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1.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 8(12): 727-731, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779301

RESUMO

In their editorial, Tangcharoensathien et al1 describe the challenges of industry market promotion and policy interference from Big Tobacco, Alcohol, and Food in addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). They provide an overview of the increasing influence of corporate interest in emerging economies and government attempts to implement the World Health Organization (WHO) 'best buy' interventions. The authors largely draw on examples from Asia and a few selected countries, but provide little detail as to how aggressive marketing and policy interference plays out in a context of poor legislation and regulation in many low- and middleincome countries (LMICs), where the burden of NCDs is increasing at an alarming rate and governments face a high burden of disease with a limited budget for countering industry interference. This commentary provides some poignant examples of the influence of Big Tobacco, Alcohol, and Food on market regulation and policy interference in LMICs and argues for more policy coherence and accountability in terms of multisectoral action and civil society activism. Securing funds for health promotion and establishing health promotion foundations could help achieve that goal.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Ásia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Tabaco
2.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 653-657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626428

RESUMO

French governments only very recently introduced comprehensive tobacco control policies including several measures recommended by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, leading to a speeding-up of tobacco smoking decrease, but still with a high current level of use. In the meantime, research confirms that nicotine is highly addictive, that smoking just a cigarette a day is highly detrimental for health, and that health professionals are efficient in helping smokers to give up. These measures are such diverse as tobacco taxes increases, introducing plain packs, promoting November as month without tobacco, getting tobacco cessation medications paid for by health insurances, implementing a comprehensive advertising ban of tobacco products in retailor shops, and increasing protection of public health policies from tobacco industry intrusion. This industry via frenzied marketing reacts by promoting "heat not burn tobacco" as a harm reduction mean, which it is not, and invests in e-cigarettes, whose most recent ones are as addictive as classic tobacco cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , França , Humanos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Políticas de Controle Social , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
4.
Adv Dent Res ; 30(1): 22-25, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538803

RESUMO

Regulatory policy toward tobacco significantly affects oral health because tobacco use is a driver of diseases that manifest themselves in or near the oral cavity. Tobacco use in the United States has been associated with millions of cases of periodontal disease. Researchers have identified the role of combusted and noncombusted tobacco products in promoting cancers of the head and neck, leading to disease and premature death. Tobacco companies have moved increasingly toward so-called next-generation products (NGPs)-products that may emit fewer toxins than combustible forms of tobacco. Although NGPs may negatively affect the lungs and other bodily systems, they shift the injection site of nicotine from the lungs to the oral cavity and oral tissues. Because the long-term effects of NGPs are unknown, this tobacco marketing development has profound implications for oral disease. The US Food and Drug Administration exercises regulatory authority over tobacco products. The tobacco industry has avoided meaningful regulation of its products, especially smokeless forms. By publishing new research, oral health scientists can meaningfully shape the climate in which the administration's policy making occurs.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Nicotina , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/tendências , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
5.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370182

RESUMO

When it comes to nutrition, nearly everyone has an opinion. In the past, nutrition was considered to be an individual's responsibility, however, more recently governments have been expected (by some) to share that responsibility by helping to ensure that marketing is responsible, and that food chains offer healthy meal choices in addition to their standard fare, for example. In some countries, governments have gone as far as to remove tax from unprocessed foods or to introduce taxes, such as that imposed on sugary soft drinks in the UK, Mexico, France and Norway. Following on from the sugar tax, chocolate might be next! Is this the answer to our burgeoning calorie intake and increasing poor nutritional status, or is there another approach? In this narrative we will focus on some of the approaches taken by communities and governments to address excess calorie intake and improve nutritional status, as well as some of the conflicts of interest and challenges faced with implementation. It is clear that in order to achieve meaningful change in the quality of nutritional intake and to reduce the long-term prevalence of obesity, a comprehensive approach is required wherein governments and communities work in genuine partnership. To take no or little action will doom much of today's youth to a poor quality of life in later years, and a shorter life expectancy than their grandparents.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Política de Saúde , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/economia , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/economia , Impostos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455009

