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1.
J Food Biochem ; : e13343, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588462

RESUMO

This study was aimed to investigate the antihemorrhoidal effects of ethanol (CBE) and water extracts (CBW) of Capsella bursa-pastoris, an edible plant and a precipitant (CBW-1) obtained from the CBW in croton oil (CO)-induced hemorrhoid model in rats. CBW-1 was contain three organic acids, citric acid (36.09%), malic acid (35.56%), and quinic acid (17.73%). Hemorrhoids were evaluated by histopathology of recto-anal tissues and biochemical parameters in plasma and recto-anal tissues of rats. CBW, CBE, and CBW-1 significantly reduced hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis induced by CO. CO also increased the cytokines and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in serum, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and LPO in recto-anal tissues, and reduced the GSH, CAT, GPx, and SOD levels in serum and recto-anal tissues. However, CBE, CBW, and CBW-1 ameliorated the levels of the cytokines, LPO, MPO, and the antioxidants. Our results conclude that the curative effect of Capsella bursa-pastoris is closely related with its organic acids constituents, citric, malic, and quinic acids. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The fresh leaves of Capsella bursa-pastoris are edible, eaten raw or cooked, and also used in salad. It has a widespread traditional usage in the treatment of the hemorrhoids in the Anatolia and in the Middle East Countries. According to our literature survey, any scientific evidence has not been found in the literature that C. bursa-pastoris could be used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to investigate the antihemorrhoidal and antioxidant effects of ethanol and water extracts, and a precipitant (CBW-1) obtained from the CBW of C. bursa-pastoris in croton oil (CO)-induced hemorrhoid model in rats. The current results showed that its water extract and CBW-1 containing three organic acids, citric acid (36.09%), malic acid (35.56%), and quinic acid (17.73%) significantly reduced the hemorrhagic necrotic enteritis induced by CO ameliorating the levels of the cytokines, LPO, MPO, and the antioxidants. Our results conclude that the curative effect of C. bursa-pastoris is closely related with its organic acids constituents, citric, malic, and quinic acids.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598328

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of extracts and pure Artemisia dracunculus L. (tarragon) metabolites on the antimonoamine oxidase and anticholinesterase activities. The compounds were characterized as stigmasterol (1), herniarin (2), (2E,4E)-1-(piperidin-1-yl)undeca-2,4-diene-8,10-diyn-1-one (3), (2E,4E)-N-isobutylundeca-2,4-dien-8,10-diynamide (4), 3,4-dehydroherniarin (5) and skimmin (6) by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 1D and 2D NMR methods. The compounds 5 and 6 were isolated from tarragon for the first time. The extracts and pure compounds have inhibitory effects on the human monoamine oxidase (hMAO) A and B enzymes, whereas they did not exhibit any anticholinesterase activities. Among the tarragon compounds, only 2 and 6 compounds showed the inhibitory effects against hMAO A (IC50 = 51.76 and 73.47 µM, respectively) and hMAO B (IC50 = 0.84 and 1.63 mM, respectively). In the study, herniarin content in the extracts was also analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and it was found that there was a relationship between the inhibition effects of the extracts and their herniarin content.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383030

