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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 13-24, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apalutamide is an inhibitor of the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Whether the addition of apalutamide to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) would prolong radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival as compared with placebo plus ADT among patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer has not been determined. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer to receive apalutamide (240 mg per day) or placebo, added to ADT. Previous treatment for localized disease and previous docetaxel therapy were allowed. The primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 525 patients were assigned to receive apalutamide plus ADT and 527 to receive placebo plus ADT. The median age was 68 years. A total of 16.4% of the patients had undergone prostatectomy or received radiotherapy for localized disease, and 10.7% had received previous docetaxel therapy; 62.7% had high-volume disease, and 37.3% had low-volume disease. At the first interim analysis, with a median of 22.7 months of follow-up, the percentage of patients with radiographic progression-free survival at 24 months was 68.2% in the apalutamide group and 47.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for radiographic progression or death, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.60; P<0.001). Overall survival at 24 months was also greater with apalutamide than with placebo (82.4% in the apalutamide group vs. 73.5% in the placebo group; hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P = 0.005). The frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was 42.2% in the apalutamide group and 40.8% in the placebo group; rash was more common in the apalutamide group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer, overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival were significantly longer with the addition of apalutamide to ADT than with placebo plus ADT, and the side-effect profile did not differ substantially between the two groups. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; TITAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02489318.).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Tioidantoínas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiografia , Tioidantoínas/efeitos adversos
2.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(5): 686-700, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the interim analyses of the LATITUDE study, the addition of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) led to a significant improvement in overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival compared with placebos plus ADT in men with newly diagnosed high-risk metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). Here, we present long-term survival outcomes and safety of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone and ADT from the final analysis of the LATITUDE study. METHODS: This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial done at 235 sites in 34 countries. Eligible patients (men aged ≥18 years) had newly diagnosed, histologically or cytologically confirmed prostate cancer with metastases, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2, and at least two of the three high-risk prognostic factors (Gleason score of ≥8, presence of three or more lesions on bone scan, or presence of measurable visceral metastasis except lymph node metastasis). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive abiraterone acetate (1000 mg) once daily orally plus prednisone (5 mg) once daily orally and ADT (abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group) or matching placebos plus ADT (placebo group); each treatment cycle was 28 days. Randomisation was done by a centralised interactive web response system in a country-by-country scheme using permuted block randomisation, stratified by presence of visceral disease and ECOG performance status. The coprimary endpoint of overall survival was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01715285 and is complete. FINDINGS: Between Feb 12, 2013, and Dec 11, 2014, 1209 patients were screened, of whom ten were ineligible because of study site violations. 1199 patients were randomly assigned to either the abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group (n=597) or placebo group (n=602). After the results of the first interim analysis (cutoff date Oct 31, 2016), the study was unmasked to patients and investigators, and patients in the placebo group were allowed to cross over to receive abiraterone acetate and prednisone plus ADT treatment as per a protocol amendment (Feb 15, 2017) in an open-label extension phase of the study (up to 18 months from the protocol amendment). This final analysis (data cutoff Aug 15, 2018) was done after a median follow-up of 51·8 months (IQR 47·2-57·0) and 618 deaths (275 [46%] of 597 in the abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group and 343 [57%] of 602 in the placebo group). Overall survival was significantly longer in the abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group (median 53·3 months [95% CI 48·2-not reached]) than in the placebo group (36·5 months [33·5-40·0]), with a hazard ratio of 0·66 (95% CI 0·56-0·78; p<0·0001). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were hypertension (125 [21%] in the abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group vs 60 [10%] in the placebo group vs three [4%] in the 72 patients who crossed over from placebo to abiraterone acetate plus prednisone) and hypokalaemia (70 [12%] vs ten [2%] vs two [3%]). Serious adverse events of any grade occurred in 192 (32%) of 597 patients in the abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group, 151 (25%) of 602 in the placebo group, and four (6%) of 72 in the crossover group. The most common treatment-related serious adverse event was hypokalaemia (four [1%] patients in the abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group and none in the other groups). Treatment-related deaths occurred in three (<1%) patients each in the abiraterone acetate plus prednisone group (gastric ulcer perforation, sudden death, and cerebrovascular accident) and the placebo group (sudden death, cerebrovascular accident, and pneumonia), with none in the crossover group. INTERPRETATION: The combination of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone with ADT was associated with significantly longer overall survival than placebos plus ADT in men with newly diagnosed high-risk mCSPC and had a manageable safety profile. These findings support the use of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone as a standard of care in patients with high-risk mCSPC. FUNDING: Janssen Research & Development.