RESUMO

Concerns have been raised that the divisions emerging within public health in response to electronic cigarettes are weakening tobacco control. This paper employed thematic and network analysis to assess 90 policy consultation submissions and 18 interviews with political actors to examine the extent of, and basis for, divisions between health-focused actors with regard to the harms and benefits of e-cigarettes and appropriate approaches to regulation in Scotland. The results demonstrated considerable engagement in e-cigarette policy development by health-focused actors and a widely held perception of strong disagreement. They show that actors agreed on substantive policy issues, such as age-of-sale restrictions and, in part, the regulation of advertising. Points of contestation were related to the harms and benefits of e-cigarettes and the regulation of vaping in public places. The topicality, limitations of the evidence base and underlying values may help explain the heightened sense of division. While suggesting that some opportunities for joint advocacy might have been missed, this analysis shows that debates on e-cigarette regulation cast a light upon differences in thinking about appropriate approaches to health policy development within the public health community. Constructive debates on these divisive issues among health-focused actors will be a crucial step toward advancing public health.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Política de Saúde , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia
7.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have become the most popular tobacco products among young people, yet ENDS marketing remains unregulated, and its effects on ENDS use behavior across age groups is poorly understood. In this study, using a longitudinal design, we examined how recall of ENDS marketing through 5 different channels predicted subsequent ENDS initiation up to 2.5 years later among youth (ages 12-17 years) and young adults (ages 18-29 years). METHODS: Data were drawn from 2 large cohort studies in Texas. The analysis included school-going youth (n = 2288) and college-going young adults (n = 2423) who reported never having used ENDS at baseline in 2014. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of recalled ENDS marketing exposure via television (TV), radio or Internet radio, billboards, retail stores, and the Internet on subsequent ENDS initiation, with adjustment for these channels, baseline sociodemographics, other past-30-day tobacco use, sensation seeking, and peer ENDS use. RESULTS: Recall of retail store-based ENDS marketing at baseline was associated with significantly higher odds of subsequent ENDS initiation among youth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.17) and young adults (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.05-1.61) up to 2.5 years later. Young adult initiation was also associated with recalled ENDS marketing on TV at baseline (aOR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.63). CONCLUSIONS: Marketing of ENDS at retail stores predicts youth and young adult ENDS initiation, and marketing on TV predicts young adult initiation. Future research and regulation should be used to address the most influential marketing channels.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Marketing , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Texas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To know the support of tobacco regulation is a very important issue to advance in the tobacco control policies and reduce the passive exposure to tobacco. The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes towards forbidding smoking in private vehicles and public outdoor spaces. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=736) of the adult population (24+ years old) from Barcelona, Spain in 2013-2014. We calculated the percentages of individuals who had a favourable attitude towards smoking regulation in private vehicles and public outdoor spaces, their adjusted Odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) according to sex, age, educational level and smoking status through logistic regression. We used weighted data for all analyses in order to keep the representativeness of the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. RESULTS: 61.7% of participants supported forbidding smoking in private vehicles and 89.5% supported forbidding it only in the presence of minors. The support to smoking regulation in public outdoor spaces varied from 42.5% to 84.7% in different settings. Smokers showed a less favourable attitude towards an extension of the smoking regulation to other settings: outdoor areas of university centres, outdoor areas of shopping centres and beaches and outdoor pools. CONCLUSIONS: A wide support exists to extend the smoking regulation to private vehicles, especially in the presence of children, and public outdoor spaces. This wide support could favour the extension of smoking regulation to these places to improve the population's health and to contribute to denormalise tobacco use among the population.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Veículos Automotores/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
9.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298227

RESUMO

This paper presents a strategic analysis of the prevention of smoking in Spain. After a review of the situation of the epidemic and of the current prevention policies with the data available in 2019, it identifies the main problems to improve the prevention of smoking, while proposing strategies and key actions for the future. Considering as major objectives reducing the initiation of smoking and helping smokers quit, the different strategies of action and the key actions to be developed. In addition to helping smokers to stop smoking from the health services, key preventive actions include several public policies including taxation, banning advertising and other forms of promotion, the regulation of tobacco packaging, the expansion of smoke-free spaces, and information to the public on its effects. Some of them have followed a positive path for prevention in Spain but for others there is wide room for improvement. The MPOWER strategy of the WHO offers a guide for the development of the most effective tobacco control policies. In its light it is recommended to put emphasis on actions related to expanding smoke-free areas, to develop distance support services to stop smoking, to periodically carry out advertising campaigns of wide coverage to encourage quitting, to reinforce support for quitting in health care services, to finance pharmacological treatments, to expand the advertising ban to electronic devices that release nicotine, and to increase the tax burden on tobacco and other products delivering nicotine.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Política Pública , Fumar/economia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
Indian J Tuberc ; 66(2): 288-293, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151498

