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1.
Environ Int ; 129: 423-429, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152983

RESUMO

The European Food Safety Authority concluded in February 2018 that "most uses of neonicotinoid insecticides represent a risk to wild bees and honeybees". In 2016, the French government passed a law banning the use of the five neonicotinoids previously authorized: clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid and thiacloprid. In the framework of an expert assessment conducted by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety to identify possible derogations, we performed a thorough assessment of the available alternatives to the five banned neonicotinoids. For each pest targeted by neonicotinoids use, we identified the main alternative pest management methods, which we then ranked for (i) efficacy for controlling the target pest, (ii) applicability (whether directly useable by farmers or in need of further research and development), (iii) durability (risk of resistance in targeted pests), and (iv) practicability (ease of implementation by farmers). We identified 152 authorized uses of neonicotinoids in France, encompassing 120 crops and 279 pest insect species (or genera). An effective alternative to neonicotinoids use was available in 96% of the 2968 case studies analyzed from the literature (single combinations of one alternative pest control method or product × one target crop plant × one target pest insect). The most common alternative to neonicotinoids (89% of cases) was the use of another chemical insecticide (mostly pyrethroids). However, in 78% of cases, at least one non-chemical alternative method could replace neonicotinoids (e.g. microorganisms, semiochemicals or surface coating). The relevance of non-chemical alternatives to neonicotinoids depends on pest feeding habits. Leaf and flower feeders are easier to control with non-chemical methods, whereas wood and root feeders are more difficult to manage by such methods. We also found that further field studies were required for many promising non-chemical methods before their introduction into routine use by farmers. Our findings, transmitted to policymakers, indicate that non-chemical alternatives to neonicotinoids do exist. Furthermore, they highlight the need to promote these methods through regulation and funding, with a view to reducing pesticide use in agriculture.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/química , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , França , Controle de Insetos/legislação & jurisprudência , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 15(5): 714-725, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144769

RESUMO

Pesticide regulation requires regulatory authorities to assess the potential ecological risk of pesticides submitted for registration, and most risk assessment schemes use a tiered testing and assessment approach. Standardized ecotoxicity tests, environmental fate studies, and exposure models are used at lower tiers and follow well-defined methods for assessing risk. If a lower tier assessment indicates that the pesticide may pose an ecological risk, higher tier studies using more environmentally realistic conditions or assumptions can be performed to refine the risk assessment and inform risk management options. However, there is limited guidance in the United States on options to refine an assessment and how the data will be incorporated into the risk assessment and risk management processes. To overcome challenges to incorporation of higher tier data into ecological risk assessments and risk management of pesticides, a workshop was held in Raleigh, North Carolina. Attendees included representatives from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Department of Agriculture, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, universities, commodity groups, consultants, nonprofit organizations, and the crop protection industry. Key recommendations emphasized the need for 1) more effective, timely, open communication among registrants, risk assessors, and risk managers earlier in the registration process to identify specific protection goals, address areas of potential concern where higher tier studies or assessments may be required, and if a higher tier study is necessary that there is agreement on study design; 2) minimizing the complexity of study designs while retaining high value to the risk assessment and risk management process; 3) greater transparency regarding critical factors utilized in risk management decisions with clearly defined protection goals that are operational; and 4) retrospective analyses of success-failure learnings on the acceptability of higher tier studies to help inform registrants on how to improve the application of such studies to risk assessments and the risk management process. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2019;15:714-725. © 2019 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).