RESUMO

The antioxidant and cardioprotective effects of oleuropein have been reported in several studies; however, its effect on ketamine cardiotoxicity has not been known yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oleuropein in ketamine-induced cardiotoxicity model in rats. A total of 28 male Wistar Albino rats were included in the study and they were randomly divided into four groups, each having seven rats. Group 1 (control): rats were given 1 mL of DMSO by oral gavage method for 7 days. Group 2 (ketamine): on the seventh day of the study, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally. Then, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally every 10 min for 3 h. Group 3 (oleuropein): rats were given 200 mg/kg/day oleuropein by oral gavage method for 7 days. Group 4 (oleuropein + ketamine): rats were given 1 × 200 mg/kg oleuropein by oral gavage method for 7 days. Furthermore, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally on the seventh day of the experiment. Then, 60 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally every 10 min for 3 h. Serum cardiac marker (TnI, CK-MB and CK) levels were measured. Histopathological analysis was performed on a portion of the cardiac tissue. Cardiac tissue oxidative stress and antioxidant markers (MDA, GSH, GSH.Px and CAT), TNF-α, IL-6, NF-κB, COX-2 and Nrf-2 gene expressions, and protein conversion levels of related genes were determined. Data obtained showed that ketamine administration increased MDA (p < 0.001), TNF-α (p < 0.01), IL-6 (p < 0.01), COX-2 (p < 0.001) and NF-κB (p < 0.001) levels, as well as serum TnI (p < 0.001), CK-MB (p < 0.001) and CK (p < 0.01) levels whereas decreased GSH (p < 0.05) and Nrf-2 (p < 0.05) levels, as well as GSH-Px (p < 0.001) and CAT (p < 0.05) enzyme activities. Oleuropein administration was observed to decrease MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, NF-κB, TnI, CK-MB and CK levels close to the control group and to increase GSH levels and GSH-Px and CAT enzyme activities close to the control group. This study showed that oleuropein administration reversed the increased oxidative stress and inflammation as a result of the use of ketamine and had protective effects on the heart.

4.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928230

RESUMO

The Lime Basra (Citrus aurantifolia Linn., Rutaceae) plant also known as dried lime, and Limoo Omani, is used both as a spice in meals and as an herbal tea in the treatment of some diseases in the Middle East. It was aimed to determine the biological activity screening of the 70% methanol, ethanol extracts and infusion which were prepared from dried fruits. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH●) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS+●) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing activity, cytotoxicity on A 549, MCF 7 and L929 cell lines and α-amylase inhibitory effects were determined. According to the results, 70% methanol extract was more active in antioxidant activity tests and ethanol extract was more active in cytotoxicity tests. Interestingly both 70% methanol and ethanol extracts were found to have potent hypoglycemic activity. The present findings shed light on the fact that it is important to research and scientifically evaluate plants with traditional medicinal use.

5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 789-798, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871382

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated whether jervine (J) could prevent gastrointestinal (GI) side effects of abdominopelvic radiotherapy (RT) in Wistar-Albino female rats. Rats were divided into five groups: control (C), J only (J), J administered at 5 mg/kg/days for 7 days, RT only (RT), J before RT (J + RT), J administered for seven days before RT, J both before and after RT (J + RT + J), and J administered for 7 days before RT and after RT for 3 days. The weights of rats were measured on the 1st, 7th, and 10th days of the study. Rats were sacrificed to obtain tissues from the liver and intestine, which was followed by taking blood samples intracardially. In addition, the tissues were stained with pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) immunohistochemically. In our study, J supplementation markedly reduced weight loss, and histopathological, immunohistochemical, biochemical results suggest that J had a protective effect on GI toxicity following RT.


