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1.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124900, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563099

RESUMO

Spirotetramat (SPT) is a new tetronic acid derivative insecticide used to control scales and aphids; the potential for endocrine disruptor effects in fish could not be finalized with the available data. In this study, zebrafish were selected to assess the endocrine-disrupting effects. Significant decrease of plasma estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were observed in both male and female following the spirotetramat exposure; the vitellogenin (VTG) level in females significantly decreased. The expression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis genes fshr, lhr and esr1 showed significant increase in the gonads, which expression in males is higher than in females. In addition, the activities of capspase-3 and caspase-9 significantly decreased in both males and females liver, while the capspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased in male testis, the mRNA expression levels of genes expression related to the apoptosis pathway were also significantly altered after the spirotetramat exposure. Additionally, we found the parental zebrafish exposed to spirotetramat induced the development delay of its offspring. Above all, the adverse effects induced by spirotetramat suggesting that spirotetramat is a potential exogenous hazardous agent.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 67-72, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 800,000 individuals die as a consequence of suicide annually, and almost two thirds of these deaths are in males. This analysis aimed to explore sex differences in global suicide rates with regards to geographic location, religion and other societal factors. METHODS: Data on sex-specific suicide rates were collated for 182 countries in 2015. The exposures of interest were geographical location, majority religion, life expectancy, total fertility rate (TFR), literacy percentage, gender development index and gross domestic product. RESULTS: Both continent and predominant religion were strongly associated with the male:female ratio for deaths from suicide (p < 0.001 for both variables). The highest male:female suicide ratio was observed in the Americas with a median value of 4.0 (interquartile range IQR: 3.0-5.0) and the lowest gender suicide ratios were observed in Africa (2.7, IQR: 2.4-3.3) and Asia (2.7, IQR: 1.8-3.9). The predominantly Christian countries revealed the highest male:female suicide ratio (3.3, IQR: 2.7-4.4) whereas the predominantly Hindu countries revealed the lowest (1.3, IQR 1.3-3.8). The following variables were all positively associated with male:female ratio of suicide mortality: Life expectancy (Spearman's correlation coefficient r = +0.21, p = 0.004), GDP per capita (r = +0.26, p = 0.003), literacy percentage (r = +0.46, p < 0.0001), and Gender Development Index (r = +0.56, p < 0.0001). TFR was negatively associated with sex suicide ratio (-0.30, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: There are significant differences between male and female suicide rates across continents and cultures. Markers of societal development are associated with a higher proportion of male suicides compared to females.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 260: 292-301, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although earlier studies have indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are at greater risk of psychiatric symptoms than heterosexual individuals, limited attention has been paid to the mental health disparities within LGB populations, especially in non-Western societies. This study examined the disparities in depression, anxiety, and mental well-being between gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals and investigated how the disparities are explained by the greater sexual identity stress experienced by bisexual individuals compared to their gay and lesbian counterparts. METHODS: The study sample included 931 cisgender LGB individuals in Hong Kong, with 70.1% identifying as gay/lesbian and 29.9% identifying as bisexual. They completed a self-report questionnaire on sexual identity stress and mental health. RESULTS: Bisexual individuals showed higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms than lesbians and gay men. Structural equation modeling showed that, compared with lesbians and gay men, bisexual individuals were more likely to report identity uncertainty, conceal their sexual orientation, and have a weaker sense of connection to the LGBT community, which were in turn associated with greater affective symptoms and poorer mental well-being. LIMITATIONS: The use of cross-sectional data does not allow conclusions on causal relationships among variables. CONCLUSIONS: Given the greater vulnerability of bisexual individuals to common mental health problems, evidence-based psychological interventions that strategically target their identity stress at multiple levels should be developed and made available to those in need. Social and psychoeducational interventions are also necessary to transform the monosexist culture and eradicate binegativity in the LGBT and wider communities.

