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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(10): 107002, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median=19.5y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. ≤40 dB) (HR=1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (≥50 dB, HR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8949.

2.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e153, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131614

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the most prevalent pediatric chronic liver disease. Experimental studies suggest effects of air pollution and traffic exposure on liver injury. We present the first large-scale human study to evaluate associations of prenatal and childhood air pollution and traffic exposure with liver injury. Methods: Study population included 1,102 children from the Human Early Life Exposome project. Established liver injury biomarkers, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and cytokeratin-18, were measured in serum between ages 6-10 years. Air pollutant exposures included nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter <10 µm (PM10), and <2.5 µm. Traffic measures included traffic density on nearest road, traffic load in 100-m buffer, and inverse distance to nearest road. Exposure assignments were made to residential address during pregnancy (prenatal) and residential and school addresses in year preceding follow-up (childhood). Childhood indoor air pollutant exposures were also examined. Generalized additive models were fitted adjusting for confounders. Interactions by sex and overweight/obese status were examined. Results: Prenatal and childhood exposures to air pollution and traffic were not associated with child liver injury biomarkers. There was a significant interaction between prenatal ambient PM10 and overweight/obese status for alanine aminotransferase, with stronger associations among children who were overweight/obese. There was no evidence of interaction with sex. Conclusion: This study found no evidence for associations between prenatal or childhood air pollution or traffic exposure with liver injury biomarkers in children. Findings suggest PM10 associations maybe higher in children who are overweight/obese, consistent with the multiple-hits hypothesis for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis.

3.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 105, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. METHODS: We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. RESULTS: DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10-7, with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth Penrichment = 1; childhood Penrichment = 2.00 × 10-4; adolescence Penrichment = 2.10 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(10): 1317-1328, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence exists about the fetal and environmental origins of hypertension, but mainly limited to single-exposure studies. The exposome has been proposed as a more holistic approach by studying many exposures simultaneously. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the association between a wide range of prenatal and postnatal exposures and blood pressure (BP) in children. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP were measured among 1,277 children from the European HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) cohort aged 6 to 11 years. Prenatal (n = 89) and postnatal (n = 128) exposures include air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals, and lifestyles. Two methods adjusted for confounders were applied: an exposome-wide association study considering the exposures independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm considering all the exposures simultaneously. RESULTS: Decreases in systolic BP were observed with facility density (ß change for an interquartile-range increase in exposure: -1.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5 to -0.8 mm Hg]), maternal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 118 (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.6 to -0.2 mm Hg]) and child concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE: -1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.7 mm Hg]), hexachlorobenzene (-1.5 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.6 mm Hg]), and mono-benzyl phthalate (-0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.3 to -0.1 mm Hg]), whereas increases in systolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature during pregnancy (1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.2 to 2.9 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (2.0 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.4 to 3.5 mm Hg]), maternal cotinine concentrations (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.3 to 2.8 mm Hg]), and child perfluorooctanoate concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.6 mm Hg]). Decreases in diastolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature at examination (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.3 to -0.5 mm Hg]) and child DDE concentrations (-1.1 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.9 to -0.3 mm Hg]), whereas increases in diastolic BP were observed with maternal bisphenol-A concentrations (0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.2 to 2.7 mm Hg]), and child copper concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.3 to 1.6 mm Hg]). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early-life exposure to several chemicals, as well as built environment and meteorological factors, may affect BP in children.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Hipertensão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Criança , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/classificação , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/análise , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
5.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 28(10): 1336-1343, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407838

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the agreement between self-reported use of sleep medications and tranquilizers and dispensed hypnotics and anxiolytics. METHODS: Self-reported medication use was obtained from the population-based survey Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-2010) (n = 13 019). Data on dispensed hypnotics and anxiolytics were obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). As measures of validity, we calculated sensitivity and specificity using both self-reports and prescription records as the reference standard. Furthermore, we calculated Cohen's kappa. Current self-reported medication use was compared with prescription data in time windows of both 100 and 200 days preceding questionnaire completion. RESULTS: The highest sensitivity was observed for current sleep medication use in the 100-day time window (sensitivity = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74, 0.79) when using prescription records as the reference standard. Sensitivity was generally lower for tranquilizers compared with sleep medications. Cohen's kappa showed the highest agreement for the 200-day time window with substantial agreement for sleep medications (kappa = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.67) and moderate agreement for tranquilizers (kappa = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests moderate to substantial agreement between self-reported use of sleep medications and tranquilizers and dispensed drugs in a general adult population. The magnitude of agreement varied according to drug category and time window. Since self-reported and registry-based use of these drug classes does not match each other accurately, limitations of each data source should be considered when such medications are applied as the exposure or outcome in epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Farmacoepidemiologia/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Tranquilizantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Farmacoepidemiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Environ Res ; 174: 95-104, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055170

