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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD009332, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is general agreement that oxytocin given either through the intravenous or intramuscular route is effective in reducing postpartum blood loss. However, it is unclear whether the subtle differences between the mode of action of these routes have any effect on maternal and infant outcomes. This review was first published in 2012 and last updated in 2018. OBJECTIVES: To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of oxytocin administered intravenously or intramuscularly for prophylactic management of the third stage of labour after vaginal birth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (19 December 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Eligible studies were randomised trials comparing intravenous with intramuscular oxytocin for prophylactic management of the third stage of labour after vaginal birth. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of the evidence with the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Seven trials, involving 7817 women, met the inclusion criteria for this review. The trials compared intravenous versus intramuscular administration of oxytocin just after the birth of the anterior shoulder or soon after the birth of the baby. All trials were conducted in hospital settings and included women with term pregnancies, undergoing a vaginal birth. Overall, the included studies were at moderate or low risk of bias, with two trials providing clear information on allocation concealment and blinding. For GRADE outcomes, the certainty of the evidence was generally moderate to high, except from two cases where the certainty of the evidence was either low or very low. High-certainty evidence suggests that intravenous administration of oxytocin in the third stage of labour compared with intramuscular administration carries a lower risk for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) ≥ 500 mL (average risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.92; six trials; 7731 women) and blood transfusion (average RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.77; four trials; 6684 women). Intravenous administration of oxytocin probably reduces the risk of PPH ≥ 1000 mL, although the 95% CI crosses the line of no-effect (average RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.08; four trials; 6681 women; moderate-certainty evidence). In all studies but one, there was a reduction in the risk of PPH ≥ 1000 mL with intravenous oxytocin. The study that found a large increase with intravenous administration was small (256 women), and contributed only 3% of total events. Once this small study was removed from the meta-analysis, heterogeneity was eliminated and the treatment effect favoured intravenous oxytocin (average RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.88; three trials; 6425 women; high-certainty evidence). Additionally, a sensitivity analysis, exploring the effect of risk of bias by restricting analysis to those studies rated as 'low risk of bias' for random sequence generation and allocation concealment, found that the prophylactic administration of intravenous oxytocin reduces the risk for PPH ≥ 1000 mL, compared with intramuscular oxytocin (average RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.94; two trials; 1512 women). The two routes of oxytocin administration may be comparable in terms of additional uterotonic use (average RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.25; six trials; 7327 women; low-certainty evidence). Although intravenous compared with intramuscular administration of oxytocin probably results in a lower risk for serious maternal morbidity (e.g. hysterectomy, organ failure, coma, intensive care unit admissions), the confidence interval suggests a substantial reduction, but also touches the line of no-effect. This suggests that there may be no reduction in serious maternal morbidity (average RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.00; four trials; 7028 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Most events occurred in one study from Ireland reporting high dependency unit admissions, whereas in the remaining three studies there was only one case of uvular oedema. There were no maternal deaths reported in any of the included studies (very low-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference in the risk of hypotension between intravenous and intramuscular administration of oxytocin (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.15; four trials; 6468 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Subgroup analyses based on the mode of administration of intravenous oxytocin (bolus injection or infusion) versus intramuscular oxytocin did not show any substantial differences on the primary outcomes. Similarly, additional subgroup analyses based on whether oxytocin was used alone or as part of active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) did not show any substantial differences between the two routes of administration. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous administration of oxytocin is more effective than its intramuscular administration in preventing PPH during vaginal birth. Intravenous oxytocin administration presents no additional safety concerns and has a comparable side effects profile with its intramuscular administration. Future studies should consider the acceptability, feasibility and resource use for the intervention, especially in low-resource settings.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e036338, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444432

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in awareness of maternal sepsis among healthcare providers resulting from the WHO Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) awareness campaign. DESIGN: Independent sample precampaign/postcampaign through online and paper-based surveys available for over 30 days before campaign roll-out (pre) and after study data collection (post). Descriptive statistics were used for campaign recognition and exposure, and odds ratio (OR) and percentage change were calculated for differences in awareness, adjusting for confounders using multivariate logistic regression. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare providers from 398 participating facilities in 46 low, middle and high-income countries. INTERVENTION: An awareness campaign to accompany GLOSS launched 3 weeks prior to data collection and lasting the entire study period (28 November 2017 to 15 January 2018) and beyond. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Campaign recognition and exposure, and changes in awareness. RESULTS: A total of 2188 surveys were analysed: 1155 at baseline and 1033 at postcampaign. Most survey respondents found the campaign materials helpful (94%), that they helped increase awareness (90%) and that they helped motivate to act differently (88%). There were significant changes with regard to: not having heard of maternal sepsis (-63.4% change, pre-OR/post-OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.68) and perception of confidence in making the right decisions with regard to maternal sepsis identification and management (7.3% change, pre-OR/post-OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.06). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness raising campaigns can contribute to an increase in having heard of maternal sepsis and an increase in provider perception of confidence in making correct decisions. Offering the information to make accurate and timely decisions while promoting environments that enable self-confidence and support could improve maternal sepsis identification and management.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247770

RESUMO

This chapter reviews and compiles the most recent published evidence assessing the overall labour duration and patterns of progression for both nulliparous and parous women, as well as the accuracy of the alert and action lines in the World Health Organization (WHO) partograph for the identification of women at risk of birth complications. Systematic reviews of observational studies reporting on the duration of the first and the second stages of labour, and on cervical dilatation patterns for women with low risk of complications with 'normal' perinatal outcomes were identified and updated. The accuracy of the alert (1 cm/h) and action lines of the cervicograph in the partogram to predict adverse birth outcomes among women in first stage of labour was also reviewed, questioning the appropriateness of considering cervical dilatation over time as an isolated indicator to define labour progression or arrest.