3.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(3): e407-e412, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30808583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Afatinib is a selective, irreversible ErbB family blocker that has shown survival benefit in lung squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. Pembrolizumab, a humanized immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody to the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor, has also shown survival benefit in lung SCC. Concurrent inhibition of the PD-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways represents a rational approach to improve responses and delay the onset of treatment resistance in lung SCC. TRIAL DESIGN: This phase II, open-label, single-arm study (NCT03157089) is designed to assess the efficacy and safety of afatinib in combination with pembrolizumab in patients with stage IIIB/IV lung SCC that has progressed during/after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Eligible patients must have ≥1 target lesion (as per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) and must have not received previous immune checkpoint inhibitor/EGFR-targeted therapy. The recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and safety profile will be determined during a safety run-in with oral afatinib (starting dose, 40 mg/d) with intravenous pembrolizumab (200 mg every 3 weeks). In the main study, all patients will receive afatinib at the RP2D with pembrolizumab until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or for up to 35 cycles. The primary end point is objective response (complete + partial response). Other end points include disease control, duration of objective response, progression-free survival, overall survival, tumor shrinkage, RP2D, and pharmacokinetics. Exploratory biomarker analysis will be performed. This study is being conducted in the United States, Spain, France, South Korea, and Turkey. Enrollment commenced in September 2017, with a target of 50 to 62 patients.

4.
Future Oncol ; 15(10): 1057-1066, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment options for patients with advanced esophageal or esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer are limited. Current guidelines for first-line treatment of advanced esophageal or EGJ cancer recommend chemotherapy containing a platinum and a fluoropyrimidine agent. Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity in previously treated patients with advanced esophageal cancer and in patients with gastroesophageal junction cancer. AIM: To describe the design and rationale for the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III KEYNOTE-590 study, which will be conducted to investigate pembrolizumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced esophageal or EGJ cancer. Clinical trial registry & ID: ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT03189719.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Método Duplo-Cego , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
5.
N Engl J Med ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An earlier analysis in this phase 3 trial showed that durvalumab significantly prolonged progression-free survival, as compared with placebo, among patients with stage III, unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who did not have disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Here we report the results for the second primary end point of overall survival. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive durvalumab intravenously, at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight, or matching placebo every 2 weeks for up to 12 months. Randomization occurred 1 to 42 days after the patients had received chemoradiotherapy and was stratified according to age, sex, and smoking history. The primary end points were progression-free survival (as assessed by blinded independent central review) and overall survival. Secondary end points included the time to death or distant metastasis, the time to second progression, and safety. RESULTS: Of the 713 patients who underwent randomization, 709 received the assigned intervention (473 patients received durvalumab and 236 received placebo). As of March 22, 2018, the median follow-up was 25.2 months. The 24-month overall survival rate was 66.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.7 to 70.4) in the durvalumab group, as compared with 55.6% (95% CI, 48.9 to 61.8) in the placebo group (two-sided P=0.005). Durvalumab significantly prolonged overall survival, as compared with placebo (stratified hazard ratio for death, 0.68; 99.73% CI, 0.47 to 0.997; P=0.0025). Updated analyses regarding progression-free survival were similar to those previously reported, with a median duration of 17.2 months in the durvalumab group and 5.6 months in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.63). The median time to death or distant metastasis was 28.3 months in the durvalumab group and 16.2 months in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.68). A total of 30.5% of the patients in the durvalumab group and 26.1% of those in the placebo group had grade 3 or 4 adverse events of any cause; 15.4% and 9.8% of the patients, respectively, discontinued the trial regimen because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Durvalumab therapy resulted in significantly longer overall survival than placebo. No new safety signals were identified. (Funded by AstraZeneca; PACIFIC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02125461 .).

