Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 229
Filtrar
1.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2019-11. (PAHO/NMH/19-018).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51715

RESUMO

[Executive summary]. Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major driver of morbidity and mortality in the Region of the Americas. They represent a major public health challenge that undermines social and economic development. The WHO Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013-2020, endorsed by the 66th World Health Assembly, provides a road map and a menu of policy options. It recognizes implementing taxes on unhealthy products associated with NCDs—namely tobacco, alcoholic beverages, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)—as one of the most cost-effective regulatory policies to prevent NCDs. Although, the World Health Organization (WHO) does calculate and publish biennially a standardized and comparable indicator on tobacco taxation for all Member States, it does not count with comparable measurements of taxation on alcoholic beverages and SSBs. Such measurements are necessary to monitor tax policies, analyze trends and establish best practices in using taxation for NCD prevention. Since 2016, the Department of Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health (NMH) of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) has worked towards addressing the gap measuring progress on alcoholic beverages and SSBs taxation in the Americas. NMH collected country-level information on prices as well as tax legislation and developed a methodology for calculating a tax share indicator. This indicator, estimating the share of total and excise taxes in the price of alcoholic beverages and SSBs, was calculated for ten countries. In order to receive feedbacks on its proposed methodology, discuss the progress and challenges in monitoring and evaluating taxation policies, and establish a roadmap to periodically collect tax legislation and prices and calculate the tax share for alcoholic beverages and SSBs in the Americas, NMH convened researchers and ministries of finance personnel for a two-day meeting in July 2018, in Washington D.C. The participants provided inputs on how to strengthen the proposed tax share indicator to adequately capture the intricacies, unique characteristics, and regional consumption patterns of these products. These valuable inputs will help to improve the methodology and facilitate future efforts to develop a standardized and comparable tax share indicator for alcoholic beverages and SSBs.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alimentos e Bebidas , Planos e Programas de Saúde
2.
Int J Drug Policy ; 74: 112-115, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New Zealand's alcohol law reforms aimed to give communities greater control over alcohol availability. We investigated whether community participation in local liquor licensing increased and why people did not participate. METHODS: We invited 4000 randomly selected residents to complete a questionnaire in 2014 about their views on alcohol in their community, participation in local alcohol decision-making, alcohol consumption, and experience of alcohol-related harm. In 2017, we surveyed a new sample of 4000 residents, and invited the 2014 respondents to complete a follow-up questionnaire. RESULTS: Response fractions were 44% in 2014 (n = 1657) and 37% in 2017 (n = 1376) for population surveys, and 61% (n = 887) for follow-up. Cross-sectional comparisons showed no marked change in proportions reporting ever having participated in alcohol policy development (4.9% in 2014 versus 5.1% in 2017), or who objected to a licence application in the preceding year (1.0% versus 1.4%). Longitudinal comparisons also suggested little change. The most common reasons 2017 respondents gave for not participating were not knowing where to start (39%), lack of time (36%), and needing more information (32%), and this order was similar in 2014. CONCLUSION: Public participation in local liquor licencing is low and it has not increased substantially under the new legislation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação da Comunidade , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Nova Zelândia , Formulação de Políticas , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e027320, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cumulative impact zones (CIZs) are a widely implemented local policy intended to restrict alcohol availability in areas proliferated with licensed outlets. Limited previous research has questioned their effectiveness and suggested they may play a more nuanced role in shaping local alcohol environments. This study evaluates the association between CIZ implementation and the number of licence applications made, and the number issued, relative to a control region. DESIGN: A quantitative observational study. SETTING: The inner London Borough of Southwark, which currently enforces three CIZs. POPULATION: Licence applications received by Southwark Council's Licensing Authority between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2017 (n=1254). INTERVENTIONS: CIZ implementation. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Five outlet types were categorised and evaluated: drinking establishments, eateries, takeaways, off sales and other outlets. Primary outcome measures were the number of applications received and the number of licences issued. These were analysed using Poisson regression of counts over time. RESULTS: Across all CIZs, implementation was associated with greater increases in the number of eateries in CIZ regions (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.58, 95% CI: 1.02-2.45, p=0.04) and number of takeaway venues (IRR=3.89, 95% CI: 1.32-11.49, p=0.01), relative to the control area. No discernible association was found for the remaining outlet types. Disaggregating by area indicated a 10-fold relative increase in the number of new eateries in Peckham CIZ (IRR=10.38, 95% CI: 1.39-77.66, p=0.02) and a fourfold relative increase in the number of newly licensed takeaways in Bankside CIZ (IRR=4.38, 95% CI: 1.20-15.91, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: CIZs may be useful as policy levers to shape local alcohol environments to support the licensing goals of specific geographical areas and diversify the night-time economy.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio , Violência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/métodos , Comércio/organização & administração , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Políticas de Controle Social , Violência/prevenção & controle , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a major risk factor in premature death and disability, especially among youth. Evidence-based policies to prevent and control the detrimental effect of alcohol use have been recommended. In countries with weak alcohol control policies-such as Lebanon, stakeholder analysis provides critical information to influence policy interventions. This paper assesses the views of stakeholders regarding a national alcohol harm reduction policy for youth. METHODS: We interviewed a total of 22 key stakeholders over a period of 8 months in 2015. Stakeholders were selected purposively, to include representatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations and industry that could answer questions related to core intervention areas: affordability, availability, regulation of marketing, and drinking and driving. We analyzed interview transcripts using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three themes emerged: Inadequacy of current alcohol control policies; weak governance and disregard for rule of law as a determinant of the status quo; and diverting of responsibility towards 'other' stakeholders. In addition, industry representatives argued against evidence-based policies using time-worn strategies identified globally. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that alcohol harm reduction policies are far from becoming a policy priority in Lebanon. There is a clear need to shift the narrative from victim blaming to structural conditions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Redução do Dano , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Cerveja , Dirigir sob a Influência , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Indústrias , Líbano , Marketing , Organizações , Participação dos Interessados
5.
Int J Drug Policy ; 73: 185-198, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Muslim majority countries (MMCs) typically have limited alcohol policy development due to Islamic prohibition of alcohol consumption. In response to recent increases in alcohol consumption and related harms, MMCs have introduced civil alcohol policies, ranging from total prohibition to European-style regulations. Using Iran as a case study, we describe how alcohol prohibition is translated into policy in the face of influences from globalisation. METHODS: We collected information from publicly available literature and policy documents, because of the sensitivity of the topic of alcohol in Iran. The search was conducted in English and Persian. We verified information through consultations with policy actors. We also reviewed newspapers over periods just before the 1979 Islamic revolution, and before and after the 2011 alcohol policy (2008-2010; 2014-2016) was introduced. We analysed policy content based on WHO policy recommendations and used the Walt & Gilson health framework to identify policy content, context, actors and process. RESULTS: Despite its broad approach of civil prohibition with concessions for the non-Muslim population, Iran has developed approaches to reduce the harmful impacts of alcohol and adopted nine of ten policy interventions recommended by WHO. Pricing policy was the only intervention not used. We identified contextual challenges, such as resources, stigma and cultural offence that influence policy development. CONCLUSION: MMCs face challenges in creating civil alcohol policies. Iran has taken steps, including a national alcohol strategy, to reduce alcohol-related harms. The socio-cultural, governance and historical context have shaped Iran's adaptation of policy interventions recommended by WHO.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Islamismo , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Irã (Geográfico) , Formulação de Políticas
6.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(7): 520-528, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381805