RESUMO

The human exposome affects child development and health later in life, but its personal external levels, variability, and correlations are largely unknown. We characterized the personal external exposome of pregnant women and children in eight European cities. Panel studies included 167 pregnant women and 183 children (aged 6-11 years). A personal exposure monitoring kit composed of smartphone, accelerometer, ultraviolet (UV) dosimeter, and two air pollution monitors were used to monitor physical activity (PA), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, traffic-related noise, UV-B radiation, and natural outdoor environments (NOE). 77% of women performed the adult recommendation of ≥150 min/week of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), while only 3% of children achieved the childhood recommendation of ≥60 min/day MVPA. 11% of women and 17% of children were exposed to daily PM2.5 levels higher than recommended (≥25µg/m3). Mean exposure to noise ranged from Lden 51.1 dB in Kaunas to Lden 65.2 dB in Barcelona. 4% of women and 23% of children exceeded the recommended maximum of 2 Standard-Erythemal-Dose of UV-B at least once a week. 33% of women and 43% of children never reached the minimum NOE contact recommendation of ≥30 min/week. The variations in air and noise pollution exposure were dominated by between-city variability, while most of the variation observed for NOE contact and PA was between-participants. The correlations between all personal exposures ranged from very low to low (Rho < 0.30). The levels of personal external exposures in both pregnant women and children are above the health recommendations, and there is little correlation between the different exposures. The assessment of the personal external exposome is feasible but sampling requires from one day to more than one year depending on exposure due to high variability between and within cities and participants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Expossoma , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado , Gravidez
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47007, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. METHODS: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures. RESULTS: The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis. CONCLUSION: This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3971.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Expossoma , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
8.
Environ Int ; 123: 189-200, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530161

RESUMO

Characterization of the "exposome", the set of all environmental factors that one is exposed to from conception onwards, has been advocated to better understand the role of environmental factors on chronic diseases. Here, we aimed to describe the early-life exposome. Specifically, we focused on the correlations between multiple environmental exposures, their patterns and their variability across European regions and across time (pregnancy and childhood periods). We relied on the Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project, in which 87 environmental exposures during pregnancy and 122 during the childhood period (grouped in 19 exposure groups) were assessed in 1301 pregnant mothers and their children at 6-11 years in 6 European birth cohorts. Some correlations between exposures in the same exposure group reached high values above 0.8. The median correlation within exposure groups was >0.3 for many exposure groups, reaching 0.69 for water disinfection by products in pregnancy and 0.67 for the meteorological group in childhood. Median correlations between different exposure groups rarely reached 0.3. Some correlations were driven by cohort-level associations (e.g. air pollution and chemicals). Ten principal components explained 45% and 39% of the total variance in the pregnancy and childhood exposome, respectively, while 65 and 90 components were required to explain 95% of the exposome variability. Correlations between maternal (pregnancy) and childhood exposures were high (>0.6) for most exposures modeled at the residential address (e.g. air pollution), but were much lower and even close to zero for some chemical exposures. In conclusion, the early life exposome was high dimensional, meaning that it cannot easily be measured by or reduced to fewer components. Correlations between exposures from different exposure groups were much lower than within exposure groups, which have important implications for co-exposure confounding in multiple exposure studies. Also, we observed the early life exposome to be variable over time and to vary by cohort, so measurements at one time point or one place will not capture its complexities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluição do Ar , Criança , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Purificação da Água
9.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e021311, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206078