Assuntos
Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Paridade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43: e13, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093237

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the magnitude and characteristics of the omission of causes of maternal death in death certificates in Argentina, and to re-estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the year 2014. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Retrospective review of medical records of women of childbearing age who died from causes suspected of concealing maternal deaths in public, social security, and private institutions in all jurisdictions of the country between 1 January and 31 December 2014. The cause of death recorded in the death certificate was reclassified. Outcome measures included: percentage of records with an omission, structure of causes of death, location, time of death with respect to the reproductive process, and gestational age. The RMM was re-estimated on the basis of the results. Results: Of a sample of 1,176 cases, 969 medical records (82.4%) were analyzed, identifying 60 cases in which the cause of maternal death was omitted (48 maternal deaths, 12 late maternal deaths). Omissions were found in 14.2% of maternal deaths and 33.3% of late maternal deaths. The new estimated MMR for 2014 varied between 43.3 and 47.2 deaths per 100,000 live births. Conclusions: The omission of causes of maternal death in death certificates in Argentina may be less frequent than international agencies have reported, with differences in omission between regions. Efforts must be made to emphasize the importance of filling out death certificates correctly.

5.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49756

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar la magnitud y características de la omisión del registro de causas maternas de muerte en Argentina y reestimar la razón de mortalidad materna (RMM) para el año 2014. Métodos. Estudio de corte transversal. Revisión retrospectiva de registros médicos de mujeres en edad reproductiva que murieron por causas sospechosas de encubrir muertes maternas en instituciones del sector público, la seguridad social y privado en todas las jurisdicciones del país entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre de 2014. Se reclasificó la causa de muerte consignada en el Informe Estadístico de Defunción. Las medidas de resultado incluyeron el porcentaje de omisión del registro, la estructura de causas, el lugar, el momento de la muerte en relación con el proceso reproductivo y la edad gestacional. Se reestimó la RMM en base a los resultados. Resultados. Se analizaron 969 registros médicos (82,4%) de una muestra de 1 176 casos. Se identificaron 60 casos donde se omitió la causa materna de muerte (48 muertes maternas, 12 muertes maternas tardías). El porcentaje de omisión fue del 14,2% para las muertes maternas y del 33,3% para las muertes maternas tardías. La nueva RMM estimada para el año 2014 osciló entre 43,3 y 47,2 muertes por cada 100 000 nacidos vivos. Conclusiones. La omisión de registro de causas maternas de muerte en Argentina podría ser menor a la reportada por agencias internacionales. Existen diferencias de omisión entre las regiones. Se necesitan esfuerzos que enfaticen la importancia del llenado correcto de los certificados de defunción.


[SUMMARY]. Objective. To determine the magnitude and characteristics of the omission of causes of maternal death in death certificates in Argentina, and to re-estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the year 2014. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Retrospective review of medical records of women of childbearing age who died from causes suspected of concealing maternal deaths in public, social security, and private institutions in all jurisdictions of the country between 1 January and 31 December 2014. The cause of death recorded in the death certificate was reclassified. Outcome measures included: percentage of records with an omission, structure of causes of death, location, time of death with respect to the reproductive process, and gestational age. The RMM was re-estimated on the basis of the results. Results. Of a sample of 1,176 cases, 969 medical records (82.4%) were analyzed, identifying 60 cases in which the cause of maternal death was omitted (48 maternal deaths, 12 late maternal deaths). Omissions were found in 14.2% of maternal deaths and 33.3% of late maternal deaths. The new estimated MMR for 2014 varied between 43.3 and 47.2 deaths per 100,000 live births. Conclusions. The omission of causes of maternal death in death certificates in Argentina may be less frequent than international agencies have reported, with differences in omission between regions. Efforts must be made to emphasize the importance of filling out death certificates correctly.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar a dimensão e as características da omissão do registro de causas maternas de morte na Argentina e realizar uma nova estimativa da taxa de mortalidade materna (TMM) para o ano 2014. Métodos. Estudo de corte transversal com a revisão retrospectiva dos registros médicos de mulheres em idade reprodutiva que morreram por causas com suspeita de encobrir mortes maternas em instituições da rede pública e previdência social e instituições particulares em todas as jurisdições do país entre 1º. de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2014. Foi feita a reclassificação da causa de morte atribuída no Informe Estatístico de Óbitos. As medidas de resultados foram porcentagem de omissão do registro, estrutura de causas de mortes maternas, local, momento da morte em relação ao processo reprodutivo e idade gestacional. Foi realizada uma nova estimativa da TMM com base nos resultados. Resultados. Foram analisados 969 registros médicos (82,4%) de uma amostra de 1.176 casos. Foram identificados 60 casos em que houve omissão da causa materna de morte (48 mortes maternas, 12 mortes maternas tardias). Verificou-se uma porcentagem de omissão de 14,2% para as mortes maternas e 33,3% para as mortes maternas tardias. A nova TMM estimada para o ano 2014 oscilou entre 43,3 e 47,2 mortes por 100.000 nascidos vivos. Conclusões. A omissão de registro de causas maternas de morte na Argentina pode ser menor que a informada pelas agências internacionais. Existe diferença de omissão entre as regiões. São necessários esforços que enfatizem a importância do preenchimento correto da certidão de óbito.


Assuntos
Sub-Registro , Morte Materna , Estatísticas Vitais , Estudo Observacional , Argentina , Sub-Registro , Morte Materna , Estatísticas Vitais , Estudo Observacional , Sub-Registro , Estatísticas Vitais , Estudo Observacional , Morte Materna
6.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 43: e13, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-985763

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Determinar la magnitud y características de la omisión del registro de causas maternas de muerte en Argentina y reestimar la razón de mortalidad materna (RMM) para el año 2014. Métodos Estudio de corte transversal. Revisión retrospectiva de registros médicos de mujeres en edad reproductiva que murieron por causas sospechosas de encubrir muertes maternas en instituciones del sector público, la seguridad social y privado en todas las jurisdicciones del país entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre de 2014. Se reclasificó la causa de muerte consignada en el Informe Estadístico de Defunción. Las medidas de resultado incluyeron el porcentaje de omisión del registro, la estructura de causas, el lugar, el momento de la muerte en relación con el proceso reproductivo y la edad gestacional. Se reestimó la RMM en base a los resultados. Resultados Se analizaron 969 registros médicos (82,4%) de una muestra de 1 176 casos. Se identificaron 60 casos donde se omitió la causa materna de muerte (48 muertes maternas, 12 muertes maternas tardías). El porcentaje de omisión fue del 14,2% para las muertes maternas y del 33,3% para las muertes maternas tardías. La nueva RMM estimada para el año 2014 osciló entre 43,3 y 47,2 muertes por cada 100 000 nacidos vivos. Conclusiones La omisión de registro de causas maternas de muerte en Argentina podría ser menor a la reportada por agencias internacionales. Existen diferencias de omisión entre las regiones. Se necesitan esfuerzos que enfaticen la importancia del llenado correcto de los certificados de defunción.


