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1.
Infectio ; 23(3): 271-304, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002162

RESUMO

Abstract Invasive Candidiasis (IC) and candidemia (as its most frequent manifestation) have become the main cause of opportunistic mycosis at hospital settings. This study, made by members of the Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), was aimed at providing a set of recommendations for the management, follow-up and prevention of IC / candidemia and mucous membrane candida infection in adult, pediatric and neonatal patients in a hospital setting, including the hemato-oncological and critical care units. All the data obtained through an exhaustive search were reviewed and analyzed in a comprehensive manner by all the members of the group, and the recommendations issued are being made after a careful review of the scientific literature available and the consensus of all specialists involved; the emergence of Candida Spp. problem is highlighted and a correct orientation to health professionals regarding the management of patients with candidiasis is provided in a rational and practical way, emphasizing patient evaluation, diagnostic strategies, prophylaxis, empirical treatment, directed treatment and preventative therapy.


Resumen La Candidiasis Invasora (CI) y la candidemia, como su manifestación más frecuente, se ha convertido en la principal causa de micosis oportunista a nivel hospitalario. Este manuscrito realizado por miembros de la Asociación Colombiana de Infectología (ACIN), tuvo como objetivo proporcionar un conjunto de recomendaciones para manejo, seguimiento y prevención de la CI/candidemia y de la infección candidiásica de mucosas, en población adulta, pediátrica y neonatal, en un entorno hospitalario, incluyendo las unidades hemato-oncológicas y unidades de cuidado crítico. Todos los datos obtenidos mediante una búsqueda exhaustiva, fueron revisados y analizados de manera amplia por todos los miembros del grupo, y las recomendaciones emitidas se elaboraron luego de la evaluación de la literatura científica disponible, y el consenso de todos los especialistas involucrados, reconociendo el problema de la emergencia de las infecciones por Candida Spp. y brindando una correcta orientación a los profesionales de la salud sobre el manejo de pacientes con enfermedad candidiásica, de una forma racional y práctica, enfatizando en la evaluación del paciente, estrategias de diagnóstico, profilaxis, tratamiento empírico, tratamiento dirigido y terapia preventiva.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(8)2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310232

RESUMO

We report 7 cases of melioidosis in Colombia and comparision of 4 commercial systems for identifying Burkholderia pseudomallei. Phoenix systems were not a definitive method for identifying B. pseudomallei. For accurate identification, we recommend including this bacterium in the library databases of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry systems in Latin America.

3.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 106, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory has modified the approaches for the identification of fungi. Thanks to this tool, it is possible to identify cryptic species, which possess critical susceptibility patterns. Clinical strains were identified using the MicroScan and MALDI-TOF MS systems. Discrepant results from both methods were investigated using ITS rDNA barcoding. Finally, these isolates were also tested for in vitro susceptibility. RESULTS: The percentage of agreement between both methods to 498 yeast isolates was of 93.6% (32 discrepant isolates). The concordance of ITS sequencing with MALDI-TOF MS was higher (99%) than that of MicroScan (94%). Several of these discordant yeasts displayed high MICs for antifungal agents. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the need of the MS and molecular approaches such as MALDI-TOF MS and ITS rDNA barcoding for the correct identification of emerging or cryptic yeast species; besides, some of these could be multidrug resistant. This work was the first experience in the implementation of the MALDI-TOF MS technology in Colombia. We found the first uncommon yeasts including Candida auris and we could identify Trichosporon faecalis. Our work highlights a clear necessity of an accurate yeast identification as a much more pertinent technique than the susceptibility profiles, because the most unusual yeasts exhibit resistance profiles to the few available antifungals.

4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 10-18, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011451

RESUMO

Resumen La melioidosis es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por Burkholderia pseudomallei cuyo diagnóstico clínico puede ser difícil debido a su variada presentación clínica y a las dificultades del diagnóstico microbiológico, por lo cual pueden requerirse técnicas moleculares para su adecuada identificación una vez se sospecha su presencia. Son pocos los antibióticos disponibles para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad y, además, deben usarse durante un tiempo prolongado. Aunque se conoce por ser endémica en Tailandia, Malasia, Singapur, Vietnam y Australia, en Colombia se han reportado algunos pocos casos. Se presenta un caso de melioidosis en la región norte de Colombia, se hace una revisión de las características clínicas y el tratamiento, y se describe la epidemiología local de esta enfermedad.


