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1.
J Voice ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The valleculae can be seen as a pair of side branches of the human vocal tract like the piriform fossae. While the acoustic properties of the piriform fossae have been explored in detail, there is little evidence of full exploration of the acoustic properties of the valleculae. A recent investigation (Vampola, Horácek, & Svec, 2015), using a finite element model of a single vowel /a/, suggests that the valleculae created two antiresonances and two resonances in the high frequency region (above 4kHz) along with those produced by the piriform sinuses. In the current study, we investigate, in multiple vowels, the acoustic influences of the valleculae in singing voice, using 3-D printed vocal tracts. METHOD: MRI data were collected from an operatic tenor singing English vowels /a/, /u/, /i/. The images of each vowel were segmented and edited to create a pair of tracts, where one is the original and one had the valleculae digitally removed.The printed tracts were then placed atop a vocal tract organ loudspeaker, excited by white noise. Recordings were made with a microphone placed in front of the mouths of the tracts, to measure their frequency responses. RESULTS: Dimensional changes were observed in valleculae of different vowels, with the long-term average spectra of the recordings illustrating clear differences between the frequency responses of the va-nova (valleculae - no valleculae) pairs, which varies with vowels. CONCLUSION: The experiment demonstrates the dynamic1 nature of the shapes of the valleculae in the human vocal tract and its acoustic consequences. It provides evidence that the valleculae have similar acoustic properties to the piriform fossae but with larger variations, and in some cases can influence acoustically the frequency region below 4kHz. The results suggest that large volume valleculae have the potential to impede to some extent the acoustic effect of the singers formant cluster and small valleculae may do the reverse. Since the volume of the valleculae is observed to be largely dependent on tongue movement and also with changes to the uttered vowel, it can be assumed that the high frequency energy, including that within the singer's formant region, could be vowel dependent. Strategies to control valleculae volumes are likely to be highly relevant to voice pedagogy practice as well as singing performance.

2.
Head Neck Pathol ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428065

RESUMO

Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lesion seen in severely immunocompromised patients especially, those with concomitant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It has been rarely reported in immunocompetent patients. OHL most often presents on the lateral border of the tongue as an asymptomatic, white, and corrugated plaque that does not rub off. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, the University of Florida Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology Biopsy Service archives spanning 1994-2020 were queried. All cases of OHL affecting immunocompetent patients were identified. Data related to age, gender, clinical presentation, results of Epstein-Barr virus in situ hybridization (EBER-ISH), and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-fungus stains were recorded. Medical history and histology of all cases were reviewed for confirmation of diagnosis. A total of 11 cases were identified, the majority of which were males (63.6%) with a mean age of 62 years. All patients were Caucasian. Lesions entirely were located on the lateral borders of the tongue. OHL should not be considered pathognomonic for HIV infection and should be included in the differential diagnoses of keratotic lesions affecting the lateral border of tongue even in immunocompetent elderly patients. The etiology of OHL in this group of patients is not clearly understood.

3.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(2): 108-112, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031494

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A case of infusion-related angioedema associated with the use of an infliximab biosimilar (infliximab-abda) is reported in order to bring awareness that this adverse effect is still highly possible in biosimilars, similar to the reference infliximab biologic. SUMMARY: A 37-year-old white male with a past medical history significant for ileocolonic fistulizing Crohn's disease, depression, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) presented to an emergency department with shortness of breath, urticaria, and tongue swelling that had developed shortly after initiation of an infusion of infliximab-abda. The patient had no documented allergies at the time of presentation. The patient was taking oral budesonide 9 mg daily and oral azathioprine 50 mg daily for treatment of Crohn's disease. Other medications included oral omeprazole 40 mg every morning for GERD and oral sertraline 100 mg daily for depression. The patient's tongue swelling worsened, and he was intubated for airway protection. The patient received supportive care treatment for angioedema with intravenous (IV) dexamethasone 8 mg every 8 hours, IV diphenhydramine 50 mg every 8 hours, and IV famotidine 20 mg every 12 hours. He was extubated approximately 43 hours later and observed overnight in a medical intensive care unit. He was transferred to a general medicine unit the next day for further care. The total hospital length of stay was 4 days. CONCLUSION: A 37-year-old man developed infusion-related angioedema with use of infliximab-abda. Discontinuation of the biosimilar product along with supportive care brought about resolution of angioedema. There are no prior published reports of infusion-related angioedema reactions secondary to infliximab-abda use.