SUMMARY Objective To determine the magnitude and characteristics of the omission of causes of maternal death in death certificates in Argentina, and to re-estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the year 2014. Methods Cross-sectional study. Retrospective review of medical records of women of childbearing age who died from causes suspected of concealing maternal deaths in public, social security, and private institutions in all jurisdictions of the country between 1 January and 31 December 2014. The cause of death recorded in the death certificate was reclassified. Outcome measures included: percentage of records with an omission, structure of causes of death, location, time of death with respect to the reproductive process, and gestational age. The RMM was re-estimated on the basis of the results. Results Of a sample of 1,176 cases, 969 medical records (82.4%) were analyzed, identifying 60 cases in which the cause of maternal death was omitted (48 maternal deaths, 12 late maternal deaths). Omissions were found in 14.2% of maternal deaths and 33.3% of late maternal deaths. The new estimated MMR for 2014 varied between 43.3 and 47.2 deaths per 100,000 live births. Conclusions The omission of causes of maternal death in death certificates in Argentina may be less frequent than international agencies have reported, with differences in omission between regions. Efforts must be made to emphasize the importance of filling out death certificates correctly.


RESUMO Objetivo Determinar a dimensão e as características da omissão do registro de causas maternas de morte na Argentina e realizar uma nova estimativa da taxa de mortalidade materna (TMM) para o ano 2014. Métodos Estudo de corte transversal com a revisão retrospectiva dos registros médicos de mulheres em idade reprodutiva que morreram por causas com suspeita de encobrir mortes maternas em instituições da rede pública e previdência social e instituições particulares em todas as jurisdições do país entre 1º. de janeiro e 31 de dezembro de 2014. Foi feita a reclassificação da causa de morte atribuída no Informe Estatístico de Óbitos. As medidas de resultados foram porcentagem de omissão do registro, estrutura de causas de mortes maternas, local, momento da morte em relação ao processo reprodutivo e idade gestacional. Foi realizada uma nova estimativa da TMM com base nos resultados. Resultados Foram analisados 969 registros médicos (82,4%) de uma amostra de 1.176 casos. Foram identificados 60 casos em que houve omissão da causa materna de morte (48 mortes maternas, 12 mortes maternas tardias). Verificou-se uma porcentagem de omissão de 14,2% para as mortes maternas e 33,3% para as mortes maternas tardias. A nova TMM estimada para o ano 2014 oscilou entre 43,3 e 47,2 mortes por 100.000 nascidos vivos. Conclusões A omissão de registro de causas maternas de morte na Argentina pode ser menor que a informada pelas agências internacionais. Existe diferença de omissão entre as regiões. São necessários esforços que enfatizem a importância do preenchimento correto da certidão de óbito.