Assuntos
Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Lesões por Radiação/patologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides de Veratrum/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/química , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Alcaloides de Veratrum/química , Alcaloides de Veratrum/farmacologia
6.
Phytomedicine ; 55: 191-199, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veratrum, hellebore is an important plant species of the Liliaceae family and jervine is the characteristic steroidal alkaloid constituent of Veratrum album. PURPOSE: In the current study, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of jervine isolated from NH4OH-benzene extract of V. album rhizomes were investigated on CAR induced paw edema in rats. METHODS/STUDY DESIGN: In inflammatory study, 50, 100, 200 and 400  mg/kg doses of jervine, 25  mg/kg doses of DIC and IND were orally administered, and the volume of the foots were measured up to their knee arthrosis by plethismometer. After one hour of the oral administration of the all treatments, 0.1 ml of CAR solution (1%) was injected into the foot of the all rat groups and the volume of the foots were measured during 5 h after CAR injection. GPx, SOD, GR, MPO, CAT enzymes activities and GSH, LPO levels of the supernatants of paw homogenates and inflammation biomarkers such as TNF-α and IL-1ß in the rats serums were also estimated. RESULTS: According to the present results, jervine exerted 50.4-73.5% anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan induced paw edema. Inflammation biomarkers such as TNF-α, IL-1ß and MPO that increased by CAR injection were suppressed by the administrations of all doses of jervine, IND and DIC. In all paw tissues, LPO levels as indicator of oxidative tissue damage were found to be high in CAR-treated group and it was found to be decreased in all doses of jervine. CONCLUSION: Jervine, DIC and IND reduced the negative effects of CAR due to increasing effects on the SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx and GR antioxidants.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Veratrum/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carragenina/toxicidade , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Enzimas/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Veratrum/química , Alcaloides de Veratrum/administração & dosagem , Alcaloides de Veratrum/isolamento & purificação
7.
Singapore Med J ; 60(6): 314-316, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We developed an accelerated clinical pathway involving outpatient surgery for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) who are healthy enough for early discharge. METHODS: Between March 2014 and April 2015, 89 TKAs were performed at a single institution by a single orthopaedic surgeon. 31 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. All patients received 2 g tranexamic acid and 750 mg cefuroxime sodium intravenously 30 minutes prior to surgery. A multimodal protocol for perioperative pain management was used for all patients. RESULTS: 31 patients (three male, 28 female), with a mean age of 67 (range 49-78) years, who underwent TKA were enrolled in this study. The mean length of hospital stay was 28.7 (range 16-49) hours and mean duration of surgery was 92 (range 75-128) minutes. Combined spinal epidural anaesthesia was performed for 23 (74.2%) patients and general anaesthesia was used in 8 (25.8%) patients. Among the 31 patients, 23 (74.2%) patients were discharged within 23 hours of surgery. CONCLUSION: Early discharge of patients following outpatient surgery for TKA was not associated with any procedure-related complications among the selected patients up to three months postoperatively.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Artroplastia do Joelho , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/reabilitação , Procedimentos Clínicos , Deambulação Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 4(2): 025003, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630884

RESUMO

Cochlear implants (CIs) are surgically implanted medical devices used to treat individuals with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Although these devices have been remarkably successful at restoring audibility, many patients experience poor outcomes. Our group has developed the first image-guided CI programming technique where the electrode positions are found in CT images and used to estimate neural activation patterns, which is unique information that audiologists can use to define patient-specific processor settings. Currently, neural activation is estimated using only the distance from each electrode to the neural activation sites, which might be less accurate than using high-resolution electro-anatomical models (EAMs) to perform physics-based estimations of neural activation. We propose a patient-customized EAM approach where the EAM is spatially and electrically adapted to a patient-specific configuration. Spatial adaptation is done through nonrigid registration of the model with the patient CT image. Electrical adaptation is done by adjusting tissue resistivity parameters, so the intracochlear voltage distributions predicted by the model best match those directly measured for the patient via their implant. We found that our approach, demonstrated for [Formula: see text] patients, results in mean percent differences between direct and simulated measurements of voltage distributions of 10.9%.