4.
Food Chem ; 343: 128499, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160776

RESUMO

This study investigated the chemical compounds and umami characteristics of chicken nuggets using spent meat (SM) enriched with milkfat (MF) and potato mash (PM). Four different spent nuggets (SNs) i.e. T1 (75% SM, 5% MF), T2 (70% SM, 8% MF, 2% PM), T3 (65% SM, 11% MF, 4% PM), and T4 (60% SM, 14% MF, 6% PM) were developed and compared with control using broiler chicken muscles (without MF and PM). Most abundant volatiles were trimethyldodecane, camphene, 5-ethyl-2,2,3-trimethylheptane, 3,6-dimethylundecane, 2,2,4-trimethylheptane, and α-pinene, and their intensities were highest for T2. Umami-taste characteristics were better explained by partial least squares regression (PLS-R) than other taste variables assessed by electronic tongue. T2 and T3 had higher 5'-nucleotides (GMP, AMP, ADP) and umami-taste amino acids (aspartic and glutamic acids) resulting in increased equivalent umami concentration than the control, T1, and T4. This study may be useful for the egg industries to utilize spent hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Carne/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Animais
5.
Neuroreport ; 32(1): 23-28, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN) degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) from the perspective of the clinical neurological examination and MRI-electromyography manifold detection, respectively. METHODS: The clinical data, cortical thickness of corresponding areas in different body regions in MRI and electromyography data were collected from 108 classical ALS patients. RESULTS: The kappa value of UMN and LMN involvement signs in the bulbar region (0.31) was higher than that of the left upper limb (-0.13), right upper limb (-0.27), left lower limb (-0.05) and right lower limb (-0.08). The cortical thickness in the positive LMN damage group was thinner than that of the negative LMN damage group in the left head-face area (P < 0.05; Cohen's d = 0.84); however, cortical thickness showed no significant differences in the right head-face, bilateral tongue-larynx, upper-limb, trunk and lower-limb areas between LMN-damage-positive and LMN-damage-negative groups. CONCLUSION: The degeneration of motor neuron could be independent through UMN and LMN levels. The degenerative process was not only confined to UMN and LMN levels but can also expand to white matter fiber tracts. Thus, the degeneration of UMN and LMN might be independent of the motor system's three-dimensional anatomy.

6.
J Cutan Pathol ; 48(1): 66-71, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to analyze the histopathologic aspects of cases diagnosed as chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (CHC) in an oral pathology service, pointing out the most important features found. METHODS: All cases histopathologically diagnosed as CHC between 2002 and 2018 were retrieved from the files of the service. Data of the patients and the lesions were collected. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the microscopic characteristics and the amount of Candida present. RESULTS: Thirty-six cases of CHC were retrieved. Women were more affected and there was a predilection for Whites. Most lesions appeared as a nodule or a white plaque, asymptomatic, on the tongue or buccal mucosa. Histopathologically, statistical significance was noted for the presence of epithelial hyperplasia, exocytosis, and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Interestingly, only the association between dysplasia and the amount of fungus was noted. CONCLUSIONS: CHC appears to be a distinct entity presenting typical histopathologic aspects. CHC might even show epithelial dysplasia. In those cases, the presence of a large amount of Candida together with other histopathological features should lead to the diagnosis of CHC and subsequent treatment. However, close follow up is important.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23547, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371079