RESUMO

In response to Mexico's burgeoning industrial epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes, triggered in part by sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages' ability to readily market their products and influence consumption, the government has responded through a variety of non-communicable disease (NCD) policies. Nevertheless, major industries, such as Coca-Cola, have been able to continuously obstruct the prioritization of those policies targeting the consumption, marketing and sale of their products. To better understand why this has occurred, this article introduces a political science agenda-setting framework and applies it to the case of Coca-Cola in Mexico. Devised from political science theory and subsequently applied to the case of Coca-Cola in Mexico, my framework, titled Institutions, Interests, and Industry Civic Influence (IPIC), emphasizes Coca-Cola's access to institutions, supportive presidents and industry efforts to hamper civic mobilization and pressures for greater regulation of the soda industry. Methodologically, I employ qualitative single case study analysis, combining an analysis of 26 case study documents and seven in-depth stake-holder interviews. My proposed analytical framework helps to underscore the fact that Coca-Cola's influence is not solely shaped by the corporation's increased economic importance, but more importantly, its access to politicians, institutions and strategies to divide civil society. Additionally, my proposed framework provides several real-world policy recommendations for how governments and civil society can restructure their relationship with the soda industry, such as the government's creation of laws prohibiting the industry's ability to influence NCD policy and fund scientific research.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Política , Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comércio/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , México , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 665, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health policy is inevitably associated with either a strong presence or lack of public support. We investigated factors associated with both the public support of and opposition to health taxes and the media regulation regarding advertising harmful products in Korea. METHODS: We interviewed 1200 respondents that were recruited using an equal-probability sampling method in accordance with the 2016 Korean census. Our investigation examined the extent of support and opposition towards health taxes and the media regulation of advertising that targets the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy foods according to socioeconomic characteristics, health habits, body mass index (BMI), and exposure to the advertising of harmful products. The study was conducted using a univariate and stepwise multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority (71.8%) of the respondents were supportive of imposing health taxes in general. Despite a high prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption among the respondents, they strongly supported media regulation of tobacco (72.3%), alcohol (63.7%), and eating broadcasts (51.9%) food advertising (44.0%). Those that were non-smokers, earned a high-income, were married, or had a child were likely to support at least one kind of regulation regarding alcohol and smoking related advertising. An exposure to excessive advertising of unhealthy products was associated with increase of respondents supporting the media regulation. Those who regarded the media as being influential seemed to be more supportive of health taxes or media regulation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated strong public support among the respondents for health taxes and the media regulation regarding the advertising of unhealthy products. Based on our data, we are optimistic that countries whose population show a high rate of tobacco, alcohol or unhealthy food consumption may launch public policy in addressing these factors.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/legislação & jurisprudência , Opinião Pública , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 810, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harmful alcohol use is a modifiable risk factor contributing to the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases and deaths and the implementation of policies focused on primary prevention is pivotal to address this challenge. Policies with actions targeting the harmful use of alcohol have been developed in Nigeria. This study is an in-depth analysis of alcohol-related policies in Nigeria and the utilization of WHO Best Buy interventions (BBIs) and multi-sectoral action (MSA) in the formulation of these policies. METHODS: A descriptive case study design and the Walt and Gilson framework of policy analysis was utilized for the research. Components of the study included a scoping review consisting of electronic search of Google and three online databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct and PubMed) to identify articles and policy documents with no language and date restrictions. Government institution provided documents which were not online. Thirteen policy documents, reports or articles relevant to the policy formulation process were identified. Other components of the study included interviews with 44 key informants (Bureaucrats and Policy Makers) using a pretested guide. The qualitative data were coded and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Findings revealed that policy actions to address harmful alcohol use are proposed in the 2007 Federal Road Safety Act, the Non-communicable Diseases Prevention and Control Policy and the Strategic Plan of Action. Only one of the best buy interventions, (restricted access to alcohol) is proposed in these policies. Multi-sectoral action for the formulation of alcohol-related policy was low and several relevant sectors with critical roles in policy implementation were not involved in the formulation process. Overall, alcohol currently has no holistic, health-sector led policy document to regulate the marketing, promotion of alcohol and accessibility. A major barrier is the low government budgetary allocation to support the process. CONCLUSIONS: Nigeria has few alcohol-related policies with weak multi-sectoral action. Funding constraint remains a major threat to the implementation and enforcement of proposed policy actions.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Prevenção Primária/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Humanos , Nigéria , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 46, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa is considered to have the highest prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) globally. Nevertheless, the extent to which the South African government has responded to the high FASD prevalence at the policy level is unclear. Herein, we aimed to identify targeted and generic clauses that could be attributed to the prevention and management of FASD in relevant South African policy documents. METHODS: We conducted a search of two search engines (PubMed and Google) and the websites of South African national and provincial departments from January to April 2018. A total of 33 policy documents were included in this review. Using content analysis, we sought documents that mention the terms 'fetal alcohol syndrome' and 'fetal alcohol spectrum disorder'. The Framework method was also used to thematically identify specific and generic clauses attributed to the prevention and management of FASD in South Africa. RESULTS: The content analysis indicated that 12 policy documents contained the searched terms. Findings from the thematic analysis showed that targeted and generic clauses for FASD exist in various policy documents. Some of the generic clauses focused on the regulation of liquor outlets, enforcement of liquor laws, and the general management of persons with mental and educational challenges. Specific clauses focused on creating platforms to improve the awareness, screening, identification and support for individuals with FASD. CONCLUSIONS: There is a noticeable increase in the number of policy documents that considered elements of FASD enacted in the last decade. Although this study revealed the existence of targeted and generic clauses that could be attributed to the prevention and management of FASD, the sustained high prevalence of FASD in South Africa, as reported in the literature, calls for more holistic and comprehensive approaches to tackle the FASD problem in South Africa.