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Essential to exposome research is the collection of data on many environmental exposures from different domains in the same subjects. The aim of the Human Early Life Exposome (HELIX) study was to measure and describe multiple environmental exposures during early life (pregnancy and childhood) in a prospective cohort and associate these exposures with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Here, we describe recruitment, measurements available and baseline data of the HELIX study populations. PARTICIPANTS: The HELIX study represents a collaborative project across six established and ongoing longitudinal population-based birth cohort studies in six European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain and the UK). HELIX used a multilevel study design with the entire study population totalling 31 472 mother-child pairs, recruited during pregnancy, in the six existing cohorts (first level); a subcohort of 1301 mother-child pairs where biomarkers, omics signatures and child health outcomes were measured at age 6-11 years (second level) and repeat-sampling panel studies with around 150 children and 150 pregnant women aimed at collecting personal exposure data (third level). FINDINGS TO DATE: Cohort data include urban environment, hazardous substances and lifestyle-related exposures for women during pregnancy and their offspring from birth until 6-11 years. Common, standardised protocols were used to collect biological samples, measure exposure biomarkers and omics signatures and assess child health across the six cohorts. Baseline data of the cohort show substantial variation in health outcomes and determinants between the six countries, for example, in family affluence levels, tobacco smoking, physical activity, dietary habits and prevalence of childhood obesity, asthma, allergies and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. FUTURE PLANS: HELIX study results will inform on the early life exposome and its association with molecular omics signatures and child health outcomes. Cohort data are accessible for future research involving researchers external to the project.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Substâncias Perigosas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metaboloma , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteoma , Testes Psicológicos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transcriptoma , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
10.
Epidemiology ; 29(5): 729-738, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29927819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being overweight constitutes a health risk, and the proportion of overweight and obese children is increasing. It has been argued that road traffic noise could be linked to adiposity through its influence on sleep and stress. Few studies, to our knowledge, have investigated whether noise and adiposity are associated. Most of them were on adults, and we are not aware of any longitudinal study using repeated measures. OBJECTIVES: The present longitudinal study investigated whether road traffic noise exposures in pregnancy (N = 6,963; obs = 22,975) or childhood (N = 6,403; obs = 14,585) were associated with body mass index (BMI) trajectories in children. METHODS: We obtained information on BMI and covariates from questionnaires used in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We modeled road traffic noise for the most exposed façade of children's present and historical addresses at 6 time points from pregnancy to age 8. We investigated effects on BMI trajectories using repeated measures and linear mixed models. RESULTS: The results indicated that BMI curves depended on road traffic noise exposure during pregnancy, but not on exposure during childhood. Children in the highest decile of traffic noise exposure had increased BMI, with 0.35 kg/m more than children in the lowest decile, from birth to age 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy may be associated with children's BMI trajectories. Future studies should investigate this further, using anthropometric measures such as waist-hip ratio and skinfold thickness, in addition to BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(3): 420-432, 2018 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016987

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent. Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89-3.14 per 10-5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38-2.71 per 10-5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors. Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
12.
Environ Health ; 16(1): 127, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of children are exposed to road traffic noise levels that may lead to adverse effects on health and daily functioning. Childhood is a period of intense growth and brain maturation, and children may therefore be especially vulnerable to road traffic noise. The objective of the present study was to examine whether road traffic noise was associated with reported inattention symptoms in children, and whether this association was mediated by sleep duration. METHODS: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Parental reports of children's inattention at age 8 were linked to modelled levels of residential road traffic noise. We investigated the association between inattention and noise exposure during pregnancy (n = 1934), noise exposure averaged over 5 years (age 3 to 8 years; n = 1384) and noise exposure at age 8 years (n = 1384), using fractional logit response models. The participants were children from Oslo, Norway. RESULTS: An association with inattention at age 8 years was found for road traffic noise exposure at age 8 years (coef = .0083, CI = [.0012, .0154]; 1.2% point increase in inattention score per 10 dB increase in noise level), road traffic noise exposure average for the last 5 years (coef = .0090, CI = [.0016, .0164]; 1.3% point increase/10 dB), and for pregnancy road traffic noise exposure for boys (coef = .0091, CI = [.0010, .0171]), but not girls (coef = -.0021, CI = [-.0094, .0053]). Criteria for doing mediation analyses were not fulfilled. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that road traffic noise has a negative impact on children's inattention. We found no mediation by sleep duration.


Assuntos
Atenção , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Noruega , Gravidez , Sono
13.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(10): 107005, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29033383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. METHODS: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts ­ Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5µm, ≤10µm, and 2.5­10µm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 µg/m3}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 µg/m3], PMcoarse[1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 µg/m3], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 µg/m3], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 µg/m3, p=0.04]. CONCLUSIONS: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Environ Health ; 16(1): 110, 2017 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been associated with adverse health effects including sleep disturbances. Use of sleep medication as an indicator of sleeping problems has rarely been explored in studies of the effects of traffic noise. Furthermore, using registry data on sleep medications provides an opportunity to study the effects of noise on sleep where attribution of sleep problems to noise is not possible. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from the population-based study Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-10) (n = 13,019). Individual data on sleep medications was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). Noise levels (L night) were modeled for the most exposed façade of the building at each participant's home address. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used to analyze the association between traffic noise and sleep medication use both for one whole year and for the summer season. The results were reported as changes in the effect estimate per 5 decibel (dB) increase in noise level. RESULTS: We observed no association between traffic noise and sleep medication use during one year [odds ratio (OR) = 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.96, 1.04]. For sleep medication use in the summer season, there was a positive, however non-significant association (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.10). Among individuals sleeping with the bedroom window open, the association increased slightly and was borderline statistically significant (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of an association between traffic noise and sleep medication use during one year. However, for the summer season, there was some suggestive evidence of an association. These findings indicate that season may play a role in the association between traffic noise and sleep, possibly because indoor traffic noise levels are likely to be higher during summer due to more frequent window opening. More studies are, however, necessary in order to confirm this.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído dos Transportes , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Razão de Chances , Sistema de Registros , Estações do Ano
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481249

