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1.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 41(1): 45-52, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-2624

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las alteraciones del metabolismo óseo y mineral son muy frecuentes en la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC). El aumento en los niveles de fósforo condiciona enfermedad ósea, riego de calcificación y mayor mortalidad, por lo que cualquier estrategia encaminada a su reducción debe ser bienvenida. El último fármaco incorporado al arsenal terapéutico para tratar la hiperfosforemia en la ERC es el oxihidróxido sucroférrico (OSF). OBJETIVO: Analizar la eficacia y seguridad de OSF en 3 cohortes de pacientes, una con ERC avanzada no en diálisis, otra en diálisis peritoneal y finalmente otra en hemodiálisis, seguidas durante 6 meses. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional multicéntrico, prospectivo, de práctica clínica. Se analizaron variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. Se valoró la evolución de parámetros relacionados con las alteraciones del metabolismo óseo y mineral y la anemia. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron en el estudio 85 pacientes (62 ± 12 años, 64% varones, 34% diabéticos), 25 con ERC avanzada no en diálisis, 25 en diálisis peritoneal y finalmente 35 en hemodiálisis. En 66 pacientes (78%) OSF fue el primer captor del fósforo; en los otros 19 se sustituyó un captor previo por OSF, por falta de tolerancia o eficacia. La dosis inicial de OSF fue 964 ± 323 mg/día. Globalmente los niveles séricos de fósforo experimentaron un descenso significativo a los 3 meses de tratamiento (19,6%; p < 0,001). No hubo diferencias en la eficacia del fármaco al comparar las distintas poblaciones analizadas. A lo largo del estudio no se modificaron los niveles de calcio, PTHi, ferritina, índice de saturación de la transferrina ni hemoglobina, aunque se manifestó una tendencia al aumento de los 2 últimos. Doce pacientes (14%) abandonaron el seguimiento, 10 por efectos adversos gastrointestinales (diarrea fundamentalmente) y 2 por pérdida de seguimiento (trasplante renal). La dosis media del fármaco que recibieron los pacientes se incrementó a lo largo del tiempo hasta alcanzar los 1.147 ± 371 mg/día. CONCLUSIONES: OSF es una opción eficaz para el tratamiento de la hiperfosforemia en pacientes con ERC tanto en fases avanzadas de la enfermedad como en diálisis. Encontramos una eficacia similar en los 3 grupos analizados. A mayor nivel basal de fósforo, mayor descenso de sus niveles séricos. Con dosis de alrededor de 1.000 g/día se puede conseguir un notable descenso de los niveles de fósforo. La diarrea fue el efecto secundario más frecuente, aunque tuvo poca importancia generalmente


INTRODUCTION: Alterations in bone and mineral metabolism are very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase in phosphate levels leads to bone disease, risk of calcification and greater mortality, so any strategy aimed at reducing them should be welcomed. The latest drug incorporated into the therapeutic arsenal to treat hyperphosphataemia in CKD is sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SFO). OBJECTIVE: To analyse the efficacy and safety of SFO in 3 cohorts of patients, one with advanced CKD not on dialysis, another on peritoneal dialysis and the last on haemodialysis, followed for 6 months. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicentre study in clinical practice. Clinical and epidemiological variables were analysed. The evolution of parameters relating to alterations in bone and mineral metabolism and anaemia was analysed. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were included in the study (62 ± 12 years, 64% male, 34% diabetic), 25 with advanced CKD not on dialysis, 25 on peritoneal dialysis and lastly, 35 on haemodialysis. In 66 patients (78%), SFO was the first phosphate binder; in the other 19, SFO replaced a previous phosphate binder due to poor tolerance or efficacy. The initial dose of SFO was 964 ± 323 mg/day. Overall, serum phosphate levels saw a significant reduction at 3 months of treatment (19.6%; P < .001). There were no differences in the efficacy of the drug when the different populations analysed were compared. Over the course of the study, there were no changes to levels of calcium, PTHi, ferritin, transferrin saturation index or haemoglobin, although there was a tendency for the last 2 to increase. Twelve patients (14%) withdrew from follow-up, 10 due to gastrointestinal adverse effects (primarily diarrhoea) and 2 were lost to follow-up (kidney transplant). The mean dose of the drug that the patients received increased over time, up to 1,147 ± 371 mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: SFO is an effective option for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with CKD both in the advanced phases of the disease and on dialysis. We found similar efficacy across the 3 groups analysed. The higher their baseline phosphate level, the greater the reduction in the serum levels. A notable reduction in phosphate levels can be achieved with doses of around 1,000 mg/day. Diarrhoea was the most common side effect, although it generally was not significant