Assuntos
Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Guias como Assunto , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Medição de Risco/normas , Estados Unidos
3.
Environ Pollut ; 250: 883-891, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085474

RESUMO

This article contains a brief overview of the European and Spanish environmental law framework for the prevention of soil contamination, for the management of contaminated soils and for consumers health protection in relation to agricultural crops. Some important aspects of the legislative framework for the prevention and management of soil contamination include recognising the possible risk to both human health and ecosystems that certain agricultural and industrial activities pose given the use of organic and inorganic chemical substances of a hazardous nature and pathogenic microorganisms. It is worth highlighting the milestone that many national constitutions include about the right to the environment. This right entails the obligation to protect it and to, therefore, protect soil from any degradation, including contamination. Legislation that protects soil from contamination and, consequently human health and ecosystems, is related mainly to agricultural activities (use of sewage sludge on farmlands, use of wastewater for irrigation, use of organic fertilisers and pesticides), and to industrial and commercial soil-contaminating activities. Consumer protection may be achieved through a legal system of environmental liability, specific measures to prevent contaminants entering soil, managing contaminated soils and a food traceability system. It is crucial to make the penalties for soil contamination offenses, and for violators of protective prohibitions, effective, proportionate and dissuasive. Global standards and guidelines on soil contamination could provide national legislative systems with substantive and procedural legal mechanisms to help prevent and manage soil contamination.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Solo , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Esgotos/química , Solo/química , Solo/normas , Espanha
4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(10): 2575-2591, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study compares standard regulatory methodology (fixed scenarios and models) to spatial modelling at a 1 km landscape resolution for the evaluation of predicted environmental concentrations of pesticides in groundwater. The use of spatial modelling in the decision-making processes is discussed and three options for the sub-national evaluation and restriction of substances based on spatial environmental fate modelling are examined. Wheat and sugar beet are tested with two modified FOCUS substances (A and D) in the PEARL and GeoPEARL models. The 80th percentile value in time and space, aggregated to three different sub-national divisions of interest to a regulator, is used as a regulatory relevant output. RESULTS: Means and medians of predicted environmental concentrations at the national level are not useful summary statistics in the age of extensive and freely available geospatial data. A better statistic to use is the P80 (or other desired threshold/percentile combination) in time and space of predicted environmental concentration, combined with flexible and adaptable sub-divisions of the country based on the desired protective target. CONCLUSION: Tier 3b modelling is shown to provide an increase in localism and regulatory nuance over Tier 1 scenarios when combined with soil and aquifer type sub-national units. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Água Subterrânea/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Triticum , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisões , Modelos Teóricos , Medição de Risco/legislação & jurisprudência , Análise Espacial , Reino Unido
5.
Toxicol Sci ; 167(1): 45-57, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476307

RESUMO

The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) coordinates international efforts to enhance developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. In most regulatory sectors, including the ones dealing with pesticides and industrial chemicals registration, historical use of the in vivo DNT test guideline has been limited. Current challenges include a lack of DNT data and mechanistic information for thousands of chemicals, and difficulty in interpreting results. A series of workshops in the last decade has paved the way for a consensus among stakeholders that there is need for a DNT testing battery that relies on in vitro endpoints (proliferation, differentiation, synaptogenesis, etc.) and is complemented by alternative species (eg, zebrafish) assays. Preferably, a battery of in vitro and alternative assays should be anchored toward mechanistic relevance for applying an integrated approach for testing and assessment (IATA) framework. Specific activities have been initiated to facilitate this OECD project: the collation of available DNT in vitro methods and their scoring for readiness; the selection of these methods to form a DNT testing battery; the generation of a reference set of chemicals that will be tested using the battery; the case studies exemplifying how DNT in vitro data can be interpreted; and the development of an OECD guidance document. This manuscript highlights these international efforts and activities.


Assuntos
Alternativas aos Testes com Animais , Guias como Assunto , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Sociedades Científicas , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Consenso , Programas Governamentais , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Formulação de Políticas
6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(3): 578-582, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216628

