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1.
Urol J ; 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare of changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients who underwent radical cystectomy(RC) and multimodal treatment(MMT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 472 consecutive patients who underwent RC or treated with MMT for muscle invasive bladder cancer(MIBC) at our institution, between January 1995 and December 2010. After excluding the patients who died within 5 years or without 5 years of follow-up, 175 and 59 patients who were treated with RC and MMT, respectively were included to the study. GFR was measured before treatment and every 6 months after treatment till the end of 60th months. RESULTS: The mean age and mean baseline GFR were 66.5±5.7 and 85.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively for all patients. We detected statistically significant higher decrease rates for GFRs in MMT group compared to RC group at every follow up period till 42nd months. Renal function decreasing was found to be more prominent during first year of follow-up (79.1 to 65.9 mL/min/1.73m2) in MMT group. However, GFR decreased more regularly in RC group (~4 mL/min/1.73m2 per year). MMT, lower baseline GFR, Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, and ureteroenteric anastomotic stricture development were associated with low GFR under 60 and 45 ml/min at the end of five years. CONCLUSION: Decreased renal function is noted in many MIBC patients after RC or MMT in the long-term follow-up. Renal function deterioration is more prominent within the first year after MMT.

2.
Urol J ; 15(4): 158-163, 2018 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29299886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the perioperative risk factors for postoperative infections among patients undergoing flexible uretero-renoscopy with laser lithotripsy (FURSLL). In addition, the resistance patterns of pathogens isolated from positive preoperative urine cultures were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 492 consecutive patients who had undergone FURSLL for stone disease in our department. Postoperative infection was defined as fever (? 38°C) with pyuria (? 10 white blood cells per high power field), or systemic inflammatory response syndrome, or sepsis. Pre-operative and intra-operative characteristics between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications were compared using univariate analyses. Significant variables on univariate analyses were included in a multivariatelogistic regression analysis to evaluate risk factors associated with postoperative infection following FURSLL. RESULTS: 42 (8.5%) of 492 patients had postoperative infectious complications after FURSLL. 59 (12%) of 492 patients had a positive preoperative urine culture. 19 (32.2% of 59) patients had multidrug resistance (MDR) isolates recovered from positive preoperative urine cultures. 75% (9/12 cultures) of the positive preoperative urine cultures of patients in whom a postoperative infectious complication developed consisted of gram-negative pathogens. On multivariate analysis positive preoperative MDR urine culture (OR:4.75;95%CI:1.55-14.56; P = .006) was found to be significant with the dependent variable as the postoperative infectious complications despite appropriate preoperative antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSION: We found that positive preoperative MDR urine culture is a significant risk factor for infectious complications after FURSLL. Our findings point to the need for further research on assessment of risk factors forMDR infections to reduce the rate of postoperative infectious complications.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urodynamic studies (UDS) include assessments of the physics and physiology of the lower urinary tract (LUT). It is an invasive test and patients can feel fear and anxiety, especially at the beginning of the test. The aim of this study was to determine whether listening to music during urodynamic study decreases patient anxiety and pain. METHODS: Sixty-two patients who underwent urodynamic study were randomized into the following groups: no music (group 1, n = 30) or classical music (group 2, n = 32) during the procedure. Patient anxiety levels were quantified using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for self-assessment of discomfort and willingness among patients to have a repeat urodynamic study. RESULTS: Demographic characteristics, mean age, duration of procedure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate before procedure were statistically significantly similar between the two groups. Statistically significant differences were detected between the two groups in the mean pain score on VAS (4.1 ± 1.4 vs 2.6 ± 1.8), mean post-procedural STAI score (46 ± 5.8 vs 37.3 ± 5) and mean BAI score (14.2 ± 1.7 vs 3.5 ± 0.7). SBP and DBP and heart rate were similar between the groups. CONCLUSION: Music is a cheap, safe and effective intervention that has gained increasing recognition as an effective tool to reduce pain and anxiety. Listening to music during urodynamic study reduced patient pain and anxiety.