9.
Epilepsia ; 58(7): 1251-1260, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, approximately 60-70% of patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remain seizure-free 3 years after surgery. The goal of this work was to develop a presurgical connectivity-based biomarker to identify those patients who will have an unfavorable seizure outcome 1-year postsurgery. METHODS: Resting-state functional and diffusion-weighted 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was acquired from 22 unilateral (15 right, 7 left) patients with TLE and 35 healthy controls. A seizure propagation network was identified including ipsilateral (to seizure focus) and contralateral hippocampus, thalamus, and insula, with bilateral midcingulate and precuneus. Between each pair of regions, functional connectivity based on correlations of low frequency functional MRI signals, and structural connectivity based on streamline density of diffusion MRI data were computed and transformed to metrics related to healthy controls of the same age. RESULTS: A consistent connectivity pattern representing the network expected in patients with seizure-free outcome was identified using eight patients who were seizure-free at 1-year postsurgery. The hypothesis that increased similarity to the model would be associated with better seizure outcome was tested in 14 other patients (Engel class IA, seizure-free: n = 5; Engel class IB-II, favorable: n = 4; Engel class III-IV, unfavorable: n = 5) using two similarity metrics: Pearson correlation and Euclidean distance. The seizure-free connectivity model successfully separated all the patients with unfavorable outcome from the seizure-free and favorable outcome patients (p = 0.0005, two-tailed Fisher's exact test) through the combination of the two similarity metrics with 100% accuracy. No other clinical and demographic predictors were successful in this regard. SIGNIFICANCE: This work introduces a methodologic framework to assess individual patients, and demonstrates the ability to use network connectivity as a potential clinical tool for epilepsy surgery outcome prediction after more comprehensive validation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/classificação , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Valores de Referência , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Arch Physiol Biochem ; 123(4): 219-224, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338341

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to purify carbonic anhydrase I and II isoenzymes from human erythrocyte, isolate two natural products osajin (OSJ) and pomiferin (PMF) from Maclura pomifera fruits, and evaluate the in vitro effect of these natural metabolites on these isoenzymes. These natural products may be used as starting points for drug discovery (like drugs used in several therapeutic applications, including antiglaucoma activity). For the purification procedure, the Sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulphonamide affinity chromatography was used. Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography methods were used for isolation of OSJ and PMF from M. pomifera fruits and their chemical structures were elucidated by IR, 1D, and 2D NMR methods. We compared inhibitory effects of these natural products with inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds and found that these products demonstrated average inhibition effects. We thought that this study will give inspiration to scientists interested in this issue.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica I/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Humanos
11.
Otol Neurotol ; 38(3): 339-346, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28146009

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Cochlear duct length (CDL) can be automatically measured for custom selection of cochlear implant (CI) electrode arrays. BACKGROUND: CI electrode array selection can be influenced by measuring the CDL, which is estimated based on the length of the line that connects the round window and the lateral wall of the cochlea when passing through the modiolus. CDL measurement remains time consuming and inter-observer variability has not been studied. METHODS: We evaluate an automatic approach to directly measure the two-turn (2T) CDL using existing algorithms for localizing cochlear anatomy in computed tomography (CT). Pre-op CT images of 309 ears were evaluated. Two fellowship-trained neurotologists manually and independently measured CDL. Inter-observer variability between measurements across expert and automatic observers is assessed. Inter-observer differences for choice of electrode type are also investigated. RESULTS: Manual measurement of CDL by experts tends to underestimate cochlea size and has high inter-observer variability, with mean absolute differences between expert CDL estimations of 1.15 mm. Our results show that this can lead to a large number of cochleae for which a different electrode array type would be selected by different observers, depending on the specific threshold value of CDL used to decide between array type. CONCLUSION: Choosing the best CI electrode array is an important task for optimizing hearing outcomes. Manual cochleae length measurements are user-dependent, and errors impact upon the CI electrode array choice for certain patients. Measuring cochlea length automatically is less time consuming and generates more repeatable results. Our automatic approach could make use of CDL for patient-customized treatment more clinically adoptable.