Abstract Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei whose clinical diagnosis can be difficult due not only to its varied clinical presentation but also to the difficulties in the microbiological diagnosis.Thus, it may be necessary to use molecular techniques for its proper identification once it is suspected. There are few antibiotics available for the treatment of this disease, which must be used over a long period of time. Although it is known to be endemic in Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, and Australia, in Colombia there are few reported cases. We describe a case of melioidosis in the northern region of Colombia. Additionally, we review its clinical characteristics and treatment and we describe the local epidemiology of this disease.

5.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(7): 696-702, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046613

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost derived from the hospitalization of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Colombia between 2011 and 2015. This is an analysis of the direct cost of PLHIV hospitalization from the perspective of an insurer of the Colombian General Social Security System. The costs were calculated in Colombian pesos and corrected for inflation on the basis of the 2017 Consumer Price Index of the Bank of the Republic of Colombia. It was converted to US dollars at the Market Representative Exchange Rate of the same year. We analyzed 1129 hospitalizations in 612 PLHIV, of which 12% started with a diagnosis of HIV during the same hospitalization, with the majority in the AIDS stage (63%). The median overall cost of hospitalizations was US$1509 (25th and 75th percentiles: US$711-US$3254), being even higher in patients with AIDS and as the CD4 T lymphocyte count decreased. The cost derived from the medical care of PLHIV increases as the clinical control of the disease worsens, and it is a key indicator of the impact of the strategies implemented for the timely identification of the infection and subsequent management of the disease.

6.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 20: 4-6, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148054

RESUMO

Mucormycosis caused by Apophysomyces variabilis is rarely reported in humans. A case of A. variabilis infection in an immunocompetent men after friction burns in a car accident is described. The infection presented as a rapidly progressive necrotizing infection of the skin and soft tissue, which required extensive surgical debridement and total colonic defunctioning colostomy associated with prolonged antifungal therapy. A. variabilis infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections in immunocompetent individuals.

9.
Univ. med ; 59(2): 1-15, 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-995812

RESUMO

Introducción: La infección por levaduras del género Candida representa la causa más común de infecciones fúngicas invasivas. Su alta incidencia y la creciente resistencia frente a los azoles y, recientemente, a las equinocandinas ha generado la necesidad de buscar nuevas alternativas farmacológicas. Esta revisión presenta las principales alternativas farmacológicas en estudio frente a Candida resistente a equinocandinas. Métodos: Se buscó literatura referente al tema en las bases de datos Bireme, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Pubmed y Scopus. Se incluyeron 15 artículos en esta revisión. Resultados: Se exploran diferentes alternativas, incluyendo el aumento de dosis de las equinocandinas, su combinación con otros medicamentos y nuevos compuestos en estudio. Conclusión: A pesar de que las infecciones por Candida resistente a equinocandinas aún representan un desafío, dos alternativas farmacológicas se presentan como promisorias: la combinación con medicamentos existentes como el diclofenaco y nuevos compuestos que se encuentran actualmente en fase II de estudios clínicos.


Introduction: Candida yeasts infections represent the most common cause of invasive fungal infections. Its high incidence and increasing resistance to azoles and, recently, to echinocandins has generated the need to find new therapeutic options. This review presents the main pharmacological alternatives in research against echinocandins resistant Candida. Methods: A search was conducted in the databases of Bireme, Clinical Key, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs, Pubmed and Scopus. 15 articles were included in this review. Results: Several alternatives are explored, including increased doses of echinocandins, combination with other drugs and new compounds under study. Conclusion: Although resistant Candida infections still represent a challenge, two pharmacological approaches show promise: The combination with existing medicaments such as diclofenac, and new compounds that are currently in Phase II of clinical trials.