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics and viral shedding kinetics of asymptomatic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).The data of 38 asymptomatic patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid were collected from February to March 2020 in Tuanfeng County, Huanggang, Hubei, China. The epidemiology, laboratory examination, chest imaging, viral nucleic acid test results, clinical characteristics, and viral shedding time were summarized in this retrospective study.The study included 20 family members of patients with COVID-19, 10 medical personnel participating in COVID-19 treatment or working in a fever clinic, 6 personnel from quarantine places, 1 individual with a close contact history with confirmed patients, and 1 local epidemic prevention personnel. All were positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. The white blood cell (WBC) count, the absolute value of lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were normal. Pneumonia manifestations were not found in the chest computed tomography (CT) scan of 36 patients; the remaining 2 cases included a 1-year-old child and a pregnant woman, and they did not undergo chest CT. The viral shedding time was 6 days.All asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 had a history of close contact or exposure. Laboratory tests were normal. Chest imaging did not show any pneumonia manifestation. The viral shedding time was <10 days, which is shorter than that of patients with COVID-19. A timely discovery of such asymptomatic infections is crucial for blocking the spread of the virus and strengthening the prevention and control measures.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas/terapia , /diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Lactente , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Head Neck ; 2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign connective and soft-tissue neoplasms (CSTNs) are unusual in the head and neck region. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the demographic and clinicopathological features of these neoplasms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted of cases diagnosed as benign CSTNs, with data collected from biopsy records. The chi-square test was used. A p-value <0.05 was considered indicative of statistical significance. RESULTS: Among the 38 119 specimens, 1066 (2.79%) were benign CSTNs: 369 fibroblastic/myofibroblastic, 250 adipocytic, 179 vascular, 130 neural, 94 osseous/cartilaginous, 19 muscular, and two fibrohistiocytic. Most patients were female (62.8%) and white-skinned (45.8%). Mean age was 42 years. The tongue (25.2%) was the most affected site for extraosseous neoplasms. CONCLUSION: This study had the largest sample of benign oral and maxillofacial CSTNs. Although these tumors have similar clinical features, the characterization and differentiation detailed here may help clinicians with regards to the correct diagnosis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270102

RESUMO

Importance: Persistent obstructive sleep apnea after adenotonsillectomy is common in children with Down syndrome or obesity. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy could help to identify anatomic differences in these patients that might affect surgical decision-making. Objective: To assess drug-induced sleep endoscopy findings in surgically naive children with obstructive sleep apnea with obesity or Down syndrome and compare these findings with children without obesity or Down syndrome. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional analysis of data from a prospective cohort study of patients enrolled between May 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019, was conducted at an academic tertiary care children's hospital and included a consecutive sample of surgically naive children (age 2-18 years) who underwent drug-induced sleep endoscopy at the time of adenotonsillectomy for sleep-disordered breathing. Indications for sleep endoscopy included severe sleep apnea, age older than 7 years, obesity, African American race, and Down syndrome. Exposures: Drug-induced sleep endoscopy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sleep endoscopy findings were scored according to the Sleep Endoscopy Rating Scale. Ratings at 6 anatomic levels for children with obesity and those with Down syndrome were compared with controls without obesity or Down syndrome using several measures of effect size (Cohen d, Cramer V, and η2). Results: A total of 317 children (158 girls [50%]; 219 [69%] White, 20 [6%] Black, and 103 [34%] Hispanic; mean [95% CI] age, 9.6 [9.2-10.0] years) were included, of whom 115 (36%) were controls without obesity or Down syndrome, 179 (56%) had obesity without Down syndrome, and 23 (7%) had Down syndrome. The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 16 (95% CI, 13-19), and the mean minimum O2 saturation was 83% (95% CI, 81%-85%). Compared with controls without obesity or Down syndrome, children with Down syndrome demonstrated greater overall obstruction (mean sleep endoscopy rating scale total score of 5.6 vs 4.8; Cohen d, 0.46), and greater tonsillar (percentage of complete obstruction: 65% vs 54%), tongue base (percentage of complete obstruction: 26% vs 12%), and arytenoid obstruction (percentage of at least partial obstruction, 35% vs 6%). Children with obesity had greater tonsillar (percentage of complete obstruction, 74% vs 54%) and less base of tongue obstruction (percentage of complete obstruction, 2% vs 12%) compared with controls. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, surgically naive children with obesity with obstructive sleep apnea had predominantly tonsillar obstruction, whereas children with Down syndrome demonstrated greater obstruction of the tonsils, tongue base, and arytenoids compared with controls. Routine drug-induced sleep endoscopy should be considered in surgically naive children with Down syndrome to help inform the surgical plan.