Assuntos
Cóclea/diagnóstico por imagem , Ducto Coclear/diagnóstico por imagem , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Algoritmos , Cóclea/cirurgia , Ducto Coclear/cirurgia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos
12.
Otol Neurotol ; 37(10): 1560-1564, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27755453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of rigid cochlear models in measuring intra-cochlear positions of cochlear implant (CI) electrodes. PATIENTS: Ninety three adults who had undergone CI and pre- and postoperative computed tomographic (CT) imaging. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Seven rigid models of cochlear anatomy were constructed using micro-CTs of cochlear specimens. Using each of the seven models, the position of each electrode in each of the 98 ears in our dataset was measured as its depth along the length of the cochlea, its distance to the basilar membrane, and its distance to the modiolus. Cochlear duct length was also measured using each model. RESULTS: Standard deviation (SD) across rigid cochlear models in measures of electrode depth, distance to basilar membrane, distance to modiolus, and length of the cochlear duct at two turns were 0.68, 0.11, 0.15, and 1.54 mm. Comparing the estimated position of the electrodes with respect to the basilar membrane, i.e., deciding whether an electrode was located within the scala tympani (ST) or the scala vestibuli (SV), there was not a unanimous agreement between the models for 19% of all the electrodes. With respect to the modiolus, each electrode was classified into one of the three groups depending on its modiolar distance: close, medium, and far. Rigid models did not unanimously agree on modiolar distance for approximately 50% of the electrodes tested. CONCLUSIONS: Inter-model variance of rigid cochlear models exists, demonstrating that measurements made using rigid cochlear models are limited in terms of accuracy because of non-rigid inter-subject variations in cochlear anatomy.


Assuntos
Cóclea/cirurgia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Modelos Anatômicos , Adulto , Cóclea/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 68: 681-686, 2016 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27524068

RESUMO

The bioceramic calcium phosphate (CaP) is frequently used for improving bone fixation in titanium medical implants and thus increasing lifetime of the implant. It is known that the application of CaP coatings on metallic implant devices offers the possibility of combining the strength of the metals and the bioactivity of the ceramic materials. Many different techniques are available for producing CaP coatings. Electrochemical deposition method is widely used because of its ease of operation parameters, low temperature requirement, reproducibility and suitability for coating complex structures. This technique allows obtaining CaP coatings which promote bone in growth during the first healing period leading to permanent fixation. Electrochemical pulse technique is an alternative to calcium phosphate deposition techniques usually employed to cover orthopedic or dental titanium implant surfaces. Additionally, pulse electrodeposition technique can produce more uniform and denser CaP coatings on metallic implants. In this study, CaP based coatings were produced by electrochemical pulse technique on Ti6Al4V substrates. The resulting CaP deposits were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion properties of the CaP coatings were also investigated. The results showed that various duty cycle ranges have remarkably effect on morphology, crystallinity and corrosion properties of the produced CaP coatings.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Implantes Experimentais , Titânio/química , Corrosão , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Otol Neurotol ; 37(8): 1016-23, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: 1) Investigate the impact of electrode type and surgical approach on scalar electrode location; and 2) examine the relation between electrode location and postoperative audiologic performance. SETTING: Tertiary academic hospital. PATIENTS: Two hundred twenty post-lingually deafened adults undergoing cochlear implant (CI). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome measures of interest were scalar electrode location and postoperative audiologic performance. RESULTS: In 68% of implants, electrodes were observed to be located solely in the scala tympani (ST). Multivariate analysis demonstrated perimodiolar (PM) and mid-scala (MS) electrodes were 22.4 (95% CI: 6.3-80.0, p < 0.001) and 55.0 (95% CI: 9.7-312.8, p < 0.001) times more likely to have at least one electrode in the scala vestibuli (SV) compared with lateral wall (LW) electrodes, respectively. Compared with cochleostomy (C), round window (RW) and extended round window (ERW) approaches demonstrated 70% reduction in SV insertion (RW: OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p = 0.01; ERW: OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.1-0.7, p = 0.005). Examining postoperative audiometric performance, consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) score increased 0.6% with every 10 degrees increase in angular insertion depth beyond the group minimum of 208 degrees (coefficient 0.0006, 95% CI: 0.0001-0.001, p = 0.03). SV insertion was associated with a 12% decrease in CNC score (coefficient -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.02, p = 0.02). CNC score decreased 0.3% for every 1 year increase in age (coefficient -0.003, 95% CI: -0.006 to -0.0006, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Electrode design and surgical approach were predictors of scalar electrode location. Specifically, LW electrodes showed higher rates of ST insertion compared with PM or MS. RW and ERW approaches showed higher rates of ST insertion when compared with C. In regards to performance, ST insertion, younger age, and greater angular insertion depth were predictors of improved CNC scores.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/instrumentação , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Chem Biodivers ; 13(5): 504-20, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27062715