RESUMO

Electronic cigarettes which are termed as e-cigarettes, e-cigs or e-vaporizers are used by the people for creating the inhalable aerosol which carries nicotine in it. Also, commonly referred as vaping. E-cigarettes are used as an alternative to the regular cigarettes and aids in the cessation of smoking. However, there has been tough strife and debate regarding e-cigarettes that are accompanied in the media stories which bring different opinions among consumers, experts as well as regulators who are involved in making decisions from no regulation to regulating e-cigarettes to banning of e-cigarettes which will bring direct impact on public health. In this article, an overview about the controversy of e-cigarettes with respect to the device, its market, regulation norms of e-cigarettes at different platforms and amidst the debate over e-cigarettes banning in India has been portrayed. It is surveyed that India being a hub of around 110 million tobacco smokers and a global giant in tobacco production, where the Indian government is planning to bring a complete ban over e-cigarettes throughout the country propels an elementary question of banning safer alternatives and not regular cigarettes which makes no sense from the point of banning e-cigarettes until or unless regular cigarettes are banned. Varying point of views from experts, scientists, users with respect to e-cigarettes has been addressed which shares a mix opinion with the supporters promoting ban as well as the antagonist with the concept of regulating the e-cigarettes in India.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/provisão & distribução , Regulamentação Governamental , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco , Humanos , Índia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 825, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policymakers can adopt and implement various supply-side policies to limit youth access and exposure to tobacco, such as increasing the minimum age of sale, limiting the number or type of tobacco outlets, or banning the display of tobacco products. Many studies have assessed the impact of these policies, while less is known about the preceding policy process. The aim of our review was to assess the available evidence on the preceding process of agenda setting, policy formulation, and policy legitimation. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and the Social Sciences Citation Index databases. After selection, 200 international peer-reviewed articles were identified and analyzed. Through a process of close reading, evidence based on scientific enquiry and anecdotal evidence on agenda setting, policy formulation and policy legitimation was abstracted from each article. RESULTS: Scientific evidence on the policy process is scarce for these policies, as most of the evidence found was anecdotal. Only one study provided evidence based on a scientific analysis of data on the agenda setting and legitimation phases of policy processes that led to the adoption of display bans in two Australian jurisdictions. CONCLUSION: The processes influencing the adoption of youth access and exposure policies have been grossly understudied. A better understanding of the policy process is essential to understand country variations in tobacco control policy.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Formulação de Políticas , Política Pública , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Austrália , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Países Baixos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 665, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health policy is inevitably associated with either a strong presence or lack of public support. We investigated factors associated with both the public support of and opposition to health taxes and the media regulation regarding advertising harmful products in Korea. METHODS: We interviewed 1200 respondents that were recruited using an equal-probability sampling method in accordance with the 2016 Korean census. Our investigation examined the extent of support and opposition towards health taxes and the media regulation of advertising that targets the consumption of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy foods according to socioeconomic characteristics, health habits, body mass index (BMI), and exposure to the advertising of harmful products. The study was conducted using a univariate and stepwise multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority (71.8%) of the respondents were supportive of imposing health taxes in general. Despite a high prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption among the respondents, they strongly supported media regulation of tobacco (72.3%), alcohol (63.7%), and eating broadcasts (51.9%) food advertising (44.0%). Those that were non-smokers, earned a high-income, were married, or had a child were likely to support at least one kind of regulation regarding alcohol and smoking related advertising. An exposure to excessive advertising of unhealthy products was associated with increase of respondents supporting the media regulation. Those who regarded the media as being influential seemed to be more supportive of health taxes or media regulation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated strong public support among the respondents for health taxes and the media regulation regarding the advertising of unhealthy products. Based on our data, we are optimistic that countries whose population show a high rate of tobacco, alcohol or unhealthy food consumption may launch public policy in addressing these factors.