4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(1): 165589, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678163

RESUMO

AIMS: OVE26 mice (FVB background), genetically overexpressing calmodulin in pancreatic beta cells, develop early onset type 1 diabetes, leading to progressive diabetic nephropathy (DN), with features of established human DN. The role of gender in characteristics of renal lesions has remained unexplored. METHODS: Male and female OVE26 mice were compared to age and sex matched wild-type, nondiabetic FVB mice at ages of 4, 12, 24 and 36 weeks. Nephropathy was examined by measuring urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, histopathology, expression of pathological markers and immunochemistry in the same cohort of mice. RESULTS: Progression of diabetic kidney disease was evident first in the OVE26 glomerulus, initially as mesangial matrix expansion at 4 weeks followed by loss of podocytes, glomerular volume expansion and severe albuminuria at 12 weeks. Tubule dilation and initiation of interstitial fibrosis did not become significant until 24 weeks. T-lymphocyte infiltration into the renal parenchyma appeared at 36 weeks. OVE26 female mice developed more advanced DN than male OVE26 mice, such as more severe albuminuria, greater podocyte loss, additional fibrosis and significantly more inflammatory cell infiltration. The female OVE26 mice had lowest level of plasma estradiol in all 36 weeks old mice, as well as renal estrogen receptors. CONCLUSIONS: This demonstration of the role of gender, combined with the detailed characterization of DN progression illustrates the value of OVE26 mice for understanding gender effects on DN and provides the basis for researchers to better select the age and sex of OVE26 mice in future studies of type 1 DN. RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: What is already known about this subject? What is the key question? What are the new findings? How might this impact on clinical practice in the foreseeable future?

5.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 26(1): 46-51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which gender disparities exist in either obtaining a leadership position or pay equity among those with leadership positions in state governmental public health agencies. DESIGN: Utilizing the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of state governmental public health agency employees, the characteristics of the state governmental public health agency leadership were described. We estimated the odds of being a manager or an executive leader and the odds of leaders earning greater than $95 000 annually for women compared with men using polytomous multinomial regression and logistic regression models, respectively. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey was conducted via electronic survey at 37 state health departments. This study utilized only those respondents who listed their current position as a supervisory position (n = 3237). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Leadership position and high-earning leadership were the 2 main outcome measures explored. Leadership position was defined as a 3-level ordinal variable: supervisor, manager, or executive leader. High-earning leadership was defined as a member of leadership earning $95 000 or greater. RESULTS: Women accounted for 72.0% of the overall state governmental public health agency workforce and 67.1% of leadership positions. Women experienced lower odds (odds ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.39-0.78) of holding executive leadership positions than men and lower odds (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.50-0.81) of earning an annual salary greater than $95 000. CONCLUSION: While women were represented in similar proportions in the general workforce as in leadership positions, gender disparities still existed within leadership positions. Increased effort is needed to ensure that opportunities exist for women in executive leadership positions and in pay equity. With public health's commitment to social justice and the benefits of diversity to an agency's policies and programs, it is important to ensure that women's voices are equally represented at all levels of leadership.

6.
Appetite ; 144: 104453, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521772

RESUMO

This article describes and explore eating practices and food preferences among gay men who call themselves bears in São Paulo, Brazil, and their relation with their life history, masculinities representations, and sexuality. It is a qualitative and quantitative research within an ethnographic perspective. A purposive sample of thirty-five self-declared gay bears. The data were analyzed identifying the regular, expressive and meaningful significance units collected through the interviews. We identified that the self-declared bears in São Paulo, Brazil, build a solid relation between food preferences, eating practices, masculinity, and group belonging. From the bear's perspective, meat, especially bovine, is related to masculinity and extensively understood as a strong common bond within the community, leveraging their sexuality. For these persons, eating meat as well as drinking beer can build the ideal mannish and unfeminine body that is overvalue. Being gay and "eating like a man," as well as exposing a "macho" body while disdaining other body types constructions could represent a strategy to avoid discrimination, shame and humiliation. On the other way, this community does not just linearly imitate heterosexual men although their conducts can reproduce patriarchal representations and meanings through eating practices. These findings could be used to understand the complexity of alimentary practices, particularly food preferences as well as commensalities, among specific communities or membership groups.