6.
Lancet Oncol ; 19(11): 1468-1479, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting the immune checkpoint molecules PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this trial we investigated the efficacy and safety of avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, in patients with NSCLC who had already received platinum-based therapy. METHODS: JAVELIN Lung 200 was a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial at 173 hospitals and cancer treatment centres in 31 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had stage IIIB or IV or recurrent NSCLC and disease progression after treatment with a platinum-containing doublet, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, an estimated life expectancy of more than 12 weeks, and adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via an interactive voice-response system with a stratified permuted block method with variable block length, to receive either avelumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or docetaxel 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by PD-L1 expression (≥1% vs <1% of tumour cells), which was measured with the 73-10 assay, and histology (squamous vs non-squamous). The primary endpoint was overall survival, analysed when roughly 337 events (deaths) had occurred in the PD-L1-positive population. Efficacy was analysed in all PD-L1-positive patients (ie, PD-L1 expression in ≥1% of tumour cells) randomly assigned to study treatment (the primary analysis population) and then in all randomly assigned patients through a hierarchical testing procedure. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02395172. Enrolment is complete, but the trial is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between March 24, 2015, and Jan 23, 2017, 792 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive avelumab (n=396) or docetaxel (n=396). 264 participants in the avelumab group and 265 in the docetaxel group had PD-L1-positive tumours. In patients with PD-L1-positive tumours, median overall survival did not differ significantly between the avelumab and docetaxel groups (11·4 months [95% CI 9·4-13·9] vs 10·3 months [8·5-13·0]; hazard ratio 0·90 [96% CI 0·72-1·12]; one-sided p=0·16). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 251 (64%) of 393 avelumab-treated patients and 313 (86%) of 365 docetaxel-treated patients, including grade 3-5 events in 39 (10%) and 180 (49%) patients, respectively. The most common grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events were infusion-related reaction (six patients [2%]) and increased lipase (four [1%]) in the avelumab group and neutropenia (51 [14%]), febrile neutropenia (37 [10%]), and decreased neutrophil counts (36 [10%]) in the docetaxel group. Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 34 (9%) patients in the avelumab group and 75 (21%) in the docetaxel group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in four (1%) participants in the avelumab group, two due to interstitial lung disease, one due to acute kidney injury, and one due to a combination of autoimmune myocarditis, acute cardiac failure, and respiratory failure. Treatment-related deaths occurred in 14 (4%) patients in the docetaxel group, three due to pneumonia, and one each due to febrile neutropenia, septic shock, febrile neutropenia with septic shock, acute respiratory failure, cardiovascular insufficiency, renal impairment, leucopenia with mucosal inflammation and pyrexia, infection, neutropenic infection, dehydration, and unknown causes. INTERPRETATION: Compared with docetaxel, avelumab did not improve overall survival in patients with platinum-treated PD-L1-positive NSCLC, but had a favourable safety profile. FUNDING: Merck and Pfizer.

7.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(10): 1367-1374, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862411

RESUMO

Importance: Everolimus plus exemestane and capecitabine are approved second-line therapies for advanced breast cancer. Objective: A postapproval commitment to health authorities to estimate the clinical benefit of everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus or capecitabine monotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. Design: Open-label, randomized, phase 2 trial of treatment effects in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer that had progressed during treatment with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. Interventions: Patients were randomized to 3 treatment regimens: (1) everolimus (10 mg/d) plus exemestane (25 mg/d); (2) everolimus alone (10 mg/d); and (3) capecitabine alone (1250 mg/m2 twice daily). Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of progression-free survival (PFS) for everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus alone (primary objective) or capecitabine alone (key secondary objective). Safety was a secondary objective. No formal statistical comparisons were planned. Results: A total of 309 postmenopausal women were enrolled, median age, 61 years (range, 32-88 years). Of these, 104 received everolimus plus exemestane; 103, everolimus alone; and 102, capecitabine alone. Median follow-up from randomization to the analysis cutoff (June 1, 2017) was 37.6 months. Estimated HR of PFS was 0.74 (90% CI, 0.57-0.97) for the primary objective of everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus alone and 1.26 (90% CI, 0.96-1.66) for everolimus plus exemestane vs capecitabine alone. Between treatment arms, potential informative censoring was noted, and a stratified multivariate Cox regression model was used to account for imbalances in baseline characteristics; a consistent HR was observed for everolimus plus exemestane vs everolimus (0.73; 90% CI, 0.56-0.97), but the HR was closer to 1 for everolimus plus exemestane vs capecitabine (1.15; 90% CI, 0.86-1.52). Grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more frequent with capecitabine (74%; n = 75) vs everolimus plus exemestane (70%; n = 73) or everolimus alone (59%; n = 61). Serious adverse events were more frequent with everolimus plus exemestane (36%; n = 37) vs everolimus alone (29%; n = 30) or capecitabine (29%; n = 30). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that everolimus plus exemestane combination therapy offers a PFS benefit vs everolimus alone, and they support continued use of this therapy in this setting. A numerical PFS difference with capecitabine vs everolimus plus exemestane should be interpreted cautiously owing to imbalances among baseline characteristics and potential informative censoring. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01783444.