4.
Urology ; 97: 166-171, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27450942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate preoperative predictive factors for postoperative complications of augmentation cystoplasty in children by using the modified Clavien classification system (MCCS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records between 1994 and 2014 identified 117 children (64 males and 53 females) who underwent augmentation cystoplasty. Complications were evaluated according to the MCCS. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictive factors affecting complication rates. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 9.3 (1.9) years and the mean (SD) hospitalization time was 9.7 (3.6) days. Patients with an adverse or unexpected event within 30 days of surgery were identified. Complications occurred in 29 (24.7%) children; 13 (11.1%) were MCCS grade I, 8 (5.1%) were grade II, 5 (4.2%) were grade III, and 3 (2.5%) were grade IV. Antireflux surgery, outlet resistance increasing procedures, Society of Fetal Urology (SFU) grades 3-4 hydronephrosis, posterior urethral valves, scoliosis, and serum creatinine greater than 1.0 mg/dL were statistically significant predictors of complications on univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, SFU grades 3-4 hydronephrosis, bladder neck reconstruction, and serum creatinine greater than 1.0 mg/dL were statistically significant independent predictors of complications. CONCLUSION: Augmentation cystoplasty remains a valid method of treating severe bladder dysfunction in children. SFU grades 3-4 hydronephrosis, outlet resistance increasing procedures, and serum creatinine greater than 1.0 mg/dL were the main predictive factors for postoperative complications. Use of a standardized complication grading system, such as the MCCS, should be encouraged to allow the valid comparison of complication rates between series.


Assuntos
Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/diagnóstico
5.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 9(11-12): E789-94, 2015 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26600886

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the prognostic effects of hematologic parameters of preoperative leukocytosis and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer between January 1990 and June 2013. In total, 286 patients were included in the study. Age, gender, pathologic stage, lymph node involvement, preoperative hydronephrosis, histologic sub-type, surgical margin status, and lymphovascular invasion were recorded for each patient. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to determine the prognostic value of the preoperative clinical and laboratory parameters on disease-specific survival (DSS). Additionally, the correlation between leukocytosis and other factors were evaluated. RESULTS: According to the univariate analysis preoperative leukocytosis and NLR were detected as negative prognostic factors on DSS. Preoperative leukocytosis, NLR, stage, lymph node involvement, histologic subtype, grade and age were independent prognostic factors for DSS, on multivariate analysis. Patients with leukocytosis had higher stage, grade and lymphovascular invasion. CONCLUSIONS: Inexpensive, reproducible, and readily available peripheral blood count components of white blood cell count and NLR were independent prognostic factors, which can stratify DSS risks in bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy.

6.
J Urol ; 194(4): 1009-13, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25963189

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated possible predictive factors for spontaneous stone passage and the potential role of serum C-reactive protein and white blood count in patients with 4 to 10 mm distal ureteral stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 patients who presented with renal colic secondary to distal ureteral stone were included in study. Patients were grouped according to spontaneous stone passage. Serum C-reactive protein, white blood count and other possible factors were investigated for their potential predictive value for spontaneous stone passage at a followup of 5 weeks. Potential predictive factors for spontaneous stone passage were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analyses. ROC curve analysis was performed to find an optimal cutoff value for serum C-reactive protein according to spontaneous stone passage. Statistical significance was considered at p <0.05. RESULTS: Spontaneous stone passage was observed in 135 patients (53.8%) in group 1 while 116 (46.2%) in group 2 did not expel the stone spontaneously. Median stone size was 5.7 mm. Stone size, serum C-reactive protein and white blood count were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. The number of patients with hydronephrosis and the number with spontaneous stone passage history were significantly lower in group 2 compared to group 1. The cutoff value of serum C-reactive protein provided by ROC analysis was 0.506 mg/l. Time to spontaneous stone passage was significantly higher in patients with serum C-reactive protein above the threshold and in patients with ureteral stones greater than 6 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Stone size, previous spontaneous passage, hydronephrosis, serum C-reactive protein and white blood count can be used to predict spontaneous stone passage in patients with 4 to 10 mm distal ureteral stones. A serum C-reactive protein level of 0.506 mg/l can serve as a cutoff value to predict spontaneous stone passage.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Remissão Espontânea , Cálculos Ureterais/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Cálculos Ureterais/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Pediatr Surg ; 50(9): 1532-4, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25783320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to identify the effect of three different modalities (stenting, doxazosin and conservative follow-up) on stone free rates and complication rates for 10-20mm renal pelvic stones in pediatric patients who underwent shock wave lithotripsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study data from 241 renal units (RUs) of 195 consecutive patients with 10-20mm renal pelvis stones were analyzed retrospectively. There were 3 groups in the study; 56 (23.2%) RUs with ureteral stenting were categorized as group 1, and 39 (16.2%) RUs that received doxazosin were categorized as group 2. The remaining 146 (60.6%) RUs without history of ureteral stenting or alpha-blockers usage were categorized as group 3. Patient demographics, stone characteristics, stone free rates (SFRs), time to stone expulsion and complications were documented and compared in each group. RESULTS: Mean age of the population was 6.6 years and mean stone size was 13.8 ± 2.9 mm. Demographic characteristics of the 3 groups were not significantly different. SFRs of the three groups were 89.2%, 87.1% and 82.1% (p = 0.275). Mean time to stone expulsion for groups 1 and 2 were 17.4 and 21.8 days respectively and significantly lower than that in group 3 (31.3 days). CONCLUSIONS: Ureteral stenting or doxazosin for shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is not superior to watchful waiting in terms of SFR and complications however both modalities shorten the stone expulsion time for 10-20mm renal pelvis stones in the pediatric population.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/uso terapêutico , Doxazossina/uso terapêutico , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Litotripsia , Stents , Conduta Expectante , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Korean J Urol ; 56(2): 138-42, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25685301