10.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 357, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this cross-sectional study we investigated the oral mucosal changes in a middle-aged Finnish population. We analyzed the prevalence of potentially malignant disorders and the influence of smoking, snuff and alcohol use on the mucosal changes. METHODS: Of the 12,068 members of the NFBC 1966, a total of 1961 participants (16.2%) constituted the study population. Mucosal changes were diagnosed and photographed by seven general dentists, and two specialists re-analyzed all the diagnoses based on the documentation Cross-tabulation with Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Of the participants, 10.5% had some mucosal changes, of which 81.8% were diagnosed as oral mucosal lesions (OML) and 18.2% as normal variations. Of the normal variations, the most common were Fordyce granules (1.2%), fissured tongue (1.1%) and geographic tongue (0.9%). The most common OMLs were white lesions (6.5%), of which oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid reactions (OLR), grouped as oral lichenoid diseases, were present in 3.5%, males more often (3.8% vs. 3.1%). OLP was found in 1.5% of all participants, females more often (1.8% vs. 1.2%), while OLR was more common in males (2.7% vs. 1.3%). Leukoplakia was identified in 0.5% of the population; twice more often in males (0.6% vs. 0.3%). Erythroplakia was not found. Current smokers had higher risk for oral mucosal changes than former or non-smokers (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.11-4.28), and snuff, used occasionally or regularly, also raised the risk (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.48-4.70). CONCLUSIONS: In the middle-aged northern Finland population, 4% of OMLs were potentially malignant disorders, including OLR (2%), OLP (1.5%) and leukoplakia (0.5%). In particular, smoking and snuff use increased the risk for having any oral mucosa changes.

11.
PeerJ ; 8: e10268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240621

RESUMO

The persistence of colour polymorphism (CP) within a given population is generally associated with the coexistence of alternative reproductive strategies, each one involving specific trade-offs among behavioural, morphological, physiological, and other life histories. Common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis), is a medium-sized diurnal lizard, showing CP in three main colours (yellow, white, and red) on throat and belly, and a morph-specific pattern for both immunocompetence and seasonal variation of T levels. Yellow males show low stamina with high plasma T levels at the beginning of the season, while white males show high stamina with a higher plasma T levels at the end of the season. We hypothesised the presence of two strategies: a risky one, characterised by high aggressiveness played by yellow-morph, and a conservative one by white morph with low aggressiveness. Thus, we tested the aggressive response to conspecifics of yellow and white morphs using a mirror inserted into their cage, mimicking an intrusion of a stranger in their territories, throughout the breeding season (from April to July, 117 trials). We considered three types of aggressive response, with different levels of aggressiveness: (i) bite against the image reflected in the mirror, (ii) seconds spent by the individuals into the half mirrored cage, and (iii) number of times the lizard entered the half mirrored cage. We also considered the number of tongue flicking as explorative behaviour variable. All lizards were tested after a period of acclimatisation to the captivity conditions. Results demonstrate that yellow males showed a higher aggressive response in the early season and a decrease aggressive response towards the end, whereas white males showed an opposite pattern.

12.
J Biophotonics ; : e202000324, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131174

RESUMO

Multimodal low-cost endoscopy is highly desirable in poor resource settings such as in developing nations. In this work, we developed a smartphone-based low-cost, reusable tethered capsule endoscopic platform that allows white-light, narrowband, and fluorescence/autofluorescence imaging of the esophagus. The ex-vivo studies of swine esophagus were performed and compared with a commercial endoscope to test the white-light imaging capabilities of the endoscope. The efficacy of the capsule for narrow-band imaging was tested by imaging the vascularization of the tongue. To determine the autofluorescence/fluorescence capability of the endoscope, fluorescein dye with different concentrations was imaged. Furthermore, swine esophagus injected with fluorescein dye was imaged using the fluorescence/autofluorescence and the white-light imaging modules, ex-vivo. The overall cost of the capsules is approximately 12 €, 15 €, and 42 € for the white light imaging, the narrow-band imaging, and the fluorescence/autofluorescence imaging respectively. In addition, the cost of the laser source module required for the narrow-band imaging and the fluorescence/autofluorescence imaging is approximately 218 €. This device will open the possibility of imaging the esophagus in underprivileged areas.

13.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 341, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease characterized by adult predominance and a prolonged course. However, it is rare in the pediatric population with familial aggregation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old boy presented with pain and irritation on the oral mucosa while contacting spicy food for 2 months. Oral examination showed widespread whitish reticular and papular lesions on the lips, the dorsum of the tongue, and bilateral buccal mucosa, with diffuse erosions covered with pseudomembrane on the buccal mucosa. The boy's parents were examined to exhibit white reticular and plaque-like lesions on their oral mucosa. The three patients were clinically diagnosed as affected by OLP and histopathologically confirmed. The boy underwent topical treatment with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor (rb-bFGF) gel, and oral lesions gradually resolved and healed. Neither of his parents received treatment. During the subsequent follow-ups, none of three patients underwent any medical treatment. Fortunately, their lesions had almost faded over 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our case emphasizes that pediatric OLP should be recorded with family history. Besides, long-term periodic follow-up is recommended in pediatric patients with OLP for monitoring any changes in lesions.