8.
Lancet ; 392(10142): 123-133, 2018 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer that progresses on chemotherapy have poor outcomes. We compared pembrolizumab with paclitaxel in patients with advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer that progressed on first-line chemotherapy with a platinum and fluoropyrimidine. METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study was done at 148 medical centres in 30 countries. Eligible patients were randomised (1:1) in blocks of four per stratum with an interactive voice-response and integrated web-response system to receive either pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 2 years or standard-dose paclitaxel. Primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with a programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) combined positive score (CPS) of 1 or higher. Safety was assessed in all patients, irrespective of CPS. The significance threshold for overall survival was p=0·0135 (one-sided). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02370498. FINDINGS: Between June 4, 2015, and July 26, 2016, 592 patients were enrolled. Of the 395 patients who had a PD-L1 CPS of 1 or higher, 196 patients were assigned to receive pembrolizumab and 199 patients were assigned to receive paclitaxel. As of Oct 26, 2017, 326 patients in the population with CPS of 1 or higher had died (151 [77%] of 196 patients in the pembrolizumab group and 175 [88%] of 199 patients in the paclitaxel group). Median overall survival was 9·1 months (95% CI 6·2-10·7) with pembrolizumab and 8·3 months (7·6-9·0) with paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR] 0·82, 95% CI 0·66-1·03; one-sided p=0·0421). Median progression-free survival was 1·5 months (95% CI 1·4-2·0) with pembrolizumab and 4·1 months (3·1-4·2) with paclitaxel (HR 1·27, 95% CI 1·03-1·57). In the total population, grade 3-5 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 42 (14%) of the 294 patients treated with pembrolizumab and 96 (35%) of the 276 patients treated with paclitaxel. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab did not significantly improve overall survival compared with paclitaxel as second-line therapy for advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer with PD-L1 CPS of 1 or higher. Pembrolizumab had a better safety profile than paclitaxel. Additional trials of pembrolizumab in gastric and gastro-oesophageal cancer are ongoing. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Junção Esofagogástrica , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(7): 977-984, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566104

RESUMO

Importance: Cotargeting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and estrogen receptor may prevent or delay endocrine resistance in patients receiving first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer. Objective: To investigate the combination of everolimus plus endocrine therapy in first-line and second-line treatment settings for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In the multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 BOLERO-4 (Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus) clinical trial, 245 patients were screened for eligibility; 202 were enrolled between March 7, 2013, and December 17, 2014. A median follow-up of 29.5 months had been achieved by the data cutoff date (December 17, 2016). Interventions: Patients received first-line treatment with everolimus, 10 mg/d, plus letrozole, 2.5 mg/d. Second-line treatment with everolimus, 10 mg/d, plus exemestane, 25 mg/d, was offered at the investigator's discretion upon initial disease progression. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the first-line setting per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.0. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least 1 dose of study medication and at least 1 postbaseline safety assessment. Results: A total of 202 women treated in the first-line setting had a median age of 64.0 years (interquartile range, 58.0-70.0 years) with metastatic (194 [96.0%]) or locally advanced (8 [4.0%]) breast cancer. Median progression-free survival was 22.0 months (95% CI, 18.1-25.1 months) with everolimus and letrozole. Median overall survival was not reached; 24-month estimated overall survival rate was 78.7% (95% CI, 72.1%-83.9%). Fifty patients started second-line treatment; median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (95% CI, 1.9-7.4 months). No new safety signals were observed. In the first-line setting, the most common all-grade adverse event was stomatitis (139 [68.8%]); the most common grade 3 to 4 adverse event was anemia (21 [10.4%]). In the second-line setting, the most common adverse events were stomatitis and decreased weight (10 [20.0%] each); the most common grade 3 to 4 adverse event was hypertension (5 [10.0%]). There were 50 (24.8%) deaths overall during the study; 40 were due to study indication (breast cancer). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this trial add to the existing body of evidence suggesting that everolimus plus endocrine therapy is a good first-line treatment option for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01698918.