Assuntos
Sub-Registro , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD002252, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antihypertensive drugs are often used in the belief that lowering blood pressure will prevent progression to more severe disease, and thereby improve pregnancy outcome. This Cochrane Review is an updated review, first published in 2001 and subsequently updated in 2007 and 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antihypertensive drug treatments for women with mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (13 September 2017), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised trials evaluating any antihypertensive drug treatment for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy, defined as systolic blood pressure 140 to 169 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 to 109 mmHg. Comparisons were of one or more antihypertensive drug(s) with placebo, with no antihypertensive drug, or with another antihypertensive drug, and where treatment was planned to continue for at least seven days. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: For this update, we included 63 trials (data from 58 trials, 5909 women), with moderate to high risk of bias overall.We carried out GRADE assessments for the main 'antihypertensive drug versus placebo/no antihypertensive drug' comparison only. Evidence was graded from very low to moderate certainty, with downgrading mainly due to design limitations and imprecision.For many outcomes, trials contributing data evaluated different hypertensive drugs; while we did not downgrade for this indirectness, results should be interpreted with caution.Antihypertensive drug versus placebo/no antihypertensive drug (31 trials, 3485 women)Primary outcomes: moderate-certainty evidence suggests that use of antihypertensive drug(s) probably halves the risk of developing severe hypertension (risk ratio (RR) 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.60; 20 trials, 2558 women), but may have little or no effect on the risk of proteinuria/pre-eclampsia (average risk ratio (aRR) 0.92; 95% CI 0.75 to 1.14; 23 trials, 2851 women; low-certainty evidence). Moderate-certainty evidence also shows that antihypertensive drug(s) probably have little or no effect in the risk of total reported fetal or neonatal death (including miscarriage) (aRR 0.72; 95% CI 0.50 to 1.04; 29 trials, 3365 women), small-for-gestational-age babies (aRR 0.96; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.18; 21 trials, 2686 babies) or preterm birth less than 37 weeks (aRR 0.96; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.12; 15 trials, 2141 women). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: we are uncertain of the effect of antihypertensive drug(s) on the risk of maternal death, severe pre-eclampsia, or eclampsia, orimpaired long-term growth and development of the baby in infancy and childhood, because the certainty of this evidence is very low. There may be little or no effect on the risk of changed/stopped drugs due to maternal side-effects, or admission to neonatal or intensive care nursery (low-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference in the risk of elective delivery (moderate-certainty evidence).Antihypertensive drug versus another antihypertensive drug (29 trials, 2774 women)Primary outcomes: beta blockers and calcium channel blockers together in the meta-analysis appear to be more effective than methyldopa in avoiding an episode of severe hypertension (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.88; 11 trials, 638 women). There was also an increase in this risk when other antihypertensive drugs were compared with calcium channel blockers (RR 1.86; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.15; 5 trials, 223 women), but no evidence of a difference when methyldopa and calcium channel blockers together were compared with beta blockers (RR1.18, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.48; 10 trials, 692 women). No evidence of a difference in the risk of proteinuria/pre-eclampsia was found when alternative drugs were compared with methyldopa (aRR 0.78; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.06; 11 trials, 997 women), with calcium channel blockers (aRR: 1.24, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.19; 5 trials, 375 women), or with beta blockers (aRR 1.21, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.67; 12 trials, 1107 women).For the babies, we found no evidence of a difference in the risk oftotal reported fetal or neonatal death (including miscarriage) when comparing other antihypertensive drugs with methyldopa (aRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.14; 22 trials, 1791 babies), with calcium channel blockers (aRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.57; nine trials, 700 babies), or with beta blockers (aRR: 1.23, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.88; 19 trials, 1652 babies); nor in the risk for small-for-gestational age in the comparison with methyldopa (aRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.20; seven trials, 597 babies), with calcium channel blockers (aRR 1.05, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.73; four trials, 200 babies), or with beta blockers (average RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.60; 7 trials, 680 babies). No evidence of an overall difference among groups in the risk of preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) was found in the comparison with methyldopa (aRR: 0.91; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.22; 11 trials, 835 women), with calcium channel blockers (aRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.23; six trials, 330 women), or with beta blockers (aRR 1.22, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.66; 9 trials, 806 women). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: There were no cases of maternal death andeclampsia. There is no evidence of a difference in the risk of severe pre-eclampsia, changed/stopped drug due to maternal side-effects, elective delivery, admission to neonatal or intensive care nursery when other antihypertensive drugs are compared with methyldopa, calcium channel blockers or beta blockers. Impaired long-term growth and development in infancy and childhood was not reported for these comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy reduces the risk of severe hypertension. The effect on other clinically important outcomes remains unclear. If antihypertensive drugs are used, beta blockers and calcium channel blockers appear to be more effective than the alternatives for preventing severe hypertension. High-quality large sample-sized randomised controlled trials are required in order to provide reliable estimates of the benefits and adverse effects of antihypertensive treatment for mild to moderate hypertension for both mother and baby, as well as costs to the health services, women and their families.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Morte Materna , Efeito Placebo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Proteinúria/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009332, 2018 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is general agreement that oxytocin given either through the intramuscular or intravenous route is effective in reducing postpartum blood loss. However, it is unclear whether the subtle differences between the mode of action of these routes have any effect on maternal and infant outcomes. This is an update of a review first published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of oxytocin administered intramuscularly or intravenously for prophylactic management of the third stage of labour after vaginal birth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (7 September 2017) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing intramuscular with intravenous oxytocin for prophylactic management of the third stage of labour after vaginal birth. We excluded quasi-randomised trials. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies with 1306 women are included in the review and compared intramuscular versus intravenous oxytocin administered just after the birth of the anterior shoulder or soon after the birth of the baby. Studies were carried out in hospital settings in Turkey and Thailand and recruited women with singleton, term pregnancies. Overall, the included studies were at moderate risk of bias: none of the studies provided clear information on allocation concealment or attempted to blind staff or women. For GRADE outcomes the quality of the evidence was very low, with downgrading due to study design limitations and imprecision of effect estimates.Only one study reported severe postpartum haemorrhage (blood loss 1000 mL or more) and showed no clear difference between the intramuscular and intravenous oxytocin groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 2.04; 256 women; very low-quality evidence). No woman required hysterectomy in either group in one study (no estimable data, very low-quality evidence), and in another study one woman in each group received a blood transfusion (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.82; 256 women; very low-quality evidence). Other important outcomes (maternal death, hypotension, maternal dissatisfaction with the intervention and neonatal jaundice) were not reported by any of the included studies. There were no clear differences between groups for other prespecified secondary outcomes reported (postpartum haemorrhage 500 mL or more, use of additional uterotonics, retained placenta or manual removal of the placenta). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Very low-quality evidence indicates no clear difference between the comparative benefits and risks of intramuscular and intravenous oxytocin when given to prevent excessive blood loss after vaginal birth. Appropriately designed randomised trials with adequate sample sizes are needed to assess whether the route of prophylactic oxytocin after vaginal birth affects maternal or infant outcomes. Such studies could be large enough to detect clinically important differences in major side effects that have been reported in observational studies and should also consider the acceptability of the intervention to mothers and providers as important outcomes.