7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(1): 102305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to collect information about the demographics, academic ambitions, job satisfactions, career development and work-life balance of female otorhinolaryngologists (FORL) in Turkey and to determine their experiences with, and attitudes towards gender discrimination throughout their academic careers. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective survey study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was aimed to include all FORL who completed their residency program. An online survey was used to collect their responses. RESULTS: Out of 208 invitations, 156 FORL participated to the survey. The mean age of the participants was 39.7 ±â€¯6.1 (29-75) years. 16.6% of the FORL used to occupy or still occupying administrative positions in their respective medical centers; 15.4% of them used to be assigned or still being assigned to a duty in otorhinolaryngology associations. Gender discrimination was 2.5 fold higher (p = 0.006 OR: 2.55 (95% CI 1.31, 4.99) in departments where there were no female faculty members. 53.2% of the female surgeons were both physically and psychologically harassed for their gender during their residency programs to deter from completing their program in otolaryngology. This finding is 4.1 fold higher than those who stated that they had not been exposed to any such gender discrimination (p = 0.001 OR: 4.094 (95% CI 2.22, 7.57). CONCLUSION: Healthcare policy-makers and institutions should consider taking all the necessary actions to prevent gender discrimination in order to increase job satisfaction and achievements of female specialists in the field of otorhinolaryngology.

8.
Cardiol Clin ; 38(1): 129-138, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753171

RESUMO

For years, calcific aortic stenosis (AS) was considered to be similar in men and women, and the underrepresentation of women in research studies prevented any alternate conclusions. With new sex-specific studies and data, the landscape of AS is evolving and recently important sex-disparities were revealed. These sex-specific discrepancies are of utmost importance to stratify and personalize treatment according to sex. It is important and urgent to elucidate the sex-related differences and similarities in the pathophysiology of AS to develop and validate sex-specific approaches for the management and pharmacologic treatment of AS, and to improve clinical outcomes for both sexes.

9.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 39(1): 59-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510804

RESUMO

There is a global concern about adverse health effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic and obesogenic compound, used in the plastic and medical industry has a dominant position among EDCs as far as human health and regulatory scenario are concerned. Due to its omnipresence across the biosphere, population of all age groups and health status is unavoidably exposed to BPA. Transgenerational exposure to BPA and its effects have also been recognized. However, there is no report on the transgenerational effect of BPA on metabolically disordered parents, such as obese ones. We studied effect of BPA exposure in F0 generation and its impact on F1 generation and factored parental obesity in transgenerational effect of concurrent exposure to low dose BPA (10 ppm × 180 days) in Wistar rats in a one-generation study protocol. The exposed F0 generation animals were crossed and F1 generation was analyzed 35 days after birth for indications of reproductive toxicity. We observed changes in hormone levels and disturbance in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Animals showed increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides along with higher birth weight and rapid weight gain. Histopathological evidence confirmed the presence of regressive and inflammatory changes in the ovary and testis. The test group showed metabolic disturbances in comparison to control group. Our study showed the additive effect of parental obesity in transgenerational reproductive toxicity of BPA. Female animals of F1 generation of BPA-treated obese parents showed more insulin resistance than males with similar exposure scenario. Our study highlights the confounding role of metabolic disorders such as obesity in the transgenerational toxicity of BPA, which otherwise itself is implicated in the aetiology of such metabolic disorders, directly or indirectly.

10.
Appl Ergon ; 82: 102960, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600712

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to examine the impacts of incorporating sex and gender (s/g) analysis in integrated knowledge translation (iKT) initiatives in the field of ergonomics and occupational health. The article presents findings based on a retrospective analysis of twelve intervention-research (IR) studies, including a thematic content analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with 15 researchers involved in these IRs. The findings offer an overview of various categories of impacts, such as changes in partners' views, in workplace settings and conditions, in practices and policies, and in economic outcomes. In these types of IR, health effects measurement is not the main objective, and direct health outcomes are difficult to assess. Explicitly talking about sex/gender led more often to system-level changes but less often to workplace-level changes, compared to interventions where sex/gender was not identified as a specific object of the intervention.