11.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 16(4): e777-e784, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several agents have demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC); however, the optimal sequencing of these therapies is unknown as a result of a lack of prospective randomized controlled trials. This retrospective study aimed to identify clinical factors influencing outcomes and to determine optimal treatment sequencing in patients with mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel (CABA) and/or androgen receptor-targeted agents (ART) after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and docetaxel (DOC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of 574 consecutive patients treated (2012-2016) at 44 centers in 6 countries were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: A total of 267 patients received ADT → DOC → CABA (group 1), 183 patients ADT → DOC → ART → CABA (group 2), and 124 patients ADT → DOC → CABA → ART (group 3), with respective median OS from diagnosis of mCRPC of 38.3, 44.45, and 53.9 months (P = .012 for group 3 vs. group 1). Multivariate analysis showed response to first ADT ≤ 12 months, Gleason score of 8 to 10, clinical progression, and high prostate-specific antigen levels at mCRPC diagnosis were associated with worse OS. Prior receipt of ART did not influence activity of CABA. CONCLUSION: OS appeared to increase with the number of life-extending therapies, with a sequence including DOC, CABA, and an ART providing the greatest OS benefit.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 377(20): 1919-1929, 2017 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28885881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with locally advanced, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have disease progression despite definitive chemoradiotherapy (chemotherapy plus concurrent radiation therapy). This phase 3 study compared the anti-programmed death ligand 1 antibody durvalumab as consolidation therapy with placebo in patients with stage III NSCLC who did not have disease progression after two or more cycles of platinum-based chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive durvalumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or placebo every 2 weeks for up to 12 months. The study drug was administered 1 to 42 days after the patients had received chemoradiotherapy. The coprimary end points were progression-free survival (as assessed by means of blinded independent central review) and overall survival (unplanned for the interim analysis). Secondary end points included 12-month and 18-month progression-free survival rates, the objective response rate, the duration of response, the time to death or distant metastasis, and safety. RESULTS: Of 713 patients who underwent randomization, 709 received consolidation therapy (473 received durvalumab and 236 received placebo). The median progression-free survival from randomization was 16.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.0 to 18.1) with durvalumab versus 5.6 months (95% CI, 4.6 to 7.8) with placebo (stratified hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.65; P<0.001); the 12-month progression-free survival rate was 55.9% versus 35.3%, and the 18-month progression-free survival rate was 44.2% versus 27.0%. The response rate was higher with durvalumab than with placebo (28.4% vs. 16.0%; P<0.001), and the median duration of response was longer (72.8% vs. 46.8% of the patients had an ongoing response at 18 months). The median time to death or distant metastasis was longer with durvalumab than with placebo (23.2 months vs. 14.6 months; P<0.001). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 29.9% of the patients who received durvalumab and 26.1% of those who received placebo; the most common adverse event of grade 3 or 4 was pneumonia (4.4% and 3.8%, respectively). A total of 15.4% of patients in the durvalumab group and 9.8% of those in the placebo group discontinued the study drug because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Progression-free survival was significantly longer with durvalumab than with placebo. The secondary end points also favored durvalumab, and safety was similar between the groups. (Funded by AstraZeneca; PACIFIC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02125461 .).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Quimiorradioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias
13.
N Engl J Med ; 377(4): 352-360, 2017 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate, a drug that blocks endogenous androgen synthesis, plus prednisone is indicated for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We evaluated the clinical benefit of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone with androgen-deprivation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed, metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1199 patients to receive either androgen-deprivation therapy plus abiraterone acetate (1000 mg daily, given once daily as four 250-mg tablets) plus prednisone (5 mg daily) (the abiraterone group) or androgen-deprivation therapy plus dual placebos (the placebo group). The two primary end points were overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 30.4 months at a planned interim analysis (after 406 patients had died), the median overall survival was significantly longer in the abiraterone group than in the placebo group (not reached vs. 34.7 months) (hazard ratio for death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.76; P<0.001). The median length of radiographic progression-free survival was 33.0 months in the abiraterone group and 14.8 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.55; P<0.001). Significantly better outcomes in all secondary end points were observed in the abiraterone group, including the time until pain progression, next subsequent therapy for prostate cancer, initiation of chemotherapy, and prostate-specific antigen progression (P<0.001 for all comparisons), along with next symptomatic skeletal events (P=0.009). These findings led to the unanimous recommendation by the independent data and safety monitoring committee that the trial be unblinded and crossover be allowed for patients in the placebo group to receive abiraterone. Rates of grade 3 hypertension and hypokalemia were higher in the abiraterone group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of abiraterone acetate and prednisone to androgen-deprivation therapy significantly increased overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival in men with newly diagnosed, metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; LATITUDE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01715285 .).