14.
Oral Oncol ; : 105082, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187825

RESUMO

Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) are used after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in order to boost the graft-versus-tumor effect. The most significant toxicity is acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), whose clinical symptoms mirror those occurring after HSCT. By contrast, oral acute GVHD lesions have been exceptionally described post-DLI. We report on a monocenter cohort of 12 adult patients that developed oral acute GVHD after DLI. The majority was treated for acute myeloid leukemia. A total of 29 DLI treatments were applied and the median time between the last DLI and the oral mucosal lesions was 42 days. Most patients presented these oral lesions concomitant with skin lesions and none of them had exclusive oral involvement. Oral lichenoid changes were observed in 11 patients, including plaque-like lesions and/or reticulated white streaks consistent with Wickham's striae, affecting mainly the buccal mucosa and dorsal or lateral aspects of the tongue. Mucosal histopathological findings showed a patchy-to-florid lichenoid interface dermatitis for 3 biopsied patients. Eight patients also experienced salivary gland changes. The treatment of oral lesions included high- to very high-potency topical corticosteroids in the majority of patients. Oral GVHD lesions have seldom been described after DLI, and only exceptionally in an acute setting. Our results are not consistent with those reported in the literature evaluating GVHD after DLI. In fact, oral acute GVHD lesions post-DLI appeared very common and similar to the oral lichenoid reactions of chronic GVHD following HSCT. The main limitations of this work are its retrospective design and the relatively small sample size.

15.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 49(8): 822-828, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This observational case-control study was designed to investigate the frequency of oral lesions in psoriatic patients and to identify an association between mucosal involvement, the severity of the disease, and a form of treatment. METHODS: One hundred twenty-seven patients diagnosed with psoriasis were enrolled in this study from November 2018 to September 2019. The oral mucosa evaluation was based on the clinical appearance, location, and morphology of the lesions. All patients completed a general medical history and a Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. The severity of skin involvement was assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scale. RESULTS: The most common oral lesions in patients with psoriasis were found to be fissured (FT), white coated (CT), and geographic tongue (GT). A significantly lower prevalence of GT was evident in the group managed with a new class of biological drugs and smokers. There appeared to be no association between the oral manifestation and the PASI score. FT appeared significantly more often in patients that experienced an extremely large effect of psoriasis on their quality of life as determined by the DLQI questionnaire and smokers. Only 25% of patients presented normal oral mucosa. CONCLUSIONS: Tongue lesions seem to be associated with skin psoriasis regardless of the treatment. The severity of the disease, according to the PASI scale, does not influence mucosal involvement. The type of treatment may affect the prevalence of oral lesions. Further investigations are required to confirm the influence of biological therapies on mucosal improvement.


Assuntos
Glossite Migratória Benigna , Psoríase , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Glossite Migratória Benigna/epidemiologia , Humanos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2020(10): rjaa348, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072254

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are the leading cause of drug-induced angioedema, being the face, tongue, lips and upper airway the most affected ones. We describe a case of a 32-year-old white female with angioedema of small intestine after 1 month of perindopril therapy. The patient presented severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Laboratory analyses revealed mild leukocytosis and abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed unspecific findings, including segmental jejunal wall thickening without obstruction and ascites. Regarding the clinical findings, similar to an acute abdomen with no clear cause, the patient underwent an emergency laparoscopy that excluded other pathological features. The symptoms recurred 1 month after and the CT scan revealed the same pattern. Perindopril was stopped and the patient improved, concluding that ACE inhibitor-induced visceral angioedema was responsible for this clinical presentation.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066329

RESUMO

This prospective study monitored the dental status, the presence of plaque, and cariogenic microorganism levels of identical children over three years. The aim was to determine the dynamics of caries increment as well as the relationship between risk factors and caries prevalence. A total number of 125 children (72 boys and 53 girls) was included in the study, with an average age of 3.95 ± 0.06 years at the baseline. During the clinical examination at the nursery schools, the presence of dental plaque was recorded, and saliva samples were collected from the tongue of children for the DentoCult SM test providing easy detection of mutans streptococci from saliva samples. At baseline, 65.6% of the children had no caries, 4% had restored teeth with fillings or crowns or missing teeth due to caries, and 30.4% had at least one untreated caries. The percentages of intact teeth, restored or missing teeth, and untreated caries were 52.8%, 8.8%, 38.4% in the second year and 49.1%, 13.8%, and 31.1% in the third year. The dmft index value was 1.41 ± 0.24 in the first year, 2.29 ± 0.30 in the second year, and 2.33 ± 0.31 in the third year. There was a significant correlation between plaque presence and dt and dmft values (p < 0.05; the statistical analyses were performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). This 3-year longitudinal study highlighted the importance of examining both the oral hygiene and the level of cariogenic microorganisms when undertaking the evaluation of caries risk evaluation in preschool children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Restauração Dentária Permanente/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 8(4)2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081131