Assuntos
Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Intravenosas , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD010980, 2018 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Almost 358,000 women die each year in childbirth, mainly in low-income countries. More than half of all maternal deaths occur within 24 hours of giving birth; severe bleeding in the postpartum period is the single most important cause. Depending on the rate of blood loss and other factors, such as pre-existing anaemia, untreated postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) can lead to hypovolaemic shock, multi-organ dysfunction, and maternal death, within two to six hours.This review investigated different methods for estimating blood loss. The most common method of measuring blood loss during the third stage of labour is visual estimation, during which the birth attendant makes a quantitative or semi-quantitative estimate of the amount of blood lost. In direct blood collection, all blood lost during the third stage of labour (except for the placenta and membranes) is contained in a disposable, funnelled, plastic collector bag, which is attached to a plastic sheet, and placed under the woman's buttocks. When the bleeding stops, there are two options: the bag can be weighed (also called gravimetric technique), or the bag can be calibrated, allowing for a direct measurement. A more precise measurement of blood loss is haemoglobin concentration (Hb) in venous blood sampling and spectrophotometry. With the dye dilution technique, a known quantity of dye is injected into the vein and its plasmatic concentration is monitored after the uterus stops bleeding. Using nuclear medicine, a radioactive tracer is injected, and its concentration is monitored after the uterus stops bleeding. Although hypothetically, these advanced methods could provide a better quantification of blood loss, they are difficult to perform and are not accessible in most settings. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of alternative methods to estimate blood loss during the third stage of labour, to help healthcare providers reduce the adverse consequences of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal birth. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (2 February 2018), ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 21 March 2018), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating methods for estimating blood loss after vaginal birth. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data, and checked them for accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: The search retrieved 62 reports in total. Of these, we assessed 12 reports in full, corresponding to six trials. We included three trials and excluded one; two trials are ongoing.The included trials were conducted in hospital settings. Two trials were conducted in India; the third trial was a large cluster-randomised trial, which took place in 13 European countries. Overall, we judged the included trials to be at a low risk of bias. One study evaluated the use of calibrated drapes versus visual estimation, another evaluated the use of calibrated drapes versus the gravimetric technique (weight of blood-soaked materials), therefore, we were unable to pool the data from the two studies. The third study did not measure any of the outcomes of interest, so did not contribute data to the analyses.Direct measurement using calibrated drapes versus visual estimationOne cluster-randomised controlled trial in 13 western European countries, with over 25,000 women, examined this comparison.The trial did not report on postpartum anaemia (defined as Hb lower than 9 mg/dL), blood loss greater than 500 mL, or maternal infection.Moderate-quality evidence suggests there is probably little or no difference between groups in: severe morbidity (coagulopathy, organ failure, intensive care unit admission; adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 1.39); the risk of blood transfusion (adjusted RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.46); the use of plasma expanders (adjusted RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.42); and the use of therapeutic uterotonics (adjusted RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.76).Direct measurement using calibrated drapes (Excellent BRASSS-V Drape™) versus gravimetric techniqueOne randomised controlled trial in India, with 900 women, examined this comparison.The trial did not report on postpartum anaemia (defined as Hb lower than 9 mg/dL), severe morbidity, or maternal infection.High-quality evidence showed that using calibrated drapes improved the detection of blood loss greater than 500 mL when compared with the gravimetric technique (RR 1.86, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.11). Low-quality evidence suggests there may be little or no difference in the risk of blood transfusion between the two groups (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.94), or in the use of plasma expanders, reported as intravenous fluids given for PPH treatment (RR 0.67; 95% CI 0.19 to 2.35). High-quality evidence showed little or no difference in the use of therapeutic uterotonics (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.13), but the use of therapeutic uterotonics was extremely high in both arms of the study (57% and 56%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the evidence in this review is insufficient to support the use of one method over another for blood loss estimation after vaginal birth. In general, the quality of evidence for our predefined outcomes ranged from low to high quality, with downgrading decisions due to imprecision. The included trials did not report on many of our primary and secondary outcomes.In trials that evaluate methods for estimating blood loss during vaginal birth, we believe it is important to measure their impact on clinical maternal and neonatal outcomes, along with their diagnostic accuracy. This body of knowledge needs further, well designed, appropriately powered, randomised controlled trials that correlate blood loss with relevant clinical outcomes, such as those listed in this review.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Terceira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/sangue , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/sangue , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Substitutos do Plasma/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Campos Cirúrgicos
10.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 223: 123-132, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite decades of research, the concept of normality in labour in terms of its progression and duration is not universal or standardized. However, in clinical practice, it is important to define the boundaries that distinguish what is normal from what is abnormal to enable women and care providers have a shared understanding of what to expect and when labour interventions are justified. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise available evidence on the duration of latent and active first stage and the second stage of spontaneous labour in women at low risk of complications with 'normal' perinatal outcomes. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, POPLINE, Global Health Library, and reference lists of eligible studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Observational studies and other study designs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four authors extracted data on: maternal characteristics; labour interventions; duration of latent first stage, active first stage, and second stage of labour; and the definitions of onset of latent and active first stage, and second stage where reported. Heterogeneity in the included studies precluded meta-analysis and data were presented descriptively. MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies reporting the duration of first and/or second stages of labour for 208,000 women met our inclusion criteria. Among nulliparous women, the median duration of active first stage (when the starting reference point was 4 cm) ranged from 3.7-5.9 h (95th percentiles: 14.5-16.7 h). With active phase starting from 5 cm, the median duration was from 3.8-4.3 h (95th percentiles: 11.3-12.7 h). The median duration of second stage ranged from 14 to 66 min (95th percentiles: 65-138 min) and from 6 to 12 min (95th percentiles: 58-76 min) in nulliparous and parous women, respectively. Sensitivity analyses excluding first and second stage interventions did not significantly impact on these findings CONCLUSIONS: The duration of spontaneous labour in women with good perinatal outcomes varies from one woman to another. Some women may experience labour for longer than previously thought, and still achieve a vaginal birth without adverse perinatal outcomes. Our findings question the rigid limits currently applied in clinical practice for the assessment of prolonged first or second stage that warrant obstetric intervention.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Segunda Fase do Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 16, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal sepsis is the underlying cause of 11% of all maternal deaths and a significant contributor to many deaths attributed to other underlying conditions. The effective prevention, early identification and adequate management of maternal and neonatal infections and sepsis can contribute to reducing the burden of infection as an underlying and contributing cause of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the Global Maternal Sepsis Study (GLOSS) include: the development and validation of identification criteria for possible severe maternal infection and maternal sepsis; assessment of the frequency of use of a core set of practices recommended for prevention, early identification and management of maternal sepsis; further understanding of mother-to-child transmission of bacterial infection; assessment of the level of awareness about maternal and neonatal sepsis among health care providers; and establishment of a network of health care facilities to implement quality improvement strategies for better identification and management of maternal and early neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This is a facility-based, prospective, one-week inception cohort study. This study will be implemented in health care facilities located in pre-specified geographical areas of participating countries across the WHO regions of Africa, Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific. During a seven-day period, all women admitted to or already hospitalised in participating facilities with suspected or confirmed infection during any stage of pregnancy through the 42nd day after abortion or childbirth will be included in the study. Included women will be followed during their stay in the facilities until hospital discharge, death or transfer to another health facility. The maximum intra-hospital follow-up period will be 42 days. DISCUSSION: GLOSS will provide a set of actionable criteria for identification of women with possible severe maternal infection and maternal sepsis. This study will provide data on the frequency of maternal sepsis and uptake of effective diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in obstetrics in different hospitals and countries. We will also be able to explore links between interventions and maternal and perinatal outcomes and identify priority areas for action.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/mortalidade
12.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 41: e38, 2017 May 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591333