RESUMO

Origanum onites L., known as Turkish oregano, has great traditional, medicinal, preservative, and commercial importance. It is used for the treatment of several kinds of ailments, such as gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, high cholesterol, leukemia, bronchitis, etc. In this review, traditional use, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of O. onites reported between 1988 and 2014 were discussed. This review was prepared based on literature survey on scientific journals and books from libraries and electronic sources, such as Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, etc. All databases were searched up to June 2014. Several different classes of terpenoids, triterpene acids, phenolic acids, hydroquinones, flavonoids, hydrocarbons, sterols, pigments, fatty acids, tocopherols, and inorganic compounds were detected mainly in the aerial parts of this plant. Pharmacological studies revealed that extracts obtained from several solvents and individual compounds exhibited antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, insecticidal, anticancer, hepatoprotective, genotoxic, antidiabetic, cholinesterase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities, etc. O. onites, in general, exhibited remarkable activity potential in almost all test systems. The results of toxicity studies indicated that O. onites did not show any significant toxicity and mutagenicity on Drosophila and Salmonella. Toxicity of the extracts/essential oils and also individual compounds should be evaluated on mammalian cells to ensure their safety. The bioactivity of individual compounds aside from terpenoids should also be assessed in detail. Additionally, mode of action for the bioactive compounds should be evaluated to understand the complex pharmacological effects of these phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Origanum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
16.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 16(22): 2477-83, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26873189

RESUMO

Cancer is a multifaceted and genomically complex disease. Rapidly accumulating preclinical and clinical studies are emphasizing on wide ranging molecular mechanisms that underpin cancer development, progression and metastasis. Intratumor heterogeneity, loss of apoptosis, rapidly developing resistance against molecular therapeutics and off-target effects are some of the deeply studied resistance mechanisms. Data obtained through high-throughput technologies has considerably enhanced our understanding of the intracellular signaling cascades frequently dysregulated spatio-temporally. There is an ever-expanding list of synthetic and natural agents reported to activate tumor suppressor genes and inhibit oncogenes in cancer cells. Markedly reduced tumor growth has also been documented in xenografted mice administered with phytochemicals. Oleuropein is a bioactive ingredient isolated from various sources and there is evidence of complete regression of tumors in 9- 12 days in mice orally administered with Oleuropein. In this review we summarize recent developments in use of Oleuropein as an anticancer agent. Extraction and isolation of Oleuropein and how it modulates intracellular signaling network to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) frequently overexpressed in breast cancer cells is inhibited by Oleuropein. Interestingly, trastuzumab efficacy was notably enhanced in Oleuropein treated breast cancer cells. There is still insufficient information related to Oleuropein mediated microRNA regulation in cancer cells. We still do not have information about regulation of different signaling cascades by Oleuropein which are deregulated in cancer. Future studies must converge on a deeper analysis of target molecular network of Oleuropein and its efficacy as a tumor growth inhibitor in xenografted mice.


Assuntos
Iridoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 13(1): 77-84, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765354

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Myrtus/química , Myrtus/genética , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Chenopodium album/efeitos dos fármacos , Chenopodium album/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cirsium/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirsium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Rumex/efeitos dos fármacos , Rumex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Cell Biochem ; 117(2): 308-19, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25941092