Assuntos
Documentação , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/terapia , Governo , Política de Saúde , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/complicações , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/prevenção & controle , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 490, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 6th April 2018, the UK Government introduced the Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) as a mechanism designed to address increasing prevalence of obesity and associated ill health by reducing sugar consumption. Given that the successful introduction of upstream food and nutrition policies is a highly political enterprise involving multiple interested parties, understanding the complex network of stakeholders seeking to influence such policy decisions is imperative. METHODS: Media content analysis was used to build a dataset of relevant newspaper articles, which were analysed to identify stakeholder agreement or disagreement with defined concept statements. We used discourse network analysis to produce visual representations of the network of stakeholders and coalitions evident in the debate as it was presented in UK newspapers, in the lead up to and following the announcement of the Soft Drinks Industry Levy in the UK, from May 2015 to November 2016. RESULTS: Coding identified 3883 statements made by 214 individuals from 176 organisations, relating to 47 concepts. Network visualisations revealed a complex network of stakeholders with clear sceptical and supportive coalitions. Industry stakeholders appeared less united in the network than anticipated, particularly before the SDIL announcement. Some key industry actors appeared in the supportive coalition, possibly due to the use of corporate social responsibility rhetoric. Jamie Oliver appeared as a dominant stakeholder, firmly embedded with public health advocates. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the complexity of the network of stakeholders involved in the public debate on food policies such as sugar tax and the SDIL. Polarisation of stakeholders arose from differences in ideology, focus on a specific policy and statements about the weight of evidence. Vocal celebrity policy entrepreneurs may be instrumental in gaining public and policy makers' support for future upstream regulation to promote population health, to facilitate alignment around a clear ideology.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/tendências , Política Nutricional/economia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Açúcares/economia , Bebidas , Defesa do Consumidor/economia , Governo , Humanos , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/métodos , Impostos/economia , Reino Unido
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141952