RESUMO

Pests and diseases are a continuous challenge in agriculture production. A wide range of control strategies have been and will continue to be developed. New control strategies are in almost all countries around the world assessed prior to approval for use in farmers' fields. This is rightly so to avoid and even reduce negative effects for human health and the environment. Over the past decades the approval processes have become increasingly politicized resulting in an increase in the direct approval costs and the length in approval time without increasing the safety of the final product. This reduces the development of control strategies and often has negative human health and environmental effects. Possibilities exist for improvements. They include reducing approval costs and approval time by streamlining the approval process and substituting approval requirements by strengthening ex-post liability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle de Pragas/legislação & jurisprudência , Praguicidas/economia , Praguicidas/normas , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Controle Biológico de Vetores/economia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/legislação & jurisprudência , Plantas
7.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 2): 1253-1278, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389383

RESUMO

Pesticide residues in groundwater, mainly transported from contaminated soil, may threaten drinking water sources and cause adverse health effects. Therefore, pesticide groundwater standards were implemented by international environmental agencies to ensure the quality of groundwater, which serves as the direct drinking water source in many countries. However, regulatory inconsistencies are always found among groundwater, soil, drinking water, and even health standards due to the lack of communication among the regulatory processes. This study first developed a health-based regulatory chain framework to analyze pesticide groundwater regulations integrating soil, drinking water, and health regulations. Six regulatory indexes associated with probabilistic risk assessments and pesticide transport modeling were constructed to evaluate the performance of pesticide groundwater regulations identified from 56 countries. Worldwide pesticide groundwater regulations were analyzed by quantifying the impact on the downstream (exposure pathways in general) pesticide drinking water standards and human health and the influence from upstream (environmental pathways in general) soil regulations. The results indicated that in general, worldwide pesticide soil regulations do not encompass a sufficient number of pesticides or provide appropriate standard values to be compatible with groundwater regulations. The computed indexes between pesticide groundwater and drinking water regulations indicated more positive results than soil regulations because most European nations have groundwater regulations that are compatible with those of drinking water. However, most pesticide groundwater regulations could not protect human health according to the health-based indexes. Hopefully, the regulatory framework developed in this study will help environmental agencies comprehensively evaluate and establish pesticide groundwater regulations.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/normas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/normas , Solo , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
8.
Fed Regist ; 83(204): 53179-82, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358958

RESUMO

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is adopting as final an interim final rule published on June 19, 2015, to amend its adjudication regulation governing individuals presumed to have been exposed to certain herbicides. Specifically, VA expanded the regulation to include an additional group consisting of individuals who performed service in the Air Force or Air Force Reserve under circumstances in which they had regular and repeated contact with C-123 aircraft known to have been used to spray an herbicide agent ("Agent Orange") during the Vietnam era. In addition, the regulation established a presumption that members of this group who later develop an Agent Orange presumptive condition were disabled during the relevant period of service, thus establishing that service as "active military, naval, or air service." The effect of this action is to presume herbicide exposure for these individuals and to create a presumption that the individuals who are presumed exposed to herbicides during reserve service also meet the statutory definition of "veteran" (hereinafter, "veteran status") for VA purposes and eligibility for some VA benefits.


Assuntos
Agente Laranja/efeitos adversos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/legislação & jurisprudência , Definição da Elegibilidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde dos Veteranos/legislação & jurisprudência , Veteranos/legislação & jurisprudência , Herbicidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 296: 10-22, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006252