3.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143763, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288258

RESUMO

This study investigated waste activated sludge (WAS) and food waste (FW) co-fermentation in batch assays to produce carboxylic acids. Three mixtures (50%, 70% and 90% WAS in VS basis) were studied under different conditions: with and without extra alkalinity, and with and without WAS auto-hydrolysis pre-treatment. All tests were carried out at 35 °C, without pH adjustment and without external inoculum. Experimental results showed that co-fermentation yields, including volatile fatty acids and lactic acid, were always higher than WAS and FW mono-fermentation yields (ca. 100 and 80 mgCOD/gVS, respectively). Co-fermentation yields increased as the proportion of FW in the mixture increased, indicating that the improvement was primarily due to a higher FW degradation under co-fermentation conditions. The maximum co-fermentation yield was on average 480 mgCOD/gVS for the WAS/FW_50/50 mixture. The importance of pH on co-fermentation performance was evident in the experiments carried out with extra alkalinity, which showed that the proportion of WAS in the mixture should be high enough to keep the pH above 5.0. However, fermenters operational conditions should also prevent the enrichment of acetic acid consuming microorganisms. WAS auto-hydrolysis pre-treatment did not enhance co-fermentation yields but showed minor kinetic improvements. Regarding the product profile, butyric acid was enriched as the proportion of FW in the mixture increased and the concomitant pH decreased to the detriment of propionic acid. Propionic acid prevailed under neutral pH in the WAS mono-fermentation and the WAS/FW_90/10 mixture.

4.
Nefrologia ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358625

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Subclinical cardiac structural alterations have prognostic value in these patients. The aim was to analyse the prevalence of valvular calcification, the evolution and the relationship with different risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Part of the sample of the NEFRONA study was randomly selected. Aortic and mitral valve calcification were analysed in echocardiograms performed at the baseline visit and at 24 months. RESULTS: We included 397 patients, the estimated basal glomerular filtrate (eGFR) was 33ml/min with significant decrease to 30.9ml/min. There was an increase in the area of carotid and femoral plaque, as well as an increase in patients with aortic and mitral calcification at 24 months. A positive association of mitral calcification at 24 months with age, ankle-brachial index (ABI) and calcium-phosphorus product (CaxP) at baseline visit was observed, without association with eGFR. Aortic calcification at 24 months was positively associated with age, phosphorous and total carotid plaque area at baseline, with no relationship to eGFR. CONCLUSIONS: A significant prevalence of valvular calcification was observed in patients with CKD without known cardiovascular disease.Two-year progression was observed independently of the eGFR. Patients with higher risk of mitral valve calcification were those with older age, higher ABI and CaxP product. Patients with a higher risk of aortic calcification were those with older age, higher phosphorous levels and larger area of carotid plaque. Identifying these higher risk patients would help to avoid future cardiovascular events intensifying follow-ups.

