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NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 30(1): 18, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376892


Under-diagnosis of asthma in 'under-fives' may be alleviated by improved inquiry into disease history. We assessed a questionnaire-based screening tool for asthma among 614 'under-fives' with severe respiratory illness in Uganda. The questionnaire responses were compared to post hoc consensus diagnoses by three pediatricians who were guided by study definitions that were based on medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory and radiological tests, and response to bronchodilators. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were categorized as "asthma syndrome". Using this approach, 253 (41.2%) had asthma syndrome. History of and present breathing difficulties and present cough and wheezing was the best performing combination of four questionnaire items [sensitivity 80.8% (95% CI 77.6-84.0); specificity 84.7% (95% CI 81.8-87.6)]. The screening tool for asthma syndrome in 'under-fives' may provide a simple, cheap and quick method of identifying children with possible asthma. The validity and reliability of this tool in primary care settings should be tested.

BMC Pediatr ; 14: 285, 2014 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25431036


BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to asthma in 'under-fives' in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 'under-fives', acute asthma and pneumonia have similar clinical presentation and most children with acute respiratory symptoms are diagnosed with pneumonia according to the WHO criteria. The mortality associated with acute respiratory diseases in Uganda is high but improving, dropping from 24% in 2004 to 11.9% in 2012. We describe the immediate clinical outcomes of children with acute asthma and pneumonia and document the factors associated with prolonged hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: We enrolled 614 children aged 2 to 59 months with acute respiratory symptoms presenting at the emergency paediatric unit of Mulago hospital. Clinical histories, physical examination, blood and radiological tests were done. Children with asthma and bronchiolitis were collectively referred to as 'Asthma syndrome'. Hospitalized children were monitored every 12 hours for a maximum of 7 days. Survival analysis was done to compare outcome of children with asthma and pneumonia. Cox regression analysis was done to determine factors associated with prolonged hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 3.6%. The highest case fatality was due to pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (2/4) and pulmonary tuberculosis (2/7). None of the children with asthma syndrome died. Children with 'asthma syndrome' had a significantly shorter hospital stay compared to those with pneumonia (p<0.001). Factors independently associated with mortality included hypoxemia (HR = 10.7, 95% CI 1.4- 81.1) and severe malnutrition (HR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.1- 15.8). Factors independently associated with prolonged hospitalization among children with asthma syndrome included age less than 12 months (RR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4), hypoxemia (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), and severe malnutrition (RR = 1.5 95% CI 1.3-1.8). Similar factors were associated with long duration of hospital stay among children with pneumonia. CONCLUSION: This study identified a sharp decline in acute respiratory mortality compared to the previous studies in Mulago hospital. This may be related to focus on and treatment of asthma in this study, and will be analysed in a later study. Bacterial pneumonia is still associated with high case fatality. Hypoxemia, severe malnutrition, and being an infant were associated with poor prognosis among children with acute asthma and pneumonia and need to be addressed in the management protocols.

Asma/mortalidade , Bronquiolite/mortalidade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Asma/complicações , Asma/terapia , Bronquiolite/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Malária/complicações , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Pneumonia/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
PLoS One ; 8(11): e81562, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24312321


BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is considered the major cause of mortality among children with acute respiratory disease in low-income countries but may be over-diagnosed at the cost of under-diagnosing asthma. We report the magnitude of asthma and pneumonia among "under-fives" with cough and difficulty breathing, based on stringent clinical criteria. We also describe the treatment for children with acute respiratory symptoms in Mulago Hospital. METHODS: We enrolled 614 children aged 2-59 months with cough and difficulty breathing. Interviews, physical examination, blood and radiological investigations were done. We defined asthma according to Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. Pneumonia was defined according to World Health Organization guidelines, which were modified by including fever and white cell count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and chest x-ray. Children with asthma or bronchiolitis were collectively referred to as "asthma syndrome" due to challenges of differentiating the two conditions in young children. Three pediatricians reviewed each participant's case report post hoc and made a diagnosis according to the study criteria. RESULTS: Of the 614 children, 41.2% (95% CI: 37.3-45.2) had asthma syndrome, 27.2% (95% CI: 23.7-30.9) had bacterial pneumonia, 26.5% (95% CI: 23.1-30.2) had viral pneumonia, while 5.1% (95% CI: 3.5-7.1) had other diagnoses including tuberculosis. Only 9.5% of the children with asthma syndrome had been previously diagnosed as asthma. Of the 253 children with asthma syndrome, 95.3% (95% CI: 91.9-97.5) had a prescription for antibiotics, 87.7% (95% CI: 83.1-91.5) for bronchodilators and 43.1% (95% CI: 36.9-49.4) for steroids. CONCLUSION: Although reports indicate that acute respiratory symptoms in children are predominantly due to pneumonia, asthma syndrome contributes a significant proportion. Antibiotics are used irrationally due to misdiagnosis of asthma as pneumonia. There is need for better diagnostic tools for childhood asthma and pneumonia in Uganda.

Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/epidemiologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Tosse/complicações , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Respiração , Uganda/epidemiologia
BMC Pediatr ; 13: 141, 2013 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024970


BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common chronic childhood illness, with rapidly increasing prevalence in low-income countries. Among young children, asthma is often under-diagnosed.We investigated the factors associated with asthma among under-fives presenting with acute respiratory symptoms at Mulago hospital, Uganda. METHODS: A hospital-based cross sectional study of 614 children with cough and/or difficult breathing, and fast breathing, was conducted between August 2011 and June 2012. A questionnaire focusing on clinical history of the child was administered to the caretakers. A physical examination and, laboratory and radiological investigations were done. Asthma was defined according to GINA (Global Initiative for Asthma) guidelines which were modified by excluding the symptom of "chest tightness", spirometry/peak expiratory flow measurements and by adding chest x-ray findings to distinguish asthma from pneumonia. A panel of three paediatricians reviewed the participants' case reports and, guided by the study definitions, made a diagnosis of asthma or other. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to determine factors independently associated with asthma. RESULTS: Of the 614 children, 128 (20.8%) had asthma, 125 (20.4%) bronchiolitis, 167 (27.2%) bacterial pneumonia only, 163 (26.5%) viral pneumonia while 31 (5.1%) had other diagnoses including pulmonary tuberculosis. The majority (71.1%) of children with asthma were aged ≥ 12 months. Factors associated with asthma included maternal asthma (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 4.6), a history of allergy in the patient (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2, 5.4,), use of gas for cooking (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2, 13.3), prematurity (AOR 9.3, 95% CI 1.2, 83.3) and high level of education of caretaker (AOR 9.1, 95% CI 1.1, 72.8). CONCLUSION: Maternal asthma, a history of allergy in the patient, use of gas for cooking, prematurity and high level of education of caretaker were significantly associated with asthma. There is need for studies to explore the role of the above factors in development and exacerbation of childhood asthma to provide information that can be used to design strategies for asthma prevention and control.

Asma/epidemiologia , Bronquiolite/diagnóstico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Asma/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Radiografia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
COPD ; 10(2): 208-15, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23547632


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening programme for COPD in primary care. MATERIAL/METHODS: Subjects aged 65 years or older registered with a general practitioner in Copenhagen were asked to complete a questionnaire on smoking status and symptoms of COPD. If they were smokers or former smokers or if morning cough with sputum and/or dyspnoea was present, subjects were defined as "at risk of COPD" and were invited to undergo spirometric examination. RESULTS: Of the 7103 subjects who met the study criteria, 81.2% responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 58.5% were at risk of COPD. Of those at risk, 40% underwent a spirometric examination. COPD was classified as mild in 252 (42.3%), moderate in 258 (43.3%) and severe-very severe in 86 subjects (14.4%). The participation rate was significantly higher among subjects invited for spirometry at a healthcare centre compared to general practice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a questionnaire can be used as a screening tool to identify subjects at risk of COPD. Furthermore, the study shows that more than half the subjects aged 65 years and above were at risk of COPD and required clinical assessment. Willingness to undergo spirometric examination depends on the location of the screening.

Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tosse/etiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar , Espirometria , Escarro
BMC Public Health ; 10: 524, 2010 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20809934


BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death in the world, and further increases in the prevalence and mortality are predicted. Delay in diagnosing COPD appears frequently even though current consensus guidelines emphasize the importance of early detection of the disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a screening programme in general practice. METHODS/DESIGN: Subjects aged 65 years and older registered with a General Practitioner (GP) in the eastern Copenhagen will receive a written invitation and a simple questionnaire focusing on risk factors and symptoms of COPD. Subjects who meet the following criteria will be encouraged to undergo spirometric testing at their GP: current smokers, former smokers, and subjects with no smoking history but who have dyspnea and/or chronic cough with sputum. DISCUSSION: The Copenhagen COPD Screening Project evaluates the effectiveness of a two-stage screening program for COPD in general practice and provides important information on how to organize early detection of COPD in general practice in the future.

Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Inquéritos e Questionários