11.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1372-1392, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995106

RESUMO

En el presente artículo se reconstruye la trama específica en la que surgió la categoría mujer golpeada en la psicología argentina, en una peculiar circulación entre sociedad civil y Estado. Desde el enfoque de la historia crítica de la psicología junto a los aportes de la historia reciente, se analiza el proceso de recepción que se produjo en el escenario local, en el entrecruzamiento de la agenda de los derechos humanos con el ideario feminista. Se analiza cómo la violencia de género fue incluida en la agenda gubernamental, en los espacios de activismo feminista y en la producción teórica de la psicología. Se da cuenta de las solidaridades y diferencias entre estos ámbitos, poniendo en evidencia los entramados representacionales y valorativos implicados en los usos de diferentes categorías.(AU)


Neste artigo, reconstruímos a maneira como a categoria mulher maltratada surgiu na psicologia argentina, numa circulação peculiar entre a sociedade civil e o Estado. A partir da abordagem da história crítica da psicologia com as contribuições da história recente, analisamos a recepção no cenário local, na interligação da agenda de direitos humanos com o ideário feminista. Analisamos como a violência de gênero foi incluída na agenda governamental, no ativismo feminista e na produção teórica da psicologia. Incluímos a solidariedade e as diferenças entre essas áreas, levando em conta as representações e valores envolvidos nos usos das diferentes categorias.(AU)


In this article, we reconstruct the way in which the battered woman category emerged in Argentine psychology, in a peculiar circulation between civil society and the State. From the approach of the critical history of psychology to the contributions of recent history, we analyze the reception in the local scene, in the interconnection of the human rights agenda with the feminist ideology. We analyzed how gender violence was included in the governmental agenda, in feminist activism and in the theoretical production of psychology. We include solidarity and the differences between these areas, taking into account the representations and values involved in the uses of the different categories.(AU)


Assuntos
Violência contra a Mulher , Violência de Gênero/psicologia , Psicologia/história , Mulheres Maltratadas/psicologia
12.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03464, Jan.-Dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020376

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Explorar la construcción social que sobre violencia obstétrica han elaborado mujeres Tének y Náhuatl de México. Método Estudio cualitativo-sociocrítico, mediante gupos focales se profundizó en las experiencias de parto de quienes vivieron un parto en el periodo 2015-2016. Resultados Participaron 57 mujeres. Mediante análisis de discurso se identificó que las participantes no poseen suficiente información sobre violencia obstétrica y/o derechos sexuales y reproductivos, lo que las imposibilita para asociar sus experiencias negativas al término legal "violencia obstétrica". Sus discursos corresponden en su mayoría a lo que desde el marco legal se ha denominado "violencia obstétrica", sin embargo, experiencias como el ayuno prolongado o el uso de tecnologías para la invasión de su intimidad fueron narradas como algo que conciben violento y que no se ha incorporado dentro del término legal. Conclusión Múltiples acciones que atentan contra los derechos humanos de las mujeres tienen lugar dentro de las salas de parto, la mayor parte no son identificadas por las usuarias, puesto que no han construido socialmente la imagen de la violencia obstétrica, ello no las hace menos susceptibles sin embargo, a sentirse agredidas y denigradas en sus partos.


RESUMO Objetivo Explorar a construção social que as mulheres Tének e Náhuatl do México elaboraram sobre a violência obstétrica. Método Estudo qualitativo-sociocrítico; por meio de grupos focais, houve um aprofundamento nas experiências de parto daquelas que passaram por um parto no período de 2015 a 2016. Resultados Participaram 57 mulheres. Mediante análise do discurso, foi identificado que as participantes não possuem informação suficiente sobre violência obstétrica e/ou direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, o que as impossibilita de associar suas experiências negativas ao termo legal "violência obstétrica". Seus discursos correspondem na sua maioria ao que, a partir do marco legal, foi denominado "violência obstétrica"; entretanto, experiências como jejum prolongado ou uso de tecnologias para a invasão da sua intimidade foram narradas como algo que concebem ser violento e que não foi incorporado ao termo legal. Conclusão Múltiplas ações que atentam contra os direitos humanos das mulheres têm lugar dentro das salas de parto, a maior parte não é identificada pelas usuárias, visto que não construíram socialmente a imagem da violência obstétrica, mas isso não as faz menos suscetíveis de sentir-se agredidas e denegridas nos seus partos.