RESUMO

Scotland has been ambitious in its policy and legislative efforts to tackle alcohol-related harm, efforts which include the innovative feature of a 'public health objective' within local alcohol licensing. However, the persistence of alcohol-related harms and inequalities requires further examination of both the overarching Scottish alcohol strategy and its specific implementation. A qualitative case study was undertaken to explore how alcohol policy is implemented locally in Scotland, with data generated from (i) documentary analysis of 12 relevant policies, legislation, and guidance documents; and (ii) a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 54 alcohol policy implementers in three Scottish localities and nine national-level stakeholders. The data suggest there is a tension between the intentions of licensing legislation and the way it is enacted in practice, and that accountability emerges as an important factor for understanding why this occurs. In particular, there are a lack of accountability mechanisms acting upon Scottish Licensing Boards to ensure they contribute to the public health goals of the Scottish alcohol strategy. From a public health perspective, this has perpetuated a system in which Licensing Boards continue to act with autonomy from the rest of the alcohol policy implementation system, creating a challenge to the achievement of public health goals. Alcohol policy in Scotland is likely to fall short of intended goals as long as the tension between licensing legislation and enacted licensing practices remains.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Escócia , Responsabilidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Addiction ; 114(9): 1696-1705, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the past three decades an expansive literature has emerged that is dedicated to analysing the processes of policy transfer. One neglected pathway involves subnational agents emulating crime control innovations that have emerged in subnational jurisdictions of other nations. This paper presents the case of the London Mayor's Office for Policing and Crime's (MOPAC) Alcohol Abstinence Monitoring Requirement (AAMR) Pilot to examine the multi-level factors that facilitate and/or constrain international-subnational crime and justice policy transfer. METHODS: A qualitative case study design reconstructed the (in)formal events that led to components of the South Dakota 24/7 Sobriety Project (USA) being either abandoned or integrated into MOPAC's AAMR Pilot. Evidence is drawn from elite interviews and documentary materials. RESULTS: A series of inter/transnational-, macro-domestic-, meso- and micro-level factors enabled and/or obstructed processes of complete international-subnational policy transfer. Exclusion of domestic violence perpetrators from the London Pilot was fuelled by interest-group hostility and mobilization. Use of alcohol tags rather than breathalysers to monitor compliance was a result of political-economic constraints, concern surrounding intrusion, technological innovation and policy-orientated learning. The decision to omit an 'offender pays' funding mechanism was a consequence of legal incompatibility and civil service reluctance, while 'flash incarceration' for breach was not implemented due to European policy harmonization. CONCLUSIONS: The London Alcohol Abstinence Monitoring Requirement Pilot was a policy 'synthesis' that combined ideas, goals, vocabulary, principles, technology and practices from the South Dakota model with the existing English and Welsh criminal justice framework. Structural factors and the actions of particular agents limited the extent to which policy transfer occurred.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime/prevenção & controle , Dirigir sob a Influência/prevenção & controle , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Testes Respiratórios , Direito Penal , Violência Doméstica , Humanos , Londres , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , South Dakota
13.
Wiad Lek ; 72(12 cz 2): 2496-2500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Almost 3.3 million people die from alcohol abuse each year worldwide accounting for almost 5% of all deaths. In 20% of cases alcohol is a cause of death in traffic accidents with more than 250 million men and women suffering from health disorders due to alcohol consumption and the prospects for improving this situation are disappointing [1]. Alcohol abuse has a negative impact not only on the health of the population, but also on public relations in general. It is about causing physical, moral and material harm to the "healthy" part of the population, as well as financial burden related to social payments. Addressing and reducing the problem of alcoholism requires a coherent government policy. The aim: To summarize the modern progressive experience of preventing alcoholism and to identify the most promising directions of this phenomenon limitation by medical and socio-legal measures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: We've used statistics of the World Health Organization, open source analytical information, including law enforcement agencies of Ukraine and other countries data. Analyzes of scientific publications on the impact of alcohol on public health and the social and legal consequences of alcoholism in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PubMed systematic, using dialectical, comparative, general, and statistical methods of scientific research. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Alcoholism is a social problem, so its roots must be sought not only in the imperfection of medical therapies for the treatment of patients, but above all in the inefficiency of state social policy and the inconsistency of legislation. The most effective are the following governmental policies: reducing the number of places of sale of alcohol; increasing of prices on alcoholic beverages; regulation of sale hours of alcoholic beverages; increasing the age of alcohol purchase allowance. These policies will be effective, given the widespread promotion of healthy lifestyles, intolerance of excessive alcohol consumption, compliance with the laws entrusted to the entities in charge of controlling functions, the inevitability of liability for violations of anti-alcohol legislation in the form of fines and revocation of licenses.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ucrânia
14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 41(1): e1-e8, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29860414