RESUMO

The ongoing debate concerning the regulation of endocrine disruptors, has increasingly led to questions concerning the current testing of chemicals and whether this is adequate for the assessment of potential endocrine disrupting effects. This paper describes the current testing approaches for plant protection product (PPP) active substances in the European Union and the United States and how they relate to the assessment of endocrine disrupting properties for human and environmental health. This includes a discussion of whether the current testing approaches cover modalities other than the estrogen, androgen, thyroid and steroidogenesis (EATS) pathways, sensitive windows of exposure, adequate assessment of human endocrine disorders and wildlife species, and the determination of thresholds for endocrine disruption. It is concluded, that the scope and nature of the core and triggered data requirements for PPP active substances are scientifically robust to address adverse effects mediated through endocrine mode(s) of action and to characterise these effects in terms of dose response.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Regulamentação Governamental , Legislação como Assunto/tendências , Toxicologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Toxicologia/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 23(1): 27, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor insecticides (AChEIIs) were used extensively in the agrarian region of Anuradhapura for the past few decades. As a result, the region faced a heightened risk of toxicity. Carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and fenthion were the five hazardous AChEIIs banned from Anuradhapura in 2014. Assessment of post-ban trends in acute poisoning will reveal the impact of the ban. Data on availability and sales of remaining AChEIIs will guide towards preventive measures against related toxicities. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at Anuradhapura district of Sri Lanka. Details related to acute AChEII poisoning were sorted from the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura. Main insecticide vendors in Anuradhapura were surveyed to find information on availability and sales of AChEIIs. Chi-square for goodness of fit was performed for trends in acute poisoning and sales. RESULTS: Hospital admissions related to acute AChEII poisoning have declined from 554 in 2013 to 272 in 2017. Deaths related to acute AChEII poisoning have declined from 27 in 2013 to 13 in 2017. Sales of all five banned AChEIIs had reduced by 100%. Sales of the remaining AChEIIs were declining, except for acephate, phenthoate, and profenofos. However, one of the top selling, most frequently abused carbosulfan, had the highest risk of toxicity. Chi-square for goodness of fit showed a significance (P < 0.001) between the trends of hospital admissions for acute AChEII poisoning and the sales related to AChEIIs. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital admissions related to acute poisoning was declining along with the overall sales of remaining AChEIIs, during the post-AChEII ban period. Nevertheless, future vigilance is needed on the remaining AChEIIs to predict and prevent related toxicities.


Assuntos
Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Inibidores da Colinesterase/envenenamento , Comércio/tendências , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Hospitalização/tendências , Inseticidas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/classificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/provisão & distribução , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Inseticidas/classificação , Inseticidas/provisão & distribução , Masculino , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Envenenamento/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
11.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 30(5): 299-304, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In March 2017, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reversed course on a proposal to ban the agricultural use of the organophosphate (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). The purpose of this article is to examine the evidence leading to this controversial decision and provide clinically applicable health promotion guidance for nurse practitioners on CPF exposure and risk reduction measures. METHODS: Environmental Protection Agency documents on CPF regulation and corresponding research referenced within the EPA reports are reviewed. Evidence-based health promotion strategies obtained through PubMed, CINAHL, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institutes of Health sources are summarized. CONCLUSIONS: Available data suggest a potential association between CPF exposure and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Particularly vulnerable populations are pregnant women, children younger than two years, and agricultural workers. There may be genetic variability in susceptibility to environmental toxins. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Because of the extensive use of the OP CPF in agriculture and other community-based settings throughout the United States, nurse practitioners should be knowledgeable of the evidence regarding CPF exposure and be prepared to provide health promotion guidance to patients in clinical practice. Nurse practitioners should also consider their role in advocacy for healthy environments and the protection of vulnerable populations as it relates to agricultural insecticide exposure.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Agricultura/instrumentação , Agricultura/métodos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Organofosfatos/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency/legislação & jurisprudência , United States Environmental Protection Agency/organização & administração
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 639: 438-456, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800838

RESUMO

Most agencies around the world have developed a separate regulation frameworks for pesticides with different modes of action, likely because of the lack of a uniform quantification for health damage, which may underestimate pesticides' impact on human health and disease burden. In this study, the disability-adjusted life-year, a uniform metric used to express the human health impact and damage, was used to measure theoretical health damage resulting from maximum exposure as permitted by law to the most widely used pesticides. The total human risk characterization factors computed from chlorpyrifos and diazinon standard values through main exposure routes are generally larger than that of other widely used pesticides, and most factors of chlorpyrifos exceed the upper bounds of health risk. In addition, the damages to human health quantified from soil legal exposure to these widely used pesticides are much lower than that from exposure to drinking water or foods, which could help derive exposure allocation factors for different exposure routes. A total of 412 (28.3% of the total) computed total risk characterization factors of the 13 pesticides exceed the upper bound of tolerable risk uncertainty. Some nations, such as those in Europe, have adopted uniform and strict pesticide standard values as well as some computed risk characterization factors presented in the consensus data cluster. In addition, the results of an analysis on the geographical distribution of health risk characterization factors indicated that European nations have provided more conservative pesticide standard values in general. It is hoped that regulatory agencies can apply this uniform metric to compare and formulate legal limits for pesticides that have different modes of action.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Praguicidas , Clorpirifos , Diazinon , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(1): 175-184, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024951