Assuntos
/legislação & jurisprudência , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/legislação & jurisprudência , Opinião Pública , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
13.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2019-04-09.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50833

RESUMO

[Antecedentes]. Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) son la mayor causa de muerte a nivel mundial. Las ENT más importantes (enfermedades cardiovasculares, cáncer, diabetes y enfermedades respiratorias crónicas) tienen cuatro principales factores de riesgo en común: el consumo nocivo de alcohol, la alimentación no saludable, la inactividad física y el consumo de tabaco. La respuesta para la prevención y el control de las ENT y sus factores de riesgo requiere de un enfoque multisectorial, con fuerte énfasis en la regulación y un importante rol de liderazgo por parte de las autoridades nacionales de salud. En este sentido, el fortalecimiento de la capacidad institucional para regular y fiscalizar los asuntos de interés sanitario es una de las funciones esenciales de salud pública. En el caso de las ENT, esto se traduce en el desarrollo, la implementación y el monitoreo del cumplimiento de regulaciones que creen entornos promotores de la salud y favorezcan las conductas saludables.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Economia da Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Legislação como Assunto , Políticas Públicas de Saúde
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(3): 327-330, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884612

RESUMO

Objective: To monitor the second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in residents aged 15 years and over in public venues, indoor workplaces, on public transportation vehicles and at home in Beijing and evaluate the effect of Beijing Tobacco Control Regulation. Methods: Data from 2014 and 2016 Beijing Adult Tobacco Survey were used. The surveys covered 16 districts in Beijing. The study subjects were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling with probability proportional to population size, and data were collected by using electronic questionnaire in face-to-face household interviews. A total of 8 484 and 9 372 valid questionnaires were collected for the surveys in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Statistical packages SPSS 20.0 and R 3.4.4 were used for data analyses. After weighting the samples using complex survey designs, the SHS exposure rates in different places in adults of Beijing were estimated. χ(2) tests were performed for the comparison. Results: The SHS exposure rates of residents aged 15 years and over in Beijing who visited health care facilities, government buildings, universities, primary and secondary schools and restaurants declined from 12.8%, 19.7%, 24.3%, 32.8% and 65.7% in 2014 to 6.2%, 10.8%, 12.5%, 19.1% and 32.5% in 2016, respectively. The SHS exposure rates in bars/nightclubs were 89.5% in 2014 and 80.3% in 2016. From 2014 to 2016, the SHS exposure rates declined from 35.7% to 20.0% in indoor workplaces and declined from 3.9% to 2.5% on public transportation vehicles. The SHS exposure rates at home were 39.8% in 2014 and 37.6% in 2016, respectively. Conclusions: The SHS exposure rates in public places declined obviously in Beijing after the one year implementation of Beijing Tobacco Control Regulation, indicating the effect of the regulation implementation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pequim , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(2): 147-165, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824824

RESUMO

Campaigns against risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) caused by smoking and obesity have become increasingly common on multiple levels of government, from the local to the international. Non-governmental actors have cooperated with government bodies to make policies. By analysing the policies of the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, the European Union, and the United Kingdom and United States governments, we identify how the struggles between public health advocates and commercial interests reached the global level, and how the relatively successful fight to 'denormalize' tobacco consumption has become a model for anti-obesity advocates. It highlights three factors important in policy change: framing the policy problem, the policymaking environment and 'windows of opportunity'-to analyse the struggle between 'harm regulation' and 'neoprohibition' approaches to an international obesity prevention regime.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , União Europeia , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211758, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standardised tobacco packaging has been, and remains, a contentious policy globally, attracting corporate, public health, political, media and popular attention. In January 2015, the UK Government announced it would vote on draft regulations for the policy before the May 2015 General Election. We explored reactions to the announcement on Twitter, in comparison with an earlier period of little UK Government activity on standardised packaging. METHODS: We obtained a random sample of 1038 tweets in two 4-week periods, before and after the UK Government's announcement. Content analysis was used to examine the following Tweet characteristics: support for the policy, purpose, Twitter-user's geographical location and affiliation, and evidence citation and quality. Chi-squared analyses were used to compare Tweet characteristics between the two periods. RESULTS: Overall, significantly more sampled Tweets were in favour of the policy (49%) in comparison to those opposed (19%). Yet, at Time 2, following the announcement, a greater proportion of sampled tweets opposed standardised packaging compared to the period sampled at Time 1, prior to the announcement (p<0.001). The quality of evidence and research cited in URLs linked at Time 2 was significantly lower than at Time 1 (p<0.001), with peer-reviewed research more likely to be shared in positive Tweets (p<0.001) and in Tweets linking to URLs originating from the health sector (p<0.001). The decline in the proportion of positive Tweets was mirrored by a reduction in Tweets by health sector Twitter-users at Time 2 (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Microblogging sites can reflect offline policy debates and are used differently by policy proponents and opponents dependent on the policy context. Twitter-users opposed to standardised packaging increased their activity following the Government's announcement, while those in support broadly maintained their rate of Twitter engagement. The findings offer insight into the public health community's options for using Twitter to influence policy and disseminate research. In particular, proliferation of Twitter activity following pro-public health policy announcements could be considered to ensure pro-health messages are not overshadowed by anti-regulation voices.