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of rigid ureterorenoscopy (URS) for renal pelvic stones (RPS) sized 1 to 2 cm and to determine the predictive factors for the requirement for flexible URS (F-URS) when rigid URS fails. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 88 patients were included into the study. In 48 patients, the RPS were totally fragmented with rigid URS and F-URS was not required (group 1). In 40 patients, rigid URS was not able to access the renal pelvis or fragmentation of the stones was not completed owing to stone position or displacement and F-URS was utilized for retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) (group 2). The predictive factors for F-URS requirement during RIRS for RPS were evaluated. Both groups were compared regarding age, height, sex, body mass index, stone size, stone opacity, hydronephrosis, and previous treatments. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 48.6±16.5 years and the mean follow-period was 39±11.5 weeks. The overall stone-free rate in the study population was 85% (75 patients). In groups 1 and 2, the overall stone-free rates were 83% (40 patients) and 87% (35 patients), respectively (p>0.05). The independent predictors of requirement for F-URS during RIRS were male gender, patient height, and higher degree of hydronephrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Rigid URS can be utilized in selected patients for the fragmentation of RPS sized 1 to 2 cm with outcomes similar to that of F-URS. In case of failure of rigid URS, F-URS can be performed successfully in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Pelve Renal/cirurgia , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/patologia , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Pelve Renal/patologia , Litotripsia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscópios
9.
BJU Int ; 114(4): 595-600, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24655232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine preoperative predictive factors of postoperative complications of ureteric re-implantation in children by using the modified Clavien classification system (MCCS), which has been widely used for complication rating of surgical procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 383 children who underwent ureteric re-implantation for vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) and obstructing megaureters between 2002 and 2011 were included in the study. Intravesical and extravesical ureteric re-implantations were performed in 338 and 45 children, respectively. Complications were evaluated according to the MCCS. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictive factors affecting complication rates. RESULTS: In all, 247 girls and 136 boys were studied. The mean (sd) age was 46 (25) months and the mean (sd) follow-up was 49.4 (27.8) months. The mean (sd) hospitalisation time was 4.7 (1.6) days. Complications occurred in 76 (19.8%) children; 34 (8.9%) were MCCS grade I, 22 (5.7%) were grade II and 20 (5.2%) were grade III. Society of Fetal Urology (SFU) grade 3-4 hydronephrosis, obstructing megaureters, a tailoring-tapering and folding procedure, refractory voiding dysfunction and a duplex system were statistically significant predictors of complications on univariate analysis. Prior injection history, paraureteric diverticula, stenting, gender, age, operation technique (intra vs extravesical) were not significant predictors of complications. In the multivariate analysis refractory voiding dysfunction, a tailoring-tapering and folding procedure, obstructing megaureters (diameter of >9 mm) and a duplex system were statistically significant predictors of complications. CONCLUSION: Ureteric re-implantation remains a valid option for the treatment of certain patients with VUR. Refractory voiding dysfunction, a tailoring-tapering and folding procedure, obstructing megaureters (diameter of >9 mm) and associated duplex systems were the main predictive factors for postoperative complications. Use of a standardised complication grading system, such as the MCCS, should be encouraged to allow the valid comparison of complication rates between series.