5.
Physiol Int ; 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372912

RESUMO

We aimed to analyse the complexity and fractal nature of heartbeat during constant exercise, at three different intensities, and recovery.Fourteen healthy men underwent 4 separate sessions. The first session was an incremental treadmill test to determine ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS). Each subject ran at VT1 and VT2 speeds and MAS (second, third and fourth day). The duration of VT1 and VT2 loads were selected in such a way that the product intensity-duration (training load) was the same. Sample Entropy (SampEn) and slope of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA α1) were measured during the whole session.DFA α1 declines with exercise, being less in the VT1 trial than in the other two.SampEn shows no significant change during exercise. The three tests induce the same decline in SampEn, but at the highest intensity (MAS) tends to decline during the exercise itself, whereas at lower intensities (VT1, VT2) the decline is delayed (10 min of recovery). Subsequently, SampEn at VT1 gradually recovers, whereas at VT2 and MAS it remains stable during recovery.In conclusion, exercise produces a loss of heartbeat complexity, but not fractal nature, during recovery and it depends on intensity.

7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 316: 110555, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152659

RESUMO

Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker widely used in the treatment of high blood pressure and coronary heart disease. Intoxication can lead to reflex tachycardia following massive hypotension and death. The objective of this work was to study the post-mortem concentrations of amlodipine in 62 patients in order to determine whether the use of the reference concentrations from the living patients was applicable in postmortem setting, and to define more precisely the fatal and non-fatal postmortem concentrations of amlodipine. The amlodipine concentrations were measured in femoral whole blood by LC-MS/MS validated method. When sufficient information was available, the data were classified into 2 different groups, based on the conclusions of the autopsy and toxicological results: G1: non-toxic death and G2: fatal poisoning involving amlodipine alone or as part of a multidrug poisoning. The median concentration of amlodipine [1st quartile - 3rd quartile] of the whole population (n = 62) was 81 [42-134] ng/mL. Twenty-two cases were classified as G1 and thirteen as G2. The observed median [1st quartile - 3rd quartile] concentration of amlodipine was 66 [40.5-79.5] ng/mL in G1 and 240 [170-404] ng/mL in G2. The median concentrations observed in "non-toxic" deaths (66 ng/mL) were three times higher than those usually observed in living patients. Amlodipine distribution ratio between plasma and whole blood concentrations seems insufficient to explain this difference and postmortem redistribution from organs should be considered, and could suggest the same redistribution pattern for other drugs belonging to the same family.

8.
Semergen ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the diagnostic management of patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD) by primary care physicians (PC). METHODOLOGY: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted based on a structured questionnaire. The content of the questionnaire was based on a review of the literature, and was validated by 3 AD experts. It included 23 questions, and was addressed to primary care physicians (PC). This sub-study will analyse questions related to the detection and diagnosis of AD. RESULTS: A total of 1,029 PC participated in the study. Almost all (96.99%) said that DA is a determining factor for cardiovascular risk (CVR), even with LDL-C targets. Residual CVR was evaluated by 88.43% in their clinical practice, but only 27.89% in secondary prevention. Most of the PCs used LDL-c-non-HDL-c (55.49% vs 20.02%) in AD as a control objective, and 15.35% used TG, and 9.14% HDL-C. For the diagnosis of AD, 82.22% used TC, TG, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C. PC physicians used the TC / HDL-C atherogenic ratio (53.06%) and LDL-C / HDL-C ratio (49.56%), considering them useful / very useful (86.30% and 85.04%, respectively), with only 28.08% using the TG / HDL-C index, with 69.29% considering it useful / very useful. CONCLUSIONS: The PCs have a high level of knowledge of the guidelines. Underdiagnosis continues, with heterogeneity in determining objectives, and low use of the TG / HDL-C index to evaluate these patients. Greater awareness is needed for the detection and diagnosis of AD.