Assuntos
Humanos , Candida/patogenicidade , Equinocandinas , Resistência a Medicamentos , Antifúngicos
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 49: 107-10, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis caused by Saksenaea erythrospora is rarely reported in humans. Three previous cases have been reported in the literature, two associated with trauma (a sailing accident in Argentina and a combat trauma in Iraq) and one as a cause of invasive rhinosinusitis (India), all in immunocompetent patients . The first case of mucormycosis following esthetic surgery, associated with medical tourism, is reported herein. CASE REPORT: A case study of an S. erythrospora infection in an immunocompetent woman after the completion of esthetic surgery (dermolipectomy and breast augmentation) is reported. The infection presented as a rapidly progressive necrotizing infection of the skin and soft tissue, which required a bilateral mastectomy and extensive surgical debridement associated with prolonged antifungal therapy. The organism was identified phenotypically and confirmed biologically after rDNA amplification and sequencing. Two months later, the patient remains hospitalized awaiting the start of reconstructive surgeries. The present case is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first report from Colombia. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue that evolve rapidly after cosmetic surgery performed in tropical or subtropical countries.


Assuntos
Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Turismo Médico , Mucormicose/etiologia , Adulto , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Mucorales/isolamento & purificação
14.
Am J Infect Control ; 44(11): e235-e241, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27317408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of a multidimensional infection control approach and the use of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Surveillance Online System on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates from June 2003-April 2010. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, before-after surveillance study of 2,564 patients hospitalized in 4 adult intensive care units (ICUs) and 424 patients in 2 pediatric ICUs of 4 hospitals in 2 cities of Colombia. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of CLABSI applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network definitions. During intervention, we implemented the INICC multidimensional approach and the ISOS, which included a bundle of infection prevention practice interventions, education, outcome surveillance, process surveillance, feedback on CLABSI rates and consequences, and performance feedback of process surveillance. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to estimate the effect of the intervention on the CLABSI rate. RESULTS: The baseline rate of 12.9 CLABSIs per 1,000 central line (CL) days, with 3,032 CL days and 39 CLABSIs, was reduced to 3.5 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days, with 3,686 CL days and 13 CLABSIs, accounting for a 73% CLABSI rate reduction (relative risk, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.52; P=.002). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing the INICC multidimensional infection control approach for CLABSI prevention was associated with a significant reduction in the CLABSI rate of ICUs of Colombia.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Sepse/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. salud pública ; 13(4): 691-702, agosto 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-625637

RESUMO

Objective This study was aimed at analyzing the phenotypical behavior of Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to antibiotics currently available in Colombia for its treatment. Methods An ecological time-series study was conducted based on information regarding A. baumannii resistance to available antibiotics gathered through a Colombian surveillance system involving 33 reference hospitals. Descriptive analysis and modeling forecasting were also carried out. Results The sample included 5.415 A. baumannii isolates collected from 33 hospitals throughout Colombia. This microorganism was the eighth most frequently isolated pathogen in hospital settings, having 3.8 % isolation frequency in intensive care units (ICUs).The study recorded the presence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains since 2001, as well as a dramatic increase in A. baumannii strains having decreased susceptibility to the antibiotics currently available on the market (30 % to 70 %). Conclusion A. baumannii has shown a clear transition to a multidrug resistance profile in Colombia during recent years which includes resistance to important second-line antibiotics, such as carbapenems.


Objetivo Analizar la conducta fenotípica de resistencia del Acinetobacter baumannii a los antibióticos disponibles para su tratamiento en Colombia. Métodos Se llevó a cabo un estudio ecológico de series de tiempo basado en la información de resistencia del A. baumannii a los antibióticos, a partir del sistema de vigilancia colombiana de 33 hospitales de referencia. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y un modelo de pronóstico. Resultados Se incluyeron 5 415 aislamientos de A. baumannii recolectados en 33 hospitales a través del país. Este microorganismo fue el octavo patógeno más aislado en el escenario hospitalario, con una frecuencia de aislamiento de 3,9 % en unidades de cuidado intensivo (UCIs). Se registra la presencia de cepas de A. baumannii multirresistentes desde el año 2001, así como un dramático incremento de cepas de A. baumannii con menor susceptibilidad a los antibióticos disponibles en el mercado, con una variación del 30 al 70 %. Conclusión En los últimos años, en Colombia, el A. baumannii ha mostrado una clara transición hacia un perfil multirresistente que incluye la resistencia a antibióticos de segunda línea como los carbapenems.

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