RESUMO

Objective: Improve the performance of the regionalization policy in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, as a strategy to improve perinatal health care by analyzing implementation processes and building consensus among decision makers and stakeholders around an action plan. Methods: Implementation research was conducted using mixed methodology. A needs assessment established tracer indicators to measure adherence to the components of the policy. Actors were studied to identify the barriers and facilitators of implementation. Training was provided on the development of consensus- and evidence-based policies, through workshops in which policy briefs were prepared and through a deliberative dialogue. Results: There were improvements in the number of births in appropriate hospitals and in the number of births in maternity hospitals with Essential Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CONE). Barriers were identified in the referral systems and in communication on policy, which resulted in an initial agreement on the need for guidelines and specific technical training on the transfer of babies and mothers. Conclusions: The participation of health workers in identifying barriers and strategies to overcome them, and the use of tools to report this to management, permit the adoption of consensus- and evidence-based strategies to improve policy implementation.


Assuntos
Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Argentina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
13.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-34033

RESUMO

Objetivo. Se buscó mejorar el desempeño de la política de regionalización en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, como estrategia para mejorar la atención en salud perinatal mediante el diagnóstico de los procesos de implementación, y la construcción de consensos entre decisores y partes interesadas alrededor de un plan de acción. Métodos. Se realizó una investigación en implementación con metodología mixta. Mediante un diagnóstico de situación, se establecieron indicadores trazadores para medir la adherencia a los componentes de la política. A través de un análisis de actores, se identificaron barreras y facilitadores a la implementación. Por medio de talleres para la elaboración de un resumen de políticas y un diálogo deliberativo se brindó capacitación sobre la elaboración de políticas basadas en consenso y evidencia. Resultados. Hubo mejoras en la cantidad de nacimientos ocurridos en hospitales adecuados y en aquellos ocurridos en maternidades con Condiciones Obstétricas y Neonatales Esenciales (CONE). Se identificaron barreras en el sistema de referencia y en la comunicación sobre la política, lo que resultó en un acuerdo inicial en el uso de guías y capacitación técnica específica con respecto al traslado de bebés y madres. Conclusiones. La participación de agentes de salud en la identificación de las barreras y las estrategias para sortearlas y la utilización de herramientas para informar a la gestión permiten la adopción de estrategias consensuadas y basadas en evidencias para mejorar la implementación de una política.


Objective. Improve the performance of the regionalization policy in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, as a strategy to improve perinatal health care by analyzing implementation processes and building consensus among decision makers and stakeholders around an action plan. Methods. Implementation research was conducted using mixed methodology. A needs assessment established tracer indicators to measure adherence to the components of the policy. Actors were studied to identify the barriers and facilitators of implementation. Training was provided on the development of consensus- and evidence- based policies, through workshops in which policy briefs were prepared and through a deliberative dialogue. Results. There were improvements in the number of births in appropriate hospitals and in the number of births in maternity hospitals with Essential Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CONE). Barriers were identified in the referral systems and in communication on policy, which resulted in an initial agreement on the need for guidelines and specific technical training on the transfer of babies and mothers. Conclusions. The participation of health workers in identifying barriers and strategies to overcome them, and the use of tools to report this to management, permit the adoption of consensus- and evidence-based strategies to improve policy implementation.


Assuntos
Regionalização , Assistência Perinatal , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Assistência Perinatal , Regionalização , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Sistemas de Saúde
14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 41: e38, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-845709

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Se buscó mejorar el desempeño de la política de regionalización en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, como estrategia para mejorar la atención en salud perinatal mediante el diagnóstico de los procesos de implementación, y la construcción de consensos entre decisores y partes interesadas alrededor de un plan de acción. Métodos Se realizó una investigación en implementación con metodología mixta. Mediante un diagnóstico de situación, se establecieron indicadores trazadores para medir la adherencia a los componentes de la política. A través de un análisis de actores, se identificaron barreras y facilitadores a la implementación. Por medio de talleres para la elaboración de un resumen de políticas y un diálogo deliberativo se brindó capacitación sobre la elaboración de políticas basadas en consenso y evidencia. Resultados Hubo mejoras en la cantidad de nacimientos ocurridos en hospitales adecuados y en aquellos ocurridos en maternidades con Condiciones Obstétricas y Neonatales Esenciales (CONE). Se identificaron barreras en el sistema de referencia y en la comunicación sobre la política, lo que resultó en un acuerdo inicial en el uso de guías y capacitación técnica específica con respecto al traslado de bebés y madres. Conclusiones La participación de agentes de salud en la identificación de las barreras y las estrategias para sortearlas y la utilización de herramientas para informar a la gestión permiten la adopción de estrategias consensuadas y basadas en evidencias para mejorar la implementación de una política.