RESUMO

N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a metabolite of sulphur-containing amino acid cysteine, is used as an antioxidant and a mucolytic agent. Therefore, we aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative effects of NAC. We also intended to determine the relation between antiulcer effect of NAC and its antioxidant properties by biochemical evaluation. In this study a total of 15 rat groups (n = 6 per group) were used for inflammation and ulcer experiments. Anti-inflammatory effects of NAC have been investigated on six rat groups with carrageenan (CAR)-induced paw oedema model. Antiulcer effects of NAC have been investigated on 24 h fasted nine rat groups with IND-induced ulcer model in the presence of positive (LAN, RAN, FAM, and OMEP), negative (untreated IND group) and intact control groups. In biochemical analyses of stomach tissues; glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the glutathione (GSH) levels were determined. All doses of NAC exerted significant anti-inflammatory effect; even the effect of 900 mg/kg NAC was similar with that of DIC and IND. In gastric tissues NAC administration decreased the level of LPO and activity of CAT, which were increased by IND. Furthermore, NAC increased the GSH level and SOD and GST activities, which decreased in ulcerous stomach tissues. Only MPO activity increased in both IND and NAC groups when compared to healthy rat group. We determined that NAC has both anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative effects.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carragenina , Catalase/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Indometacina , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/enzimologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
Chem Biodivers ; 12(11): 1756-67, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26567953

RESUMO

Two lichen metabolites, rhizonaldehyde (1) and rhizonyl alcohol (2), were isolated from the acetone extract of Lobaria pulmonaria by chromatographic methods, and their chemical structures were determined by UV/VIS, IR, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. The gastroprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of extracts of L. pulmonaria and its metabolites, 1 and 2, were investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer models in rats. The gastric lesions were significantly reduced by acetone, hexane, and CHCl3 extracts, with 75.3-41.5% inhibition. Rhizonyl alcohol (2) significantly reduced the gastric lesions with an inhibition rate of 84.6-42.8%, whereas rhizonaldehyde (1) significantly increased the gastric lesions. Antioxidant parameters and myeloperoxidase activities were also evaluated in the gastric tissues of the rats. Indomethacin caused oxidative stress, which resulted in lipid peroxidation in gastric tissues by decreasing the levels of the antioxidants as compared to healthy rat tissues. In contrast to indomethacin, all extracts and rhizonyl alcohol (2) caused a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels and an increase in antioxidant parameters, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione in gastric tissues. The administration of rhizonyl alcohol (2) also resulted in a decrease in gastric myeloperoxidase activity increased by indomethacin. The gastroprotective effect of rhizonyl alcohol (2) can be attributed to its antioxidant properties and its suppressing effect on neutrophil infiltration into gastric tissues.


Assuntos
Álcoois/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Líquens/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Álcoois/metabolismo , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Líquens/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo
20.
Dysphagia ; 30(3): 296-303, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25687968

RESUMO

Swallowing mechanism and neurogenic dysphagia in MS have been rarely studied by electromyographical (EMG) methods. This study aims to evaluate the presence of subclinical dysphagia in patients with mild multiple sclerosis (MS) using electrophysiological methods. A prospective study of 51 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and 18 age-matched healthy adults was investigated. We used electromyography to measure the activity of the submental muscles during swallowing. Electrophysiological recordings of patients were obtained during relapse, after relapse, and at any time in remission period. Clinical dysphagia was found in 12% of MS patients, while electrophysiological swallowing abnormalities were encountered in 33% of patients. Subclinical dysphagia was determined in 35% of patients during an MS relapse, in 20% of patients after a relapse, and in 25% of all 51 patients in the remission period based on EMG findings. Duration of swallowing signal of submental muscles in all MS patients was found to be longer than in normal subjects (p = 0.001). During swallowing of 50 ml of sequential water, the compensatory respiratory cycles occurred more often in MS patients than normal subjects, especially during a relapse (p = 0.005). This is the first study investigating swallowing abnormalities and subclinical dysphagia from the electrophysiological aspect in MS patients with mild disability. The electrophysiological tests described in this study are useful to uncover subclinical dysphagia since they have the advantage of being rapid, easy to apply, non-invasive, and without risk for the patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Deglutição , Eletromiografia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Água Potável , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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