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1.
J Skin Cancer ; 2018: 6061395, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973992

RESUMO

Basosquamous carcinoma (BSC) is an uncommon skin malignancy with significant invasive and metastatic potential. There are currently no clear management guidelines. This study evaluates the management and outcomes of patients diagnosed with BSC over a 7-year period. We present an evidence-based unit protocol for the management of BSC. All patients treated for BSC between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, tumour-specific information, management strategy, presence of recurrence or metastasis, and details of follow-up. 74 patients were identified, making this one of the largest cohorts of BSC patients reported. Mean age at diagnosis was 75.4 years, with a male:female ratio of 1.6:1. The most common tumour site was the head and neck (n=43, 58.1%). All tumours were graded at pT1 (n=51) or pT2 (n=23). Inadequate excision occurred in 17 patients (23%). Mean excision margins were >4mm peripherally and deep. Inadequately excised BSCs were further treated with wide local excision (n=6) or radiotherapy (n=5), or both (n=1). There were no cases of local recurrence or metastatic disease. This study demonstrates a cohort of patients with BSCs that appear less aggressive than previously reported. Current management with surgical excision appears to produce adequate results. However, an evidence-based guideline is still lacking.

2.
Neuroscience ; 370: 112-120, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28736133

RESUMO

Under certain conditions pavlovian memories undergo reconsolidation, whereby the reactivated memory can be disrupted by manipulations such as knockdown of zif268. For instrumental memories, reconsolidation disruption is less well established. Our previous, preliminary data identified that there was an increase in Zif268 in the posterior dorsolateral striatum (pDLS) after expression of an instrumental habit-like 'response' memory, but not an instrumental goal-directed 'place' memory on a T-maze task. Here, the requirement for Zif268 in the reconsolidation of a response memory was tested by knockdown of Zif268, using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide infusion into the pDLS, at memory reactivation. Zif268 knockdown reduced response memory expression 72H, but not 7d later. Western blotting revealed a non-significant increase in Zif268 in the pDLS in rats using response memories, but there was no change in Zif268 expression in the hippocampus following retrieval of a place memory. Zif268 expression increased in the basolateral amygdala after memory reactivation whether a response or place strategy was used during reactivation. We propose that Zif268 expression in the basolateral amygdala may be linked to prediction error, generated by the absence of reward at reactivation. Taken together, these results suggest a complex role for Zif268 in the maintenance of instrumental memories.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hábitos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos
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