9.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the clinical and biological factors associated with negative 99mTc-MIBI scanning in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was designed in 195 patients (mean age: 59.2±13.0years; 77% woman) with PHPT (calcium: 11.3±1.1mg/dl and PTH: 218±295pg/ml) studied in endocrinology setting between 2013 and 2020. An univariate and multivariate analysis was made to evaluate the clinical and biological factors associated with negative 99mTc-MIBI scanning. RESULTS: 50 patients (26%) with negative 99mTc-MIBI scanning had lower PTH levels (146±98 vs. 244±334; p<0.001), adenomas with smaller sonographic dimensions (maximum diameter: 1.2±0.4 vs. 1.7±0.9cm; p=0.001 and volume: 0.36±0.43 vs. 1.7±4.1cm3; p<0.001), localized more frequently in upper parathyroid glands (37% vs. 14%; p=0.005) and associated more frequently to thyroid nodules (72% vs. 57%; p=0.045) than patients with positive scanning. 116 patients were operated and parathyroid adenomas were smaller (maximum diameter: 1.3±0.5 vs. 1.9±1.1cm; p=0.008 and volume: 0.30±0.20 vs. 1.2±1.1cm3; p<0.001), less heavy (567±282 vs. 1470±1374mg; p=0.030) and were localized more frequently in upper situation (65% vs. 16%; p<0.001) than patients with positive scanning. In the multivariate analysis an independent association between negative 99mTc-MIBI scanning and size of removed adenoma ≤1cm (OR: 5.77; 95% CI: 1.46-22.71) and upper adenoma localization were observed (OR: 8.05; 95% IC: 2.22-29.16). CONCLUSIONS: One in four patients studied for PHPT had a negative 99mTc-MIBI scanning and were independent associated with size of adenoma ≤1cm and upper adenoma localization.

10.
Nefrologia ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239181

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alterations in bone and mineral metabolism are very common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase in phosphate levels leads to bone disease, risk of calcification and greater mortality, so any strategy aimed at reducing them should be welcomed. The latest drug incorporated into the therapeutic arsenal to treat hyperphosphataemia in CKD is sucroferric oxyhydroxide (SFO). OBJECTIVE: To analyse the efficacy and safety of SFO in 3 cohorts of patients, one with advanced CKD not on dialysis, another on peritoneal dialysis and the last on haemodialysis, followed for 6 months. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicentre study in clinical practice. Clinical and epidemiological variables were analysed. The evolution of parameters relating to alterations in bone and mineral metabolism and anaemia was analysed. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were included in the study (62±12 years, 64% male, 34% diabetic), 25 with advanced CKD not on dialysis, 25 on peritoneal dialysis and lastly, 35 on haemodialysis. In 66 patients (78%), SFO was the first phosphate binder; in the other 19, SFO replaced a previous phosphate binder due to poor tolerance or efficacy. The initial dose of SFO was 964±323mg/day. Overall, serum phosphate levels saw a significant reduction at 3 months of treatment (19.6%; P<.001). There were no differences in the efficacy of the drug when the different populations analysed were compared. Over the course of the study, there were no changes to levels of calcium, PTHi, ferritin, transferrin saturation index or haemoglobin, although there was a tendency for the last 2 to increase. Twelve patients (14%) withdrew from follow-up, 10 due to gastrointestinal adverse effects (primarily diarrhoea) and 2 were lost to follow-up (kidney transplant). The mean dose of the drug that the patients received increased over time, up to 1,147±371mg/day. CONCLUSIONS: SFO is an effective option for the treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with CKD both in the advanced phases of the disease and on dialysis. We found similar efficacy across the 3 groups analysed. The higher their baseline phosphate level, the greater the reduction in the serum levels. A notable reduction in phosphate levels can be achieved with doses of around 1,000mg/day. Diarrhoea was the most common side effect, although it generally was not significant.