Assuntos
Acetato de Abiraterona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Acetato de Abiraterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Esteroide 17-alfa-Hidroxilase/antagonistas & inibidores , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 15(3): e469-e476, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27964892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation and is associated with poor survival in localized or metastatic cancer. This study assessed the prognostic value of NLR after first-line chemotherapy (CT) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty consecutive patients treated with first-line platinum-based CT at 4 centers in France and Turkey between 2002 and 2014 were included. The association of NLR and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) scores with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was determined by univariate Cox models. RESULTS: Median OS was 10.6 months (follow-up, 42.8 months). In univariate analysis, high NLR was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio [HR] for death = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.51; P < .0001); the result was similar after adjustment for MSKCC prognostic group (HR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14-1.43; P < .0001). Low NLR was associated with longer PFS (HR = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.33; P < .005). When NLR was divided in terciles, OS in the lowest tercile (NLR 0.6-2.78) was 12.4 to 16.6 (median, 13.4) months versus 5.3 to 9.9 (median, 7.3) months in the highest tercile (NLR 4.70-48.9) (P = .001). Similar trends were observed for PFS (5.6-8.9 [median, 7.6] months vs. 3.1-5.7 [median, 4.8] months) in patients with NLR values in the lowest versus highest tercile, respectively (P = .021). CONCLUSION: High pre-CT NLR was an independent prognostic factor for poor OS and PFS in mUC patients. The prognostic value of NLR, as either a continuous or categorical variable, compared favorably with MSKCC score but was easier to assess and monitor.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neoplasias Urológicas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/sangue , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Feminino , França , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Turquia , Neoplasias Urológicas/sangue , Neoplasias Urológicas/mortalidade
15.
Hepatogastroenterology ; 62(137): 59-64, 2015 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25911868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The prognostic importance of perineural invasion (PN) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. The aim of this study to find out whether the PN was an independent stratification factor of postoperative relapse in curatively resected high-risk stage II & III CRC patients who were treated with adjuvant therapy. METHODOLOGY: Data of patients with high risk stage II & all stage III CRCs treated with adjuvant chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Pathological features of final surgical specimen were noted. Disease-free survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier estimator, with differences determined by multivariate analysis using the Cox multiple hazards model. Results were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: PN was found to be positive in 26% in the files of 593 eligible patients. In 21% of the reports PN status was not reported. Presence of PN in the resected primary tumors did not have independent effect on DFS. Further analyses for importance of PN on DFS of colon or rectal cancers did not show any effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study had failed to demonstrate any prognostic effect of PN for DFS in surgically resected stage II and III CRC patients who received adjuvant treatments.