ABSTRACT Objective To explore the social construction of obstetric violence developed by Tenek and Nahuatl women in Mexico. Method Qualitative, socio-critical study conducted through focal groups in which were deepened the childbirth experiences lived in the period 2015-2016. Results Participation of 57 women. Through discourse analysis, it was identified that participants do not have enough information about obstetric violence and/or sexual and reproductive rights. This makes the association of their negative experiences with the legal term "obstetric violence" impossible. Most of their speeches correspond to the legal denomination of "obstetric violence". Experiences like prolonged fasting or the use of technologies for invading their privacy were narrated like situations they perceive as violent, but have not been incorporated within the legal term. Conclusion Multiple actions against women's human rights take place within delivery rooms. Most remain unidentified by users, since they have not socially constructed the image of obstetric violence. However, that fact does not make them less susceptible to feel attacked and denigrated during their childbirth experiences.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salas de Parto , Parto , População Indígena , Violência contra a Mulher , México , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Enfermagem Obstétrica
13.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03492, Jan.-Dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020380

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Descrever e analisar, sob a percepção das lideranças de enfermagem, questões de gênero e socioeconômicas dos trabalhadores da categoria que interferem na luta contra a precarização das condições de trabalho. Método Estudo descritivo, exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa, realizado na ABEn, Coren, sessões Rio de Janeiro e SindEnfRJ, com líderes de entidades de classe, profissionais de cargos de liderança, incluindo diretoria ou presidência. Realizaram-se entrevistas individuais, e os dados foram tratados por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo. Resultados Participaram do estudo 17 líderes de entidades de classe. Se nas falas predominância feminina, dupla jornada de trabalho, origem social e cultural, desvalorização profissional, reduzida participação em espaços de luta e questões burocráticas do trabalho como justificativas para o baixo envolvimento em disputas trabalhistas. Conclusão São necessárias parcerias entre a categoria e as entidades de classe para maior mobilização e combate a esse processo perverso, por mudanças na legislação, imprescindíveis para viabilizar a manutenção do emprego, a qualidade de vida do trabalhador e, consequentemente, a excelência na assistência prestada à população.


RESUMEN Objetivo Describir y analizar, bajo la percepción de los liderazgos de enfermería, cuestiones de género y socioeconómicas de los trabajadores de la categoría que interfieren en la lucha contra la precarización de las condiciones laborales. Método Estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, con abordaje cualitativo, realizado en la ABEn, Coren, sesiones Río de Janeiro y SindEnfRJ, con líderes de entidades de clase, profesionales de puestos de liderazgo, incluyendo el directorio o la presidencia. Se llevaron a cabo entrevistas individuales, y los datos fueron tratados mediante la técnica de análisis de contenido. Resultados Participaron en el estudio 17 líderes de entidades de clase. Se destacan en los discursos la predominancia femenina, doble jornada laboral, origen social y cultural, desvalorización profesional, reducida participación en espacios de lucha y temas burocráticos del trabajo como justificaciones para la baja adhesión a las disputas laborales. Conclusión Son necesarias alianzas entre la categoría y las entidades de clase para mayor movilización y combate a ese proceso perverso, por cambios en la legislación, imprescindibles para hacer viable el mantenimiento del empleo, la calidad de vida del trabajador y, consecuentemente, la excelencia en la asistencia prestada a la población.


ABSTRACT Objective To describe and analyze gender and socioeconomic issues of category workers which interfere in the fight against the precariousness of working conditions within the perception of nursing leaders. Method A descriptive, exploratory study with a qualitative approach conducted at ABEn , Coren , Rio de Janeiro sessions and SindEnfRJ with leaders of work organizations, professionals in leadership positions, including directors or presidents. Individual interviews were conducted, and the data were treated using the content analysis technique. Results Seventeen (17) class entity leaders participated in the study. In the speeches, female predominance, double working hours, social and cultural origin, professional devaluation, reduced participation in spaces of struggle and bureaucratic labor issues were presented as justifications for the low involvement in labor disputes. Conclusion There is a need for partnerships between the category and the work organizations to mobilize and combat this perverse process through changes in legislation, which is essential to enable maintaining employment, the worker's quality of life, and consequently excellence in the care provided to the population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Condições de Trabalho , Gênero e Saúde , Enfermeiros , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sindicatos
14.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1415-1436, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995168