11.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098200

RESUMO

We report the nationwide experience with solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Spain until 13 July 2020. We compiled information for 778 (423 kidney, 113 HSCT, 110 liver, 69 heart, 54 lung, 8 pancreas, 1 multivisceral) recipients. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 52-70), and 66% were male. The incidence of COVID-19 in SOT recipients was two-fold higher compared to the Spanish general population. The median interval from transplantation was 59 months (IQR: 18-131). Infection was hospital-acquired in 13% of cases. No donor-derived COVID-19 was suspected. Most patients (89%) were admitted to the hospital. Therapies included hydroxychloroquine (84%), azithromycin (53%), protease inhibitors (37%), and interferon-ß (5%), whereas immunomodulation was based on corticosteroids (41%) and tocilizumab (21%). Adjustment of immunosuppression was performed in 85% of patients. At the time of analysis, complete follow-up was available from 652 patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome occurred in 35% of patients. Ultimately, 174 (27%) patients died. In univariate analysis, risk factors for death were lung transplantation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.4-4.6), age >60 years (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 2.5-5.5), and hospital-acquired COVID-19 (OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9-4.9).

12.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 156: 103112, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035734

RESUMO

The promise of precision medicine as a model to customize health care to the individual patient is heavily dependent upon new genetic tools to classify and characterize diseases and their hosts. Liquid biopsies serve as a safe alternative to solid biopsies and are thus a useful and critical component to fully realizing personalized medicine. The International Liquid Biopsy Standardization Alliance (ILSA) comprises organizations and foundations that recognize the importance of working towards the global use of liquid biopsy in oncology practice to support clinical decision making and regulatory considerations and seek to promote it in their communities. This manuscript provides an overview of the independent liquid biopsy- and standardization-based programs engaged with ILSA, their objectives and progress to date, and the tools and resources each is developing to contribute to the field. It also describes the unique areas of effort as well as synergy found within the group.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biópsia , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Medicina de Precisão
13.
Am J Med Sci ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have difficulty maintaining optimal vitamin D status due to pancreatic insufficiency-induced malabsorption, inadequate sunlight exposure, and poor intake of vitamin D containing foods. Vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of pulmonary exacerbations of CF. The objective of this study was to assess factors impacting vitamin D status in patients with CF recently hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation of CF. METHODS: This was a pre-planned analysis of vitamin D intake in patients enrolled in a multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study examining vitamin D therapy for pulmonary exacerbation of CF. Demographic information, responses from a habitual sun exposure questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, and vitamin D supplement usage were queried and compared to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. RESULTS: A total of 48 subjects were included in this analysis. Subjects were taking approximately 1,200 IU of vitamin D daily. Reported vitamin D intake, age, race, employment, and education were not significantly associated with vitamin D status in this population. However, smoking status, sunlight exposure in the last 3 years, and skin type (in the bivariate model) were all significantly associated with vitamin D status (all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sunlight exposure was the most predictive determinant of vitamin D status in patients with CF prior to pulmonary exacerbation. Subjects reported vitamin D intake below the recommended amounts. The role and mode of optimizing vitamin D status prior to a pulmonary exacerbation needs further investigation.

14.
Kidney Int ; 98(6): 1540-1548, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979369

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate 28-day mortality after COVID-19 diagnosis in the European kidney replacement therapy population. In addition, we determined the role of patient characteristics, treatment factors, and country on mortality risk with the use of ERA-EDTA Registry data on patients receiving kidney replacement therapy in Europe from February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. Additional data on all patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were collected from 7 European countries encompassing 4298 patients. COVID-19-attributable mortality was calculated using propensity score-matched historic control data and after 28 days of follow-up was 20.0% (95% confidence interval 18.7%-21.4%) in 3285 patients receiving dialysis and 19.9% (17.5%-22.5%) in 1013 recipients of a transplant. We identified differences in COVID-19 mortality across countries, and an increased mortality risk in older patients receiving kidney replacement therapy and male patients receiving dialysis. In recipients of kidney transplants ≥75 years of age, 44.3% (35.7%-53.9%) did not survive COVID-19. Mortality risk was 1.28 (1.02-1.60) times higher in transplant recipients compared with matched dialysis patients. Thus, the pandemic has had a substantial effect on mortality in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy, a highly vulnerable population due to underlying chronic kidney disease and a high prevalence of multimorbidity.