RESUMO

Background: Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. Methods: We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000. We assessed contemporaneous trends in other risk factors, pesticide usage and agricultural production in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2014. Results: Mortality in hospital from pesticide poisoning fell after the 2000 ban: 15.1% vs 9.5%, relative reduction 37.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.4 to 38.8%]. The pesticide poisoning suicide rate fell from 6.3/100 000 in 1996 to 2.2/100 000 in 2014, a 65.1% (52.0 to 76.7%) decline. There was a modest simultaneous increase in hanging suicides [20.0% (8.4 to 36.9%) increase] but the overall incidence of unnatural deaths fell from 14.0/100 000 to 10.5/100 000 [25.0% (18.1 to 33.0%) decline]. There were 35 071 (95% CI 25 959 to 45 666) fewer pesticide suicides in 2001 to 2014 compared with the number predicted based on trends between 1996 to 2000. This reduction in rate of pesticide suicides occurred despite increased pesticide use and no change in admissions for pesticide poisoning, with no apparent influence on agricultural output. Conclusions: Strengthening pesticide regulation and banning WHO Class I toxicity HHPs in Bangladesh were associated with major reductions in deaths and hospital mortality, without any apparent effect on agricultural output. Our data indicate that removing HHPs from agriculture can rapidly reduce suicides without imposing substantial agricultural costs.


Assuntos
Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Rev Environ Health ; 33(2): 123-134, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that pesticide production and use have increased continuously in the countries of Southeast Asia in recent years. Within the context of protecting the safety and health of workers in the agricultural sector, there is an existing gap in the implementation of the pesticide management framework because safety and health effects arising from occupational exposures continue to be reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide narrative similarities, differences and weaknesses of the existing pesticide management system in Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) within the context of occupational safety and health. METHODS: This is preliminary traditional review study. Pesticide regulation and management at the country level were identified using web-based search engines such as Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Google. Book, reports, legislation document and other documents retrieved were also gathered from international organizations and specific websites of governmental agency in Southeast Asian countries. The scope of this review is only limited to literature written in English. In total, 44 review articles, reports and documents were gathered for this study. The approach of pesticide management in protecting safety and health in the agricultural setting were benchmarked according to the elements introduced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, namely, (1) the protection of workers and (2) the practice of safety. RESULTS: All countries have assigned a local authority and government organization to manage and control pesticide use in the agricultural sector. The countries with the highest usage of pesticide are Thailand, Philippines and Malaysia. Most Southeast Asian countries have emphasized safety practice in the management of pesticide usage, but there were less emphasis on the element of protection of workers within the framework in Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. CONCLUSION: The governing bodies in the countries of Southeast Asia have placed significant effort to develop framework related to pesticide management at the country level. The implementation of pesticide management based on the existing framework is evident in most of the countries but needs to be improved. It is suggested that emphasis be given to the implementation of diagnosis, health surveillance and reporting system as well as following or adopting standard guidelines for the protection of workers in terms of safety and health in the agricultural sector.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Praguicidas , Ásia Sudeste , Fazendeiros/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 57: 53-61, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197707

RESUMO

Petitions submitted to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have sought to cancel registrations of chlorpyrifos and to revoke chlorpyrifos tolerances in or on food due to adverse health effects on people. Under federal law, tolerances for pesticide chemical residues in or on food must provide with reasonable certainty that no harm will result from a person's aggregate exposure. Petitioners' claims are analyzed under the legal requirements to discern whether the EPA had a rational basis for issuing its 2017 Chlorpyrifos Order denying the requests for cancellation of registrations and revocation of tolerances. The scientific evidence considered by the EPA indicated that existing tolerances do not protect people from unsafe levels of chlorpyrifos. Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, tolerances need to be revoked if they do not protect human health. In refusing to recognize that chlorpyrifos tolerances do not comply with federal law, the EPA's 2017 Chlorpyrifos Order appears to be arbitrary and capricious.