RESUMO

A retrospective observational study using an oral bacteria counter was conducted to evaluate the trends in the number of oral bacteria in the perioperative period of lung cancer patients and to verify the relationship between oral health status and postoperative fever. All patients received perioperative oral management (POM) by oral specialists between April 2012 and December 2018 at Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Kagawa, Japan prior to lung cancer surgery. Bacteria counts from the dorsum of the tongue were measured on the day of pre-hospitalization, pre-operation, and post-operation, and background data were also collected retrospectively. In total, 441 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Bonferroni's multiple comparison test showed significantly higher oral bacteria counts at pre-hospitalization compared to pre- and post-operation (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that body mass index, performance status, number of housemates, number of teeth, and white blood cell count at pre-operation were significantly associated with postoperative fever. The study showed that POM can reduce the level of oral bacterial counts, that the risk of postoperative complications is lower with dentulous patients, and that appropriate POM is essential for prevent of complications. Therefore, POM may play an important role in perioperative management of lung cancer patients.

19.
Oral Dis ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence of oral lesions and the impact of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on individuals with psoriasis. METHODS: This case-control study comprised 295 individuals with psoriasis and 359 controls. Oral examination to assess different types of oral lesions as angular cheilitis (AC), geographic tongue (GT), white (WP), and red plaque or red macule (RPM) was performed. To evaluate OHRQoL, the Oral Impact on Daily Performance (OIDP) questionnaire was applied. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared, Fisher, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Bootstrap Intervals tests. RESULTS: Individuals with psoriasis had significantly more oral lesions than controls (OR = 3.66, 95% CI: 2.33-5.85; p < .001) and higher global OIDP scores (12.17 case versus 6.93 controls; p = .008). Higher occurrence of GT (p < .001) and AC (p < .001) was observed in individuals with psoriasis. The final multivariate model demonstrated higher OIDP scores related to the following variables: alcohol use, diabetes, anxiolytics use, AC, and GT, showing worse OHRQoL. CONCLUSION: Psoriatic individuals had a higher frequency of AC and GT than controls. Worse OIDP scores in frequency and severity were observed in psoriatic individuals with oral lesions, revealing the negative impacts of these lesions on OHRQoL.

20.
J Cancer Educ ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068265

RESUMO

Patient knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms associated with oral cancers is crucial for increasing the likelihood of patient presentation for opportunistic screening and reducing delay in patient appraisal for early detection. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of oral cancer and to ascertain socio-demographic factors that influence knowledge amongst adult dental patients attending public clinics in Brisbane, Australia. A convenience sample of 213 adult dental patients who attended the Herston and Stafford public health clinics in Brisbane, Australia, between July and August 2019 participated in the self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors for oral cancer knowledge. Patients were well informed of smoking as a risk factor (n = 135; 84.4%), whereas only 53.8% (n = 82) of participants agreed that heavy alcohol consumption was a risk factor. A larger proportion of participants identified difficulty of moving the tongue (n = 79; 49.4%) and pain on swallowing (n = 72; 45.0%) compared to the proportion who identified fixed red patches (n = 61; 38.1%) and fixed white patches (n = 57; 35.6%) as a sign or symptom. Education level and gender were significant knowledge predictors for alcohol (p = 0.01), old age (p = 0.008) and family history (p = 0.004) as a risk factors for oral cancer. Those with a family history of cancer were more likely to identify a red patch (p = 0.02), bleeding gums (p = 0.001) and altered sensation (p = 0.023) as a sign or symptom of oral cancer. Overall, patient knowledge was greater for risk factors than for signs and symptoms for oral cancer. Symptoms associated with later stages of cancer were recognised by a greater proportion of patients compared to early stages of oral cancer. These results indicate the need for targeted public health initiatives to improve patient knowledge.

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