15.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 44(6): 363-370, ago.-sept. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190825

RESUMO

En enero de 2020 China identificó un nuevo virus de la familia de los Coronaviridae como causante de varios casos de neumonía de origen desconocido. Inicialmente confinado a la ciudad de Wuhan, se extendió posteriormente fuera de las fronteras chinas. En España, el primer caso se declaró el 31 de enero de 2020. El 11 de marzo, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró el brote de coronavirus como pandemia. El 16 de marzo había 139 países afectados. Ante esta situación, las Sociedades Científicas SEMICYUC y SEEIUC han decidido la elaboración de este plan de contingencia para dar respuesta a las necesidades que conllevará esta nueva enfermedad. Se pretende estimar la magnitud del problema e identificar las necesidades asistenciales, de recursos humanos y materiales, de manera que los servicios de medicina intensiva del país tengan una herramienta que les permita una planificación óptima y realista con que responder a la pandemia


In January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified a new virus of the Coronaviridae family as the cause of several cases of pneumonia of unknown aetiology. The outbreak was initially confined to Wuhan City, but then spread outside Chinese borders. On 31 January 2020, the first case was declared in Spain. On 11 March 2020, The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus outbreak a pandemic. On 16 March 2020, there were 139 countries affected. In this situation, the Scientific Societies SEMICYUC and SEEIUC, have decided to draw up this Contingency Plan to guide the response of the Intensive Care Services. The objectives of this plan are to estimate the magnitude of the problem and identify the necessary human and material resources. This is to provide the Spanish Intensive Medicine Services with a tool to programme optimal response strategies


Assuntos
Humanos , Planejamento em Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Espanha/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
16.
Prev Vet Med ; 182: 105102, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739695

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) in small ruminants is a neglected disease despite its major impact on goat and sheep production and the global public health. The awareness of the role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of animal TB has increased in the last two decades, however, there is a lack of standardization of procedures and robust quantitative estimates on the accuracy of diagnostic TB tests in the scientific literature. To address this knowledge gap, all the available information regarding the use of ante-mortem diagnostic techniques in small ruminants was collected and summarized through a systematic review process. Furthermore, a random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to separately estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of cell-based tests among the retrieved studies in goats. Studies included in the meta-analysis were also evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies included in systematic reviews adapted for animal diagnostic tests (VETQUADAS). Median pooled Se estimates of the single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test (ranged from 0.51 to 0.59), the comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIT) test (ranged from 0.30 to 0.50) and the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) (ranged from 0.66 to 0.72) were lower than that reported previously in cattle, regardless the interpretation criteria and the reporting of MAP infection or vaccination. However, the specificity was adequate for all the tests (ranged from 0.95 to 0.99), except for the SIT test in MAP vaccinated herds (ranged from 0.78 to 0.90). This study provides an overview of the accuracy of diagnostic tests for TB in goats, however, the considerable between-study heterogeneity found hampered the conclusive interpretation of the pooled Se and Sp estimates. Therefore, further studies in small ruminants are necessary to optimize the diagnostic Se, which could help to design effective control strategies, accelerate the eradication of TB in these species and harmonize test procedures.