Assuntos
Governo , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Mídias Sociais , Reino Unido
18.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 8(1): 11, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Philip Morris International's IQOS ("I Quit Ordinary Smoking") device has increasingly penetrated the global tobacco market. In Israel, among the first countries with IQOS in its market, the IQOS device is sold in specialty stores and online; the heat sticks - HEETS - are sold at traditional retailers. Advertising restrictions in many contexts including Israel have shifted industry marketing efforts to point-of-sale (POS). Given the nuances of IQOS and HEETS product distribution and the importance of POS marketing, we conducted a pilot study of IQOS POS marketing strategies. METHODS: Data collectors assessed product offerings, pricing, promotional strategies, and placement in a sample of 15 IQOS retailers (10 convenience stores, 3 grocery stores, 2 tobacco shops) in three Israeli cities (Beer-Sheva, Haifa, Jerusalem). RESULTS: All retailers sold cigarettes; many carried other forms of tobacco (e.g., cigar products). Average price for a HEETS package was 30.2 Shekels (SD = 2.7); average price for the least expensive cigarette pack was 27.4 (SD = 1.5). HEETS were on average 9.5% more expensive than cigarettes. Posted ads were uncommon; rather, product displays were prominent. HEETS packages were often placed in a separate display box, at higher and more noticeable positions, and closer to consumers. Additionally, 11 retailers placed cigarettes and 10 placed HEETS near youth-oriented merchandise; 9 retailers placed cigarettes and HEETS, respectively, within 1 m of the floor. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents an initial step in assessing IQOS POS practices - critical in advancing the ability to facilitate related research and regulation of emerging tobacco products in Israel and more broadly.


Assuntos
/métodos , Rotulagem de Produtos/tendências , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , /tendências , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Israel , Projetos Piloto , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Produtos/normas , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restricting youth access to tobacco is a central feature of US tobacco regulatory policy, but impact of local tobacco retail licensing (TRL) regulation on cigarette smoking rates remains uncertain. Effects of TRL on other tobacco product use and use as adolescents reach the age to legally purchase tobacco products has not been investigated. METHODS: Prevalences of ever and past 30-day cigarette, electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), cigar, and hookah use were assessed in a survey of a cohort of 1553 11th- and 12th-grade adolescents (mean age: 17.3 years); rates of initiation were evaluated 1.5 years later. An American Lung Association (2014) youth access grade was assigned to each of 14 political jurisdictions in which participants lived on the basis of the strength of the local TRL ordinance. RESULTS: At baseline, participants living in 4 jurisdictions with "A" grades (ie, with most restrictive ordinances) had lower odds of ever cigarette use (odds ratio [OR] 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.90) and of past 30-day use (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.29-0.89) than participants in 10 D- to F-grade jurisdictions. At follow-up at legal age of purchase, lower odds of cigarette use initiation (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.45-0.99) occurred in jurisdictions with stronger TRL policy. Lower odds of e-cigarette initiation at follow-up (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-0.99) and of initiation with past 30-day use (OR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23-0.90) were also associated with better regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Strong local TRL ordinance may lower rates of cigarette and e-cigarette use among youth and young adults.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Comércio/economia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Licenciamento/economia , Masculino , Cachimbos de Água/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Vaping/economia , Vaping/epidemiologia
20.
J Public Health Policy ; 40(1): 66-75, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546111

RESUMO

Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found a link between youth exposure to cigarette marketing and youth initiation of smoking. These decisive research findings led to regulations of cigarette marketing to youth-including no television or radio ads, prohibitions on the use of cartoons, bans on transit and billboard advertisements, and disallowing tobacco brand sponsorships of sporting events or concerts. Similar products that may cause more harm than benefits include alcohol, electronic cigarettes, and opioids. We review the evidence linking problematic use of these products with exposure to marketing and discuss standards for assessing the potential harmfulness of marketing. We next address how public health agencies might apply regulatory principles to these harmful products similar to those applied to cigarette advertising, in the advancement of public health.


Assuntos
/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Administração em Saúde Pública , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Regulamentação Governamental , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Administração em Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Administração em Saúde Pública/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Vaping/prevenção & controle
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