Assuntos
Regulamentação Governamental , Praguicidas/toxicidade , United States Environmental Protection Agency/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
16.
PLoS Biol ; 15(12): e2003671, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29267272

RESUMO

Strong evidence now supports the notion that organophosphate pesticides damage the fetal brain and produce cognitive and behavioral dysfunction through multiple mechanisms, including thyroid disruption. A regulatory ban was proposed, but actions to end the use of one such pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in agriculture were recently stopped by the Environmental Protection Agency under false scientific pretenses. This manuscript describes the costs and consequences of this policy failure and notes how this case study is emblematic of a broader dismissal of scientific evidence and attacks on scientific norms. Scientists have a responsibility to rebut and decry these serious challenges to human health and scientific integrity.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Regulamentação Governamental , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , United States Environmental Protection Agency/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Políticas , Estados Unidos
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 33(7): e00181016, 2017 Jul 27.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767963

RESUMO

This article aims to contribute to a reflection on pesticides, based on the Brazilian legal framework, from the perspective of protecting human health and the environment. This initiative is due to successive attempts to flexibilize the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, through bills of law in progress in the Brazilian National Congress. An analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015 was carried out. This bill of law represents a major setback to the legislative achievements for the regulation of pesticides, in order to alert to the risks to human health from exposure to these products and aggravated by other similar proposals.


Assuntos
Legislação de Medicamentos/normas , Praguicidas/normas , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Brasil , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737697

RESUMO

Abstract: The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human exposure pathways.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Ambiental , Regulamentação Governamental , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Risco
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 189(7): 310, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28585037

RESUMO

Diazinon is an organophosphorus insecticide that has been widely used in the USA and in California resulting in contamination of surface waters. Several federal and state regulations have been implemented with the aim of reducing its impact to human health and the environment, e.g., the cancellation of residential use products by the USEPA and dormant spray regulations by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. This study reviewed the change in diazinon use and surface water contamination in accordance with the regulatory actions implemented in California over water years 1992-2014. We observed that use amounts began declining when agencies announced the intention to regulate certain use patterns and continued to decline after the implementation of those programs and regulations. The reduction in use amounts led to a downward trend in concentration data and exceedance frequencies in surface waters. Moreover, we concluded that diazinon concentrations in California's surface waters in recent years (i.e., water years 2012-2014) posed a de minimis risk to aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Diazinon/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , California , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , Poluição Química da Água/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Malar J ; 16(1): 162, 2017 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434407

RESUMO

Vector control is a task previously relegated to products that (a) kill the mosquitoes directly at different stages (insecticides, larvicides, baited traps), or (b) avoid/reduce human-mosquito contact (bed nets, repellents, house screening), thereby reducing transmission. The potential community-based administration of the endectocide ivermectin with the intent to kill mosquitoes that bite humans, and thus reduce malaria transmission, offers a novel approach using a well-known drug, but additional steps are required to address technical, regulatory and policy gaps. The proposed community administration of this drug presents dual novel paradigms; first, indirect impact on the community rather than on individuals, and second, the use of a drug for vector control. In this paper, the main questions related to the regulatory and policy pathways for such an application are identified. Succinct answers are proposed for how the efficacy, safety, acceptability, cost-effectiveness and programmatic suitability could result in regulatory approval and ultimately policy recommendations on the use of ivermectin as a complementary vector control tool.


Assuntos
Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Anopheles
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