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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131683, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351278

RESUMO

Butachlor being an important member of chloroacetanilide herbicides, is frequently used in agriculture to control unwanted weeds. Exposure to butachlor can induce cancer, human lymphocyte aberration, and immunotoxic effects in animals. The current experimental trial was executed to determine the potential risks of herbicide butachlor to immunotoxicity and its mechanism of adverse effects on the spleen. For this purpose, mice were exposed to 8 mg/kg butachlor for 28 days, and the toxicity of butachlor on the spleen of mice was evaluated. We found that butachlor exposure led to an