Assuntos
Colectomia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Oncol Res Treat ; 37(11): 622-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25427579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the expression status of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast cancer may change during disease progression. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 expression status in primary breast cancer and metastatic lesions. METHODS: 58 patients with registered biopsy reports or available samples of the primary tumor and distant metastases were included in the final analysis. Biopsy samples were re-stained using immunohistochemical methods to determine receptor status (if not already recorded in previous reports) and re-examined by 2 independent pathologists. RESULTS: Discordance rates for receptor expression status of the primary tumor and distant metastases for ER, PR, and HER2 were 17.4, 45.4, and 13.3%, respectively. No statistically significant difference in overall survival due to receptor expression discordance between the primary tumor and metastatic sites (p>0.05) was found, although a tendency toward worse survival time was observed in patients with HER2 expression discrepancies. CONCLUSION: This study showed receptor discordance rates between primary and metastatic breast cancer sites for ER, PR, and HER2 of 17.8, 45.4, and 13.3%, respectively. Re-biopsy and IHC evaluation of metastatic sites for receptor status may change treatment decisions in patients with relapsed/progressed BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/secundário , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/secundário , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 50(9): 1602-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24725337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) flare occurs in about 15% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients receiving docetaxel. This flare has no standard definition. Its impact on treatment efficacy is unclear. We sought to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of PSA flare on cabazitaxel, and its impact on survival. METHODS: Multicentre retrospective review of consecutive patients treated with cabazitaxel second-line chemotherapy for mCRPC. Collection of baseline characteristics, disease history and PSA levels before and during cabazitaxel therapy. Overall survival (OS) and radiological/clinical progression-free survival (PFS) for patient groups corresponding to different definitions of PSA flare estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Overall, 125 patients were included. Median PFS and OS were 6.5 and 13.3 months, respectively. Depending upon the definition used, flare incidence ranged from 8.3% to 30.6%. The flare lasted <2.6 months. A PSA flare followed by a ⩾ 50% decrease was associated with a median PFS and OS of 11.2 and 25.2 months, respectively. Median PFS and OS for a ⩾ 30% rather than ⩾ 5 0% decrease were 10.4 and 16.5 months. These outcomes were not significantly different from those in patients with immediate PSA decreases of ⩾ 50% or ⩾ 30% from baseline, but were significantly better than in patients experiencing no PSA decrease (p = 0.006 and 0.015, respectively, for OS). CONCLUSION: The PSA response to cabazitaxel, with or without initial flare, was associated with a strong survival benefit. The taxane-induced flare during the first 12 weeks of therapy can be ignored when evaluating PSA response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 15(6): 580-91, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24742739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disease progression in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer receiving trastuzumab might be associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR intracellular signalling pathway. We aimed to assess whether the addition of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to trastuzumab might restore sensitivity to trastuzumab. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we recruited women with HER2-positive, trastuzumab-resistant, advanced breast carcinoma who had previously received taxane therapy. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a central patient screening and randomisation system to daily everolimus (5 mg/day) plus weekly trastuzumab (2 mg/kg) and vinorelbine (25 mg/m(2)) or to placebo plus trastuzumab plus vinorelbine, in 3-week cycles, stratified by previous lapatinib use. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment in the intention-to-treat population. We report the final analysis for PFS; overall survival follow-up is still in progress. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01007942. FINDINGS: Between Oct 26, 2009, and May 23, 2012, 569 patients were randomly assigned to everolimus (n=284) or placebo (n=285). Median follow-up at the time of analysis was 20.2 months (IQR 15.0-27.1). Median PFS was 7.00 months (95% CI 6.74-8.18) with everolimus and 5.78 months (5.49-6.90) with placebo (hazard ratio 0.78 [95% CI 0.65-0.95]; p=0.0067). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (204 [73%] of 280 patients in the everolimus group vs 175 [62%] of 282 patients in the placebo group), leucopenia (106 [38%] vs 82 [29%]), anaemia (53 [19%] vs 17 [6%]), febrile neutropenia (44 [16%] vs ten [4%]), stomatitis (37 [13%] vs four [1%]), and fatigue (34 [12%] vs 11 [4%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 117 (42%) patients in the everolimus group and 55 (20%) in the placebo group; two on-treatment deaths due to adverse events occurred in each group. INTERPRETATION: The addition of everolimus to trastuzumab plus vinorelbine significantly prolongs PFS in patients with trastuzumab-resistant and taxane-pretreated, HER2-positive, advanced breast cancer. The clinical benefit should be considered in the context of the adverse event profile in this population.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Everolimo , Feminino , Genes erbB-2 , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Trastuzumab , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 88(2): 253-71, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23755890

RESUMO

Dendritic cell tumors are extremely rare and current knowledge on these tumors is limited. The characteristics of three dendritic cell sarcoma subtypes and their optimal treatment approaches are not fully clarified. We aimed to make a systematic review of the literature and enrich the current data with five new cases. Pooled analysis of 462 reported cases revealed that the tumor had no age, gender or racial predilection. Our analysis suggests that the young age, advanced stage, intraabdominal involvement and unfavorable histological features (i.e. large tumor size, absence of lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, coagulative necrosis, high mitotic count) may predict poor prognosis. Subtypes of this tumor have different clinical behaviors with interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma being the most aggressive form. In general, surgery is the most effective treatment modality and adjuvant radiotherapy has no significant effect on overall survival of patients. The role of chemotherapy for the management of advanced disease is controversial.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/patologia , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/patologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/mortalidade , Transtornos Histiocíticos Malignos/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sarcoma/diagnóstico , Sarcoma/mortalidade , Sarcoma/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
20.
Case Rep Oncol ; 6(1): 224-8, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23687493

RESUMO

Primary cardiac osteosarcomas are uncommon tumors. They have an aggressive biology and hence poor prognosis. This report describes a 23-year-old male patient who was referred to our hospital with chest pain. Echocardiography showed a left atrial mass, and tumor excision revealed a cardiac osteosarcoma. Adjuvant cisplatin plus ifosfamide combination chemotherapy provided a disease-free survival of 9 months; unfortunately the patient died of metastatic disease thereafter.

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