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are increased opportunities for public health practitioners (PHPs) in England to shape alcohol availability and reduce harms through a statutory role in licensing processes in local government. However, how public health can effectively influence alcohol licence decision-making is little understood. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted to identify challenges faced by PHPs and mechanisms to strengthen their role. This involved a survey of practitioners across London local authorities (n = 18) and four focus group discussions with a range of licensing stakeholders (n = 36). RESULTS: Survey results indicated a varied picture of workload, capacity to respond to licence applications and levels of influence over decision-making among PHPs in London. Practitioners described a felt lack of status within the licence process, and difficulties using and communicating public health evidence effectively, without a health licensing objective. Strategies considered supportive included engaging with other responsible authorities and developing understanding and relationships over time. CONCLUSIONS: Against political and resource constraints at local and national government levels, pragmatic approaches for strengthening public health influence over alcohol licensing are required, including promoting relationships between stakeholders and offering opportunities for PHPs to share best practice about making effective contributions to licensing.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Prática de Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Tomada de Decisões , Inglaterra , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Londres , Saúde Pública
15.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 38(1): 25-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588675

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The recognition of the association between the use of alcohol and negative health outcomes have led to the endorsement of the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Given the capacities, capabilities and sociocultural contexts of Thailand, this study aims to examine the Thai alcohol policy against the global strategy's recommended policy measures for marketing control and identify areas for further policy development. DESIGN AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the stakeholders from three sectors: the government, academia and civil society. Their perceptions of the Thai alcohol policy in regulating alcohol industry's commercial strategies and activities were discussed. Audio data were transcribed verbatim, systematically coded and thematically analysed. RESULTS: Although the Thai Alcohol Control Act meticulously regulates the content of direct alcohol marketing, the volume of marketing and indirect alcohol marketing have become problematic and difficult for the government to address. The industry has worked to normalise the consumption of alcohol through repetitive brand exposure and their suggestion that drinking was integral for socialisation. The control of alcohol sponsorship was politically sensitive and legally ambiguous because alcohol sponsorship seemed to provide economic and social benefits and further reinforced the industry's positive image. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Despite the strict alcohol policy, gaps in the marketing regulations exist. Future policy development should place greater emphasis on alcohol sponsorship and branding through evidenced-based interventions. The interactions between the government and the industry should be monitored and restricted. Rigorous regulations, as seen for tobacco, are encouraged for alcohol marketing.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Tailândia
16.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(1): 66-75, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546111

RESUMO

Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found a link between youth exposure to cigarette marketing and youth initiation of smoking. These decisive research findings led to regulations of cigarette marketing to youth-including no television or radio ads, prohibitions on the use of cartoons, bans on transit and billboard advertisements, and disallowing tobacco brand sponsorships of sporting events or concerts. Similar products that may cause more harm than benefits include alcohol, electronic cigarettes, and opioids. We review the evidence linking problematic use of these products with exposure to marketing and discuss standards for assessing the potential harmfulness of marketing. We next address how public health agencies might apply regulatory principles to these harmful products similar to those applied to cigarette advertising, in the advancement of public health.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Administração em Saúde Pública , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Vaping/prevenção & controle
17.
Adicciones (Palma de Mallorca) ; 31(1): 33-40, 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180714

