination, and 49 patients (100%) all achieved CHR. 49 patients underwent cytogenetic examined, of which 41 cases (83.7%) obtained MCyR and 31 cases (65.3%) obtained CCyR. 49 patients underwent the level of BCR-ABL test, among which 33 patients (67.4%) showed BCR-ABLIS≤1%, and 15 patients(30.6%) reached MMR. After 12 months of treatment, 45 patients underwent hematological examination, and all the patients (100%) got CHR. 45 patients underwent cytogenetic examined, of which 41 cases (91.1%) obtained MCyR and 35 cases (77.8%) obtained CCyR. 45 cases were tested for BCR-ABL level, and 24 cases (55.3%) reached MMR. The incidence of grade Ⅲ leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia were 14.0%, 8.7% and 10.5%, respectively. Non-hematological adverse reactions were edema (64.9%), nausea (50.9%), vomiting (35.1%), rash (24.5%), fever (15.8%), bone and joint muscle pain (38.6%), diarrhea(17.6%) and liver function damage (3.5%). There were no grade IV hematological and non-hematological adverse reactions. CONCLUSION: In the real world, Domestics imatinib mesylate is effective and safe in the treatment of newly diagnosed CML-CP patients, but long-term follow-up data are still necessary to verify its long-term efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , China , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...