RESUMO

Este artigo trata da disputa gerada por profissionais identificados como "psicólogos cristãos" que defendem publicamente seu direito de oferecer auxílio terapêutico com o fim de reverter a homossexualidade. Esta polêmica adquiriu contornos particulares no Brasil, onde o Conselho Federal de Psicologia desde 1999 proíbe qualquer forma de patologização da orientação sexual. Com base na literatura especializada começamos por expor, por um lado, a trajetória da homossexualidade como objeto de discurso da Psicologia e, por outro, no campo evangélico. A seguir, explicamos a conformação da Psicologia como profissão regulamentada no Brasil. Em seguida, com base em fontes documentais de caráter público, examinamos a posição do Conselho Federal de Psicologia e analisamos as disputas jurídicas travadas por psicólogos que defendem seu direito a tratar a homossexualidade como expressão de desordem moral e desvio patológico. O antagonismo que emerge na polêmica em torno da chamada "cura gay" não opõe simplesmente ciência e religião, mas envolve atores públicos capazes de se localizar estrategicamente em um ou outro campo e de fazer uso do direito em seu favor. Sua capacidade de recolocar a homossexualidade como signo de desvio moral e transtorno mental constela a política sexual como questão de peso para a democracia brasileira.(AU)


This article examines the claims of professionals identified as "Christian psychologists" who publicly defend their right to offer therapy to "reverse homosexuality". This debate took shape when "conversion therapy" was banned by the Brazilian Federal Council of Psychology in 1999. Based on specialized literature, we begin by introducing, on the one hand, the itinerary of homosexuality as object of discourse in Psychology, and in the evangelical field, on the other. And we go on explaining the process of constitution of Psychology as a regulated practice in Brazil. Then, based on public records, we examine the stand taken by the Federal Council of Psychology, and analyze the legal claims made by psychologists who defend their right to treat homosexuality as a moral offense and a mental disorder. The antagonism that emerges in the so-called "gay cure" debate does not simply oppose science and religion but involves public actors capable of strategically placing themselves in one field or the other and use the Law in their favor. Their ability to consider homosexuality as a sign of moral deviance and a mental disorder places sexual politics as a significant issue with regards to Brazilian democracy.(AU)


Este artículo aborda la disputa generada por profesionales identificados como "psicólogos cristianos" que defienden públicamente su derecho a ofrecer apoyo terapéutico con el fin de revertir la homosexualidad. Esta polémica adquirió contornos particulares en Brasil, donde el Consejo Federal de Psicología desde 1999 prohíbe cualquier forma de patologización de la orientación sexual. Basándonos en literatura especializada, comenzamos por exponer, por un lado, la trayectoria de la homosexualidad como objeto de discurso de la Psicología y, por otro, en el campo evangélico. A continuación, explicamos la conformación de la Psicología como profesión reglamentada en Brasil. Luego, basándonso en fuentes documentales de carácter público, examinamos la posición del Consejo Federal de Psicología y analizamos las disputas jurídicas entabladas por psicólogos que defienden su derecho a tratar la homosexualidad como expresión de desorden moral y desvío patológico. El antagonismo que emerge en la polémica en torno de la llamada "cura gay" no opone simplemente ciencia y religión, sino que involucra actores públicos capaces de localizarse estratégicamente en uno u otro campo y de hacer uso del derecho a su favor. Su capacidad de re-colocar la homosexualidad como signo de desvío moral y trastorno mental constela la política sexual como cuestión de peso para la democracia brasileña.(AU)


Assuntos
Religião e Psicologia , Homossexualidade/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Psicologia
15.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1437-1449, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995170

RESUMO

A pesquisa Diálogos com o Feminino aborda a trajetória de mulheres na psicologia brasileira, buscando evidenciar as especificidades do saber psi que se dedicou às questões do feminino e produziu uma intervenção específica de psicologia feita por mulheres e para mulheres. Esta comunicação apresenta dados da primeira fase da pesquisa, constituindo uma análise de abordagem qualitativa, natureza aplicada, com objetivo exploratório e procedimento de análise documental sobre a contribuição da jornalista e mestre em psicologia social Irede Cardoso para a psicologia articulada ao movimento feminista brasileiro. O estudo parte da experiência do programa de rádio Elas por Elas, compreendendo-o como uma original intervenção sobre a questão da mulher, tanto pelo diálogo que propunha com a psicologia, quanto pela utilização de instrumentos de comunicação via rádio e telefone, assim como pela colocação de questões específicas da mulher de forma coletivizada. Em seguida, são discutidos elementos da biografia de Irede Cardoso, abordando sua trajetória e produção acadêmica. Os resultados demonstram que o saber psi estudado na pesquisa formou esforços para a coletivização da pauta feminista.(AU)