ABSTRACT Objective Improve the performance of the regionalization policy in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, as a strategy to improve perinatal health care by analyzing implementation processes and building consensus among decision makers and stakeholders around an action plan. Methods Implementation research was conducted using mixed methodology. A needs assessment established tracer indicators to measure adherence to the components of the policy. Actors were studied to identify the barriers and facilitators of implementation. Training was provided on the development of consensus- and evidence-based policies, through workshops in which policy briefs were prepared and through a deliberative dialogue. Results There were improvements in the number of births in appropriate hospitals and in the number of births in maternity hospitals with Essential Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CONE). Barriers were identified in the referral systems and in communication on policy, which resulted in an initial agreement on the need for guidelines and specific technical training on the transfer of babies and mothers. Conclusions The participation of health workers in identifying barriers and strategies to overcome them, and the use of tools to report this to management, permit the adoption of consensus- and evidence-based strategies to improve policy implementation.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Argentina
15.
Reprod Health ; 13(1): 134, 2016 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27814759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year millions of women around the world suffer from pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum complications. Women who survive the most serious clinical conditions are regarded as to have experienced a severe acute maternal complication called maternal near miss (MNM). Information about MNM cases may complement the data collected through the analysis of maternal death, and was proposed as a helpful tool to identify strengths and weaknesses of health systems in relation to maternal health care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a systematized form to detect severe maternal outcomes (SMO) in 20 selected maternity hospitals from Latin America (LAC). METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from analysis of hospital records for all women giving birth and all women who had a SMO in the selected hospitals. Univariate and multivariate adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the predictive ability of different conditions to identify SMO cases. In parallel, external auditors were hired for reviewing and reporting the total number of discharges during the study period, in order to verify whether health professionals at health facilities identified all MNM and Potentially life-threatening condition (PLTC) cases. RESULTS: Twenty hospitals from twelve LAC were initially included in the study and based on the level of coverage, 11 hospitals with a total of 3,196records were included for the final analysis. The incidence of SMO and MNM outcomes was 12.9 and 12.3 per 1,000 live births, respectively. The ratio of MNM to maternal death was 19 to 1, with a mortality index of 5.1 %. Both univariate and multivariate analysis showed a good performance for a number of clinical and laboratory conditions to predict a severe maternal outcome, however, their clinical relevance remains to be confirmed. Coherence between health professionals and external auditors to identify SMO was high (around 100 %). CONCLUSIONS: The form tested, was well accepted by health professionals and was capable of identifying 100 % of MNM cases and more than 99 % of PLTC variables. Altered state of consciousness, oliguria, placenta accrete, pulmonary edema, and admission to Intensive Care Unit have a high (LR+ ≥80) capacity to anticipate a SMO.


Assuntos
Maternidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Materna , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , América Latina/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Registros Médicos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Lancet ; 388(10052): 1373-1374, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27707491
17.
Lancet ; 388(10056): 2176-2192, 2016 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27642019

RESUMO

On the continuum of maternal health care, two extreme situations exist: too little, too late (TLTL) and too much, too soon (TMTS). TLTL describes care with inadequate resources, below evidence-based standards, or care withheld or unavailable until too late to help. TLTL is an underlying problem associated with high maternal mortality and morbidity. TMTS describes the routine over-medicalisation of normal pregnancy and birth. TMTS includes unnecessary use of non-evidence-based interventions, as well as use of interventions that can be life saving when used appropriately, but harmful when applied routinely or overused. As facility births increase, so does the recognition that TMTS causes harm and increases health costs, and often concentrates disrespect and abuse. Although TMTS is typically ascribed to high-income countries and TLTL to low-income and middle-income ones, social and health inequities mean these extremes coexist in many countries. A global approach to quality and equitable maternal health, supporting the implementation of respectful, evidence-based care for all, is urgently needed. We present a systematic review of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for routine antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care, categorising them as recommended, recommended only for clinical indications, and not recommended. We also present prevalence data from middle-income countries for specific clinical practices, which demonstrate TLTL and increasing TMTS. Health-care providers and health systems need to ensure that all women receive high-quality, evidence-based, equitable and respectful care. The right amount of care needs to be offered at the right time, and delivered in a manner that respects, protects, and promotes human rights.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/provisão & distribução , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD011491, 2016 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27078125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the single leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Most of the deaths associated with PPH occur in resource-poor settings where effective methods of prevention and treatment - such as oxytocin - are not accessible because many births still occur at home, or in community settings, far from a health facility. Likewise, most of the evidence supporting oxytocin effectiveness comes from hospital settings in high-income countries, mainly because of the need of well-organised care for its administration and monitoring. Easier methods for oxytocin administration have been developed for use in resource-poor settings, but as far as we know, its effectiveness has not been assessed in a systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of oxytocin provided in non-facility birth settings by any way in the third stage of labour to prevent PPH. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov (12 November 2015), and reference lists of retrieved reports. SELECTION CRITERIA: All published, unpublished or ongoing randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the administration of oxytocin with no intervention, or usual/standard care for the management of the third stage of labour in non-facility birth settings were considered for inclusion.Quasi-randomised controlled trials and randomised controlled trials published in abstract form only were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion in this review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using an agreed data extraction form. Data were checked for accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: We included one cluster-randomised trial conducted in four rural districts in Ghana that randomised 28 community health officers (CHOs) (serving 2404 potentially eligible pregnant women) to the intervention group and 26 CHOs (serving 3515 potentially eligible pregnant women) to the control group. Overall, the trial had a high risk of bias. CHOs delivered the intervention in the experimental group (injection of 10 IU (international units) of oxytocin in the thigh one minute following birth using a prefilled, auto-disposable syringe). In the control group, CHOs did not provide this prophylactic injection to the women they observed. CHOs had no midwifery skills and did not in any way manage the birth. All other CHO activities (outcome measurement, data collection, and early treatment and referral when necessary) were identical across the control and oxytocin CHOs.Although only one of the nine cases of severe PPH (blood loss greater or equal to 1000 mL) occurred in the oxytocin group, the effect estimate for this outcome was very imprecise and it is uncertain whether the intervention prevents severe PPH (risk ratio (RR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 1.30; 1570 women (very low-quality evidence)). Similarly, because of the lack of cases of severe maternal morbidity (e.g. uterine rupture) and maternal deaths, it was not possible to obtain effect estimates for those outcomes (both very low-quality evidence).Oxytocin compared with the control group decreased the incidence of PPH (> 500 mL) in both our unadjusted (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.81; 1569 women) and adjusted (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.90; 1174 women (both low-quality evidence)) analyses. There was little or no difference between the oxytocin and control groups on the rates of transfer or referral of the mother to a healthcare facility (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.56; 1586 women (low-quality evidence)), stillbirths (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.40; 2006 infants (low-quality evidence)); andearly infant deaths (0 to three days) (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.07; 1969 infants (low-quality evidence)). There were no cases of needle-stick injury or any other maternal major or minor adverse event or unanticipated harmful event. There were no cases of oxytocin use during labour.There were no data reported for some of this review's secondary outcomes: manual removal of placenta, maternal anaemia, neonatal death within 28 days, neonatal transfer to health facility for advanced care, breastfeeding rates. Similarly, the women's or the provider's satisfaction with the intervention was not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain if oxytocin administered by CHO in non-facility settings compared with a control group reduces the incidence of severe PPH (>1000 mL), severe maternal morbidity or maternal deaths. However, the intervention probably decreases the incidence of PPH (> 500 mL).The quality of the one trial included in this review was limited because of the risk of attrition and recruitment biases related to limitations in the follow-up of pregnant women in both arms of the trials and some baseline imbalance on the size of babies at birth. Additionally, there was serious imprecision of the effect estimates for most of the primary outcomes mainly because of the size of the trial, very few or no events and CIs around both relative and absolute estimates of effect that include both appreciable benefit and appreciable harm.Although the trial presented data both for primary and secondary outcomes, it seemed to be underpowered to detect differences in the primary outcomes that are the ones more relevant for making judgments about the potential applicability of the intervention in other settings (especially severe PPH).Therefore, taking into account the extreme setting where the intervention was implemented, the limited role of the CHO in the trial and the lack of power for detecting effects on primary (relevant) outcomes, the applicability of the evidence found seems to be rather limited.Further well-executed and adequately-powered randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of using oxytocin in pre-filled injection devices or other new delivery systems (spray-dried ultrafine formulation of oxytocin) on severe PPH are urgently needed. Likewise, other important outcomes like possible adverse events and acceptability of the intervention by mothers and other community stakeholders should also be assessed.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Saúde da População Rural , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 5(18): 15-23, mar.2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-776929