Assuntos
Reimplante/efeitos adversos , Ureter/cirurgia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/cirurgia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reimplante/classificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia , Obstrução Ureteral/patologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/etiologia , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/patologia
10.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 46(8): 1521-6, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24677002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of ABO blood groups and Rhesus (Rh) factor on prognosis of patients undergoing radical cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, total number of 290 patients who underwent radical cystectomy between January 1990 and September 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were grouped as O and non-O according to ABO antigens; also positive and negative according to Rh factor. Parameters such as age, sex, stage, lymph node involvement and positive surgical margins were investigated. Disease-free and overall survival rates have been compared. Multivariate analysis were performed to determine independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: A total of 260 (89.7 %) male and 30 (10.3 %) female patients participated in the study. Mean follow-up was 37.7 ± 18.9 months. A total of 180 patients were non-O (62.1 %),while the 110 patients had the blood group O (37.9 %). The number of Rh positive and negative patients were 247 (85.2 %) and 43 (14.8 %), respectively. According to the univariate and multivariate analyses, ABO blood groups and Rh factor did not exhibit any significant impact on overall and disease-specific survival. CONCLUSION: ABO blood group and Rh factor were not associated with the prognosis of bladder cancer patients who underwent radical cystectomy. However, prospective studies are needed in larger patient series for further evaluations.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/sangue , Carcinoma/sangue , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/sangue , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Carcinoma/secundário , Cistectomia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
11.
Urol Int ; 91(2): 182-6, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23751593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the risk factors for residual tumor detection after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall 132 patients underwent TURBT for primary bladder tumors and were diagnosed as high-grade T1 bladder cancer. Patients with incomplete resections were excluded from the study. Clinical and pathologic characteristics of the patients were compared and multivariate analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: Residual tumor was demonstrated in 57 (43.1%) of the patients. The residual tumor rate was significantly lower in patients with solitary tumors, tumors <3 cm in diameter, muscle presence in the initial TURBT pathologic sample and treated by an expert surgeon. In patients with solitary bladder tumors, tumors at the dome and posterior wall of the bladder exhibited higher rates of residual tumor (p < 0.0001). The time elapsed between first and second TURBT was significantly shorter in patients without residual tumor compared to patients with residual tumor at second TURBT (32.6 ± 9.1 vs. 39.3 ± 10.9 days, respectively, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that time elapsed between first and second TURBT is the most important parameter for residual tumor detection. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that multiple tumors, tumors >3 cm in size, absence of detrusor muscle in the initial TURBT specimen, TURBT performed by trainees and finally, as a new finding, prolonged interval between first and second TURBT are independent predictors for residual tumor detection in patients with high-grade T1 tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Reoperação/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
12.
Turk J Urol ; 39(1): 12-5, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26328071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inconclusive results have been published in the literature regarding the relationship between free and total serum testosterone levels and prostate cancer. We investigated the relationship between total and free serum testosterone levels, testes volume, and prostate cancer in our patient population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total and free serum testosterone levels and serum PSA levels were recorded for 102 consecutive patients. All of the patients underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy due to an abnormal digital rectal examination finding and/or a serum PSA level of >4.0 ng/mL. All of the transrectal and testis US examinations and prostate biopsies were performed by the same radiologist. The testis length, width, and height were measured from transverse and longitudinal gray scale images, and the testis volume was calculated. RESULTS: Prostate cancer was detected in 32 of 102 patients (31.3%) who underwent prostate biopsy (prostate cancer group). The remaining patients had benign histopathological findings (prostate cancer-free group). The prostate cancer and benign histology groups were compared for age, total and free testosterone, PSA values, and testis volume. The patients with prostate cancer were found to have a higher mean age (p=0.04). There were no significant differences in serum PSA levels, free or total testosterone levels, or testis volumes between the two groups (p>0.05). A binary logistic regression analysis showed that neither free nor total testosterone was a predictor of prostate cancer (p=0.315 and p=0.213, respectively). Only age was found to be a significant risk factor for the development of prostate cancer (p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Our study failed to show a relationship between total or free serum testosterone levels, testis volume, and the risk of prostate cancer. Therefore, monitoring serum testosterone levels for prostate cancer prediction does not appear to add an advantage over PSA screening.

13.
Urology ; 80(3): 703-6, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22784491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the polymer microsphere diameter affects the success rate in the endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. METHODS: In our consecutive series, 56 patients underwent subureteral injection with Dexell and 60 patients were treated with Deflux. Patients were evaluated with pediatric lower urinary tract scoring system, uroflowmetry, and a residual urine volume and voiding diary at the time of injection and control. Patients with grade V reflux, duplex systems, paraureteral diverticula, or refractory lower urinary tract symptoms were excluded. The numbers of renal units with grade II-III vesicoureteral reflux were 78 and 73 in the first (Deflux) and second (Dexell) groups, respectively. The numbers of renal units with grade IV reflux were 24 and 17 in the first and second groups, respectively. The resolution rate was determined by voiding cystourethrogram at the third postoperative month. Postoperative febrile urinary tract infections and de novo scars in dimercaptosuccinic acid were noted. Groups were compared by the χ(2) test. RESULTS: Mean follow-up time and mean age of the children were not significantly different. The number of nondilating and dilating renal units was not significantly different. Resolution rates were similar between the groups (79.5 and 78%, respectively). There was no significant difference in terms of resolution rates when dilating and nondilating urinary systems were separately analyzed. The average volumes used per renal unit were 0.9 and 1.6 mL in the first and second groups, respectively (P < .005). Postoperative febrile urinary tract infection and de novo scar formation rates were similar. CONCLUSION: The diameter of dextranomer microsphere does not affect the short-term success rate in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. Multicentric, randomized and prospective studies are required for long-term clinical results.


Assuntos
Dextranos , Ácido Hialurônico , Microesferas , Próteses e Implantes , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscopia
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