RESUMO

Introducción. Se describe la presencia de alcohol en el espacio público, valorando los establecimientos que lo ofrecen, la publicidad, y los indicios de consumo, como factores que pueden inducir el consumo. Método. Estudio observacional descriptivo basado en un muestreo por conglomerados con selección bietápica. Se describen los resultados, y se valora la asociación espacial entre variables. Resultados. En las 20 secciones censales estudiadas se identificaron 306 establecimientos que ofrecían bebidas alcohólicas: 204 de venta y consumo y 102 de venta sin consumo, básicamente supermercados y comercio alimentario. Su distribución territorial fue desigual, concentrada en dos distritos céntricos. Se identificaron 72 elementos de promoción y publicidad destacando el patrocinio de actividades musicales. Se observan elementos promocionales vinculados a los locales de venta y consumo, sobre todo en sus terrazas. Se detectaron cinco personas realizando venta ambulante o promoción del consumo en el casco antiguo. En cada franja horaria se apreciaron entre 39 y 51 indicios de consumo en la vía pública (mayoritariamente envases de cerveza abandonados), más frecuentes de noche y en el casco antiguo. Hay una asociación entre la presencia de establecimientos que ofrecen alcohol y la de elementos de publicidad. No se aprecia relación entre estas variables y los indicios de consumo en el espacio público; éstos se concentran en el casco antiguo, con mayor presencia del turismo. Conclusiones. El medio urbano se caracteriza por elementos que estimulan el consumo de alcohol y su distribución es desigual, muy influida por las actividades orientadas al turismo. Mejorar la regulación de su promoción, disponibilidad y consumo en el espacio público puede contribuir a cambiar su imagen social y disminuir su uso


Introduction. This paper describes the presence of alcohol in the public space, assessing establishments that offer it, its advertising, and signs of consumption, as factors that may influence its consumption. Method. Descriptive observational study based on cluster sampling with two-step selection. Results are described, and the spatial association between variables is assessed. Results. In the 20 census tracts studied, 306 premises were identified that offered alcoholic beverages: 204 were on-premises and 102 were off-premises, mainly supermarkets and food retail stores. Their spatial distribution was uneven, concentrated in two central districts. We identified 72 publicity items, mostly sponsorship of musical events. There were many promotional items linked to on- premises, especially in their terraces. Five people were detected promoting consumption or selling alcohol in the Old Town. In each time slot, between 39 and 51 signs of consumption on the public space were observed (mostly abandoned beer cans), more frequent at night and in the Old Town. There is an association between the presence of establishments that offer alcohol and advertising. There is no relationship between these variables and signs of consumption in the public space; these are concentrated in the Old Town, which has greater presence of tourism. Conclusions. The urban environment is characterized by elements that stimulate alcohol use and its distribution is uneven, with a strong influence of tourism-related activities. Further regulation of alcohol promotion, availability and consumption in the public space may change its social image and decrease its use