The Dialogues with Feminine research addresses the trajectory of women in Brazilian psychology, seeking to highlight the specificities of psychological knowledge that has been dedicated to feminine issues and has produced a specific intervention of psychology by women and for women. This communication presents data from the first phase of the research, constituting an analysis of qualitative approach, applied nature, with an exploratory objective and documental analysis procedure about the contribution of the journalist and master in social psychology Irede Cardoso for the psychology articulated to the Brazilian feminist movement. The study begins with the experience of the radio program "Elas por Elas", understanding it as an original intervention on the issue of women, both for the dialogue it proposed with psychology, and for the use of radio and telephone, as well as by placing specific questions of the woman collectively. Then, elements of the biography of Irede Cardoso are discussed, detailing their trajectory and academic production. The results demonstrate that the psychological knowledge studied in the research has made efforts for the collectivization of the feminist agenda.(AU)


La investigación Diálogos con lo Femenino aborda la trayectoria de mujeres en la psicología brasileña, buscando evidenciar las especificidades del saber psi que se dedicó a las cuestiones de lo femenino y produjo una intervención específica de psicología hecha por mujeres y para mujeres. Esta comunicación presenta datos de la primera fase de la investigación, constituyendo un análisis de abordaje cualitativo, de naturaleza aplicada, con objetivo exploratorio y procedimiento de análisis documental sobre la contribución de la periodista y magíster en psicología social Irede Cardoso para la psicología articulada al movimiento feminista brasileño. El estudio se inició con la experiencia del programa de radio Ellas por Ellas, comprendiéndolo como una intervención original sobre la cuestión de la mujer, tanto por el diálogo que proponía con la psicología, como por la utilización de instrumentos de comunicación vía radio y teléfono, así como por la colocación de cuestiones específicas de la mujer de forma colectiva. A continuación, se discuten elementos de la biografía de Irede Cardoso, detallando su trayectoria y producción académica. Los resultados demuestran que el saber psi estudiado en la investigación significó un esfuerzo para la colectivización de la pauta feminista.(AU)


Assuntos
Psicologia/história , Mulheres , Feminismo , Rádio
16.
J Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682541

RESUMO

Background: Gay men, particularly middle aged and older men (over 40 years of age) experience a disproportionate burden of mental health issues compared to heterosexual men. Despite ample evidence that chronic exposure to structural and interpersonal discrimination negatively affect their mental health, little is known from gay men's perspectives how they understand mental health or their strategies to address their mental health concerns.Aim: This study's aim was to investigate how middle aged and older gay men experience their mental health and the mitigation strategies used to promote mental health.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 men who self-identified as gay. Data were analyzed using an interpretive descriptive approach.Results: Three overarching themes that best illustrate how men perceived their mental health and manage their mental health concerns were identified: gaining perspective, engaging with health services, and promoting and maintaining mental health.Conclusions: This study provides insight into how gay men come to acknowledge the validity of their mental health concerns, engage with health services, and their participation in other activities deemed essential for mental health promotion. These findings are ideally poised to inform development of health resources to promote and protect the mental health of aging gay men.

17.
Psychiatry Investig ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684713

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the factor structures of the a priori alternative models of the 12-items General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), its psychometric characteristics and gender measurement invariance in a sample of non-clinical Nigerian adolescents (n=1326; Mage=15.16). METHODS: The sample consisted of 606 (45.7%) males, who completed the GHQ-12 in addition to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R). We compared 21 models to identify which has the best fit indices applying confirmatory factor analysis. Gender measurement invariance was examined with nested multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). RESULTS: The model that best captures psychological distress was a three-factor model that was initially described among the Australian general population (CFI=0.952, SRMR=0.0310, RMSEA=0.042) (90%CI=0.035-0.049). The internal consistencies (ω) of this model and its dimensions were modestly satisfactory. The criterion validity of this model was supported via significant correlations with the other study measures. MGCFA supported the configural, metric and scalar gender invariances of this model. CONCLUSION: A three-factor GHQ-12 model (anhedonia/sleep disturbances; social performance and Loss of confidence) is useful as a psychological distress assessment tool among Nigerian adolescents.

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