17.
Appl Surf Sci ; 530: 147294, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834267

RESUMO

InP-In2O3 colloidal quantum dots (QDs) synthesized by a single-step chemical method without injection of hot precursors (one-pot) were investigated. Specifically, the effect of the tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine, P(TMS)3, precursor concentration on the QDs properties was studied to effectively control the size and shape of the samples with a minimum size dispersion. The effect of the P(TMS)3 precursor concentration on the optical, structural, chemical surface, and electronic properties of InP-In2O3 QDs is discussed. The absorption spectra of InP-In2O3 colloids, obtained by both UV-Vis spectrophotometry and photoacoustic spectroscopy, showed a red-shift in the high-energy regime as the concentration of the P(TMS)3 increased. In addition, these results were used to determine the band-gap energy of the InP-In2O3 nanoparticles, which changed between 2.0 and 2.9 eV. This was confirmed by Photoluminescence spectroscopy, where a broad-band emission displayed from 2.0 to 2.9 eV is associated with the excitonic transition of the InP and In2O3 QDs. In2O3 and InP QDs with diameters ranging approximately from 8 to 10 nm and 6 to 9 nm were respectively found by HR-TEM. The formation of the InP and In2O3 phases was confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

18.
Front Genet ; 11: 711, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32849773

RESUMO

Sport performance is influenced by several factors, including genetic susceptibility. In the past years, specific single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated to sport performance; however, these effects should be considered in multivariable prediction systems since they are related to a polygenic inheritance. The aim of this study was to design a genetic endurance prediction score (GES) of endurance performance and analyze its association with anthropometric, nutritional and sport efficiency variables in a cross-sectional study within fifteen male cyclists. A statistically significant positive relationship between GES and the VO2 maximum (P = 0.033), VO2 VT1 (P = 0.049) and VO2 VT2 (P < 0.001) was observed. Moreover, additional remarkable associations between genotype and the anthropometric, nutritional and sport performance variables, were achieved. In addition, an interesting link between the habit of consuming caffeinated beverages and the GES was observed. The outcomes of the present study indicate a potential use of this genetic prediction algorithm in the sports' field, which may facilitate the finding of genetically talented athletes, improve their training and food habits, as well as help in the improvement of physical conditions of amateurs.

19.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 18(5): 515-525, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845464

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The skeletal system provides an important role to support body structure and protect organs. The complexity of its architecture and components makes it challenging to deliver the right amount of the drug into bone regions, particularly avascular cartilage lesions. In this review, we describe the recent advance of bone-targeting methods using bisphosphonates, polymeric oligopeptides, and nanoparticles on osteoporosis and rare skeletal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Hydroxyapatite (HA), a calcium phosphate with the formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is a primary matrix of bone mineral that includes a high concentration of positively charged calcium ion and is found only in the bone. This unique feature makes HA a general targeting moiety to the entire skeletal system. We have applied bone-targeting strategy using acidic amino acid oligopeptides into lysosomal enzymes, demonstrating the effects of bone-targeting enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapy on bone and cartilage lesions in inherited skeletal disorders. Virus or no-virus gene therapy using techniques of engineered capsid or nanomedicine has been studied preclinically for skeletal diseases. Efficient drug delivery into bone lesions remains an unmet challenge in clinical practice. Bone-targeting therapies based on gene transfer can be potential as new candidates for skeletal diseases.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13507, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782289

RESUMO

Nanocomposites with different ratios of titanium dioxide and bismuth vanadate [TiO2]/[BiVO4] give rise to compatible electronic band structure alignment at their interfaces to ensure enhanced photoactivated charge transfer under visible light. The sol-gel method and suitable post-synthesis thermal treatments were used to synthesize different compositions with stabilized anatase phase of TiO2 and monoclinic scheelite polymorph BiVO4. Structural, electronic and optical characterizations were performed and the results were analysed as a function of the stoichiometry, in which both crystalline structures show a clear junction formation among their characteristic stacking planes. Photocatalytic and (photo) electrochemical responses of the nanocomposites were investigated and tested for the degradation of azo dyes (Acid Blue-113, AB-113) (~ 99%) under visible light radiation. The nanocomposite with a mass ratio of (1:10) shows the highest photocatalytic efficiency compared to the other compositions. HRTEM images showed marked regions in which both crystalline structures form a clear junction and their characteristic planes. However, the increase of BiVO4 content in the network overcomes the photocatalytic activity due to the decrease in the reduction potential of the photo-generated electrons with high recombination rates.

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