Assuntos
Humanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Controle da Publicidade de Produtos , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1400, 2018 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Government alcohol monopolies were created in North America and Scandinavia to limit health and social problems. The Swedish monopoly, Systembolaget, reports to a health ministry and controls the sale of all alcoholic beverages with > 3.5% alcohol/volume for off-premise consumption, within a public health mandate. Elsewhere, alcohol monopolies are being dismantled with evidence of increased consumption and harms. We describe innovative modelling techniques to estimate health outcomes in scenarios involving Systembolaget being replaced by 1) privately owned liquor stores, or 2) alcohol sales in grocery stores. The methods employed can be applied in other jurisdictions and for other policy changes. METHODS: Impacts of the privatisation scenarios on pricing, outlet density, trading hours, advertising and marketing were estimated based on Swedish expert opinion and published evidence. Systematic reviews were conducted to estimate impacts on alcohol consumption in each scenario. Two methods were applied to estimate harm impacts: (i) alcohol attributable morbidity and mortality were estimated utilising the International Model of Alcohol Harms and Policies (InterMAHP); (ii) ARIMA methods to estimate the relationship between per capita alcohol consumption and specific types of alcohol-related mortality and crime. RESULTS: Replacing government stores with private liquor stores (Scenario 1) led to a 20.0% (95% CI, 15.3-24.7) increase in per capita consumption. Replacement with grocery stores (Scenario 2) led to a 31.2% (25.1-37.3%) increase. With InterMAHP there were 763 or + 47% (35-59%) and 1234 or + 76% (60-92%) more deaths per year, for Scenarios 1 and 2 respectively. With ARIMA, there were 850 (334-1444) more deaths per year in Scenario 1 and 1418 more in Scenario 2 (543-2505). InterMAHP also estimated 10,859 or + 29% (22-34%) and 16,118 or + 42% (35-49%) additional hospital stays per year respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There would be substantial adverse consequences for public health and safety were Systembolaget to be privatised. We demonstrate a new combined approach for estimating the impact of alcohol policies on consumption and, using two alternative methods, alcohol-attributable harm. This approach could be readily adapted to other policies and settings. We note the limitation that some significant sources of uncertainty in the estimates of harm impacts were not modelled.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Comércio/organização & administração , Privatização , Política Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribuição , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 123, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent regulatory changes in the system by which premises are licensed to sell alcohol, have given health representatives a formal role in the process in England and Scotland. The degree to which local public health teams engage with this process varies by locality in both nations, which have different licensing regimes. This study aims to critically assess the impact on alcohol-related harms - and mechanisms - of public health stakeholders' engagement in alcohol premises licensing from 2012 to 2018, comparing local areas with differing types and intensities of engagement, and examining practice in Scotland and England. METHODS: The study will recruit 20 local authority areas where public health stakeholders have actively engaged with the alcohol premises licensing system (the 'intervention') and match them to a group of 20 lower activity areas using genetic matching. Four work packages are included: (1) Structured interviews and documentary analysis will examine the type and level of intervention activity from 2012 to 2018, creating a novel composite measure of the intensity of such activity and will assess the local licensing system and potential confounding activities over the same period. In-depth interviews with public health, licensing, police and others will explore perceived mechanisms of change, acceptability, and impact. (2) Using longitudinal growth models and time series analyses, the study will evaluate the impact of high and low levels of activity on alcohol-related harms using routine data from baseline 2009 to 2018. (3) Intervention costs, estimated National Health Service cost savings and health gains will be evaluated using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model to estimate impact on alcohol consumption and health inequalities. (4) The study will engage public health teams to create a new theory of change for public health involvement in the licensing process using our data. We will share findings with local, national and international stakeholders. DISCUSSION: This interdisciplinary study examines, for the first time, whether and how public health stakeholders' involvement in alcohol licensing impacts on alcohol harms. Using mixed methods and drawing on complex systems thinking, it will make an important contribution to an expanding literature evaluating interventions not suited to traditional epidemiological research.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Licenciamento/normas , Saúde Pública/normas , Política Pública , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/normas , Inglaterra , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escócia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Int J Drug Policy ; 62: 78-85, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368102

RESUMO

Restrictions on the supply of alcohol are amongst the most effective and cost effective interventions to address harmful use. However, despite international human rights bodies recognising that self determination must be pre-eminent in efforts to improve Indigenous health, little is known about the role of Indigenous communities in designing and implementing alcohol controls as well as the degree to which government resourcing and/or regulation is utilised. This commentary explores Australian examples of the governance models used to ensure Indigenous participation and leadership when developing regulatory interventions for alcohol control within communities. We identify four models of Indigenous governance: alcohol control interventions that were community conceived and implemented, government-facilitated community-led, community coalitions backed by government intervention and government initiated community partnerships. Each model is underpinned by specific governance arrangements which incorporate rules and processes that determine authority, accountability and Indigenous participation in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to benchmark these models of governance along a spectrum of community engagement beginning with forms of non-participation and ending with full citizen control. In addition, we put forward recommendations for governments at all levels to facilitate culturally acceptable and robust models of Indigenous governance that have the potential to improve health and social outcomes.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Austrália/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Regulamentação Governamental , Redução do Dano , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...