RESUMO

Almost half of the European Union (EU)'s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children's sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children's parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children's sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Eur Heart J ; 38(13): 983-990, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28417138

RESUMO

Aims: We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results: We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Conclusion: Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato
17.
Int J Cancer ; 140(7): 1528-1537, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28006861

RESUMO

Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR = 1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5 µg/m3 PM2.5 and HR = 1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10-5 m-1 PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. Our study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gasolina , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado , Fatores de Risco , Emissões de Veículos
18.
Lancet ; 386(10010): 2287-323, 2015 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26364544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. METHODS: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. FINDINGS: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. INTERPRETATION: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Global/tendências , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/tendências
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 72(8): 594-601, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26009579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited evidence suggests adverse effects of traffic noise exposure on the metabolic system. This study investigates the association between road traffic noise and obesity markers as well as the role of combined exposure to multiple sources of traffic noise. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study performed in 2002-2006, we assessed exposure to noise from road traffic, railways and aircraft at the residences of 5075 Swedish men and women, primarily from suburban and semirural areas of Stockholm County. A detailed questionnaire and medical examination provided information on markers of obesity and potential confounders. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between traffic noise and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio using WHO definitions of obesity. RESULTS: Road traffic noise was significantly related to waist circumference with a 0.21 cm (95% CI 0.01 to 0.41) increase per 5 dB(A) rise in L(den). The OR for central obesity among those exposed to road traffic noise ≥ 45 dB(A) was 1.18 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.34) in comparison to those exposed below this level. Similar results were seen for waist-hip ratio (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.45) but not for BMI (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.76 to 1.04). Central obesity was also associated with exposure to railway and aircraft noise, and a particularly high risk was seen for combined exposure to all three sources of traffic noise (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.24 to 3.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that traffic noise exposure can increase the risk of central obesity. Combined exposure to different sources of traffic noise may convey a particularly high risk.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Transportes , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto , Aeronaves , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Razão de Chances , Ferrovias
20.
Environ Res ; 138: 144-53, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25710788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise has been found to be associated with endocrine changes and cardiovascular disease. Increased cortisol levels and chronic sleep problems due to noise may increase the risk of obesity. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between road traffic noise and obesity markers. Furthermore, we explored the modifying role of noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: We used data from a population-based study, HUBRO (N=15,085), and its follow-up study HELMILO (N=8410) conducted in Oslo, Norway. Measurements were used to define body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and these binary outcomes: BMI≥30kg/m(2), WC≥102cm (men)/88cm (women), and WHR≥0.90 (men)/0.85 (women). Modelled levels of road traffic noise (Lden) were assigned to each participant's home address. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. RESULTS: The results indicated no significant associations between road traffic noise and obesity markers in the total populations. However, in highly noise sensitive women (n=1106) a 10dB increase in noise level was associated with a slope (=beta) of 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.03) for BMI, 1.01 (CI: 1.00, 1.02) for WC, and an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 (CI: 1.01, 1.53) for WHR ≥0.85. The associations appeared weaker in highly noise sensitive men. We found no effect modification of noise annoyance or sleep disturbances. In a sub-population with bedroom facing a road, the associations increased in men (e.g. an OR of 1.25 (CI: 0.88, 1.78) for BMI ≥30kg/m(2)), but not in women. Among long-term residents the associations increased for BMI ≥30kg/m(2) (OR of 1.07 (CI: 0.93, 1.24) in men and 1.10 (CI: 0.97, 1.26) in women), but not for the other outcomes. CONCLUSION: In an adult urban Scandinavian population, road traffic noise was positively associated with obesity markers among highly noise sensitive women. The associations appeared stronger among men with bedroom facing a street, representing a population with more accurately assigned exposure.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Razão Cintura-Estatura
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