RESUMO

Las complicaciones maternas agudas graves (CMAG), cuadros críticos que evolucionan hacia la sobrevida, comparten características con las muertes maternas y pueden complementarla información necesaria para el análisis. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la incidencia y el manejo de las CMAG maternas asociadas con la mortalidad materna y neonatal en maternidades públicas de las provincias de Corrientes y Santa Fe. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de corte transversal. Se relevó la incidencia y el manejo de las CMAG asociadas con la mortalidad materna y neonatal en maternidades públicas de Corrientes y Santa Fe durante tres meses. Se evaluó la disponibilidad y el uso de intervenciones preventivas y terapéuticas. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó a 6.121 mujeres de 3 maternidades de Corrientes y 10 de Santa Fe. Hubo condiciones potencialmente fatales en 755 (12,3%) y CMAG en 28 (0,5%). El sulfato de magnesio se utilizó en todas las eclampsias, con elevado uso de uterotónicos para la prevención de la hemorragia posparto. La cobertura con corticoides antenatales fue menor a la esperada. En dos tercios de los casos, las complicaciones se iniciaron antes de la llegada al hospital o durante las primeras 24 horas. CONCLUSIONES: El monitoreo de las CMAG maternas permite conocer las incidencias locales y los patrones de mortalidad y morbilidad severa materna, así como las fortalezas y debilidades en los sistemas de referencia y la correcta utilización de las intervenciones clínicas y los sistemas de salud...


Severe maternal acute complications (SMAC), critical situations evolving to survival, share some characteristics with maternal deaths and can provide complementary information for the analysis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and management of SMAC associated with maternal and neonatal mortality in public health facilities of Corrientes and Santa Fe provinces. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. It assessed the incidence and management of SMAC associated with maternal and neonatal mortality in public hospitals of Corrientes and Santa Fe provinces during a three-month period. Availability and use of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions were also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 6121 women from 3 hospitals in Corrientes and 10 in SantaFe were included. Life-threatening conditions were found in 755 cases (12.3%) and SMAC in 28 (0.5%). Magnesium sulfate was given for all eclampsia cases, with a high use of uterotonics for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. The treatment with antenatal corticosteroids was lower than expected. In two thirds of the cases, complications started before hospital admission or during the first 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The monitoring of maternal SAC allows to know not only the local incidences and patterns of severe maternal morbidity and mortality, but also the strengths and weaknesses in the referral systems and the correct use of clinical and health system interventions...


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Transversais , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Mortalidade Infantil , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (2): CD002252, 2014 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24504933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy is common. Antihypertensive drugs are often used in the belief that lowering blood pressure will prevent progression to more severe disease, and thereby improve the outcome. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antihypertensive drug treatments for women with mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 April 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised trials evaluating any antihypertensive drug treatment for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy defined, whenever possible, as systolic blood pressure 140 to 169 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure 90 to 109 mmHg. Comparisons were of one or more antihypertensive drug(s) with placebo, with no antihypertensive drug, or with another antihypertensive drug, and where treatment was planned to continue for at least seven days. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: Forty-nine trials (4723 women) were included. Twenty-nine trials compared an antihypertensive drug with placebo/no antihypertensive drug (3350 women). There is a halving in the risk of developing severe hypertension associated with the use of antihypertensive drug(s) (20 trials, 2558 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.60; risk difference (RD) -0.10 (-0.13 to -0.07); number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) 10 (8 to 13)) but little evidence of a difference in the risk of pre-eclampsia (23 trials, 2851 women; RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.08). Similarly, there is no clear effect on the risk of the baby dying (27 trials, 3230 women; RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.49 to 1.02), preterm birth (15 trials, 2141 women; RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.10), or small-for-gestational-age babies (20 trials, 2586 women; RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.17). There were no clear differences in any other outcomes.Twenty-two trials (1723 women) compared one antihypertensive drug with another. Alternative drugs seem better than methyldopa for reducing the risk of severe hypertension (11 trials, 638 women; RR (random-effects) 0.54; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.95; RD -0.11 (-0.20 to -0.02); NNTH 7 (5 to 69)). There is also a reduction in the overall risk of developing proteinuria/pre-eclampsia when beta blockers and calcium channel blockers considered together are compared with methyldopa (11 trials, 997 women; RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.99). However, the effect on both severe hypertension and proteinuria is not seen in the individual drugs. Other outcomes were only reported by a small proportion of studies, and there were no clear differences. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It remains unclear whether antihypertensive drug therapy for mild to moderate hypertension during pregnancy is worthwhile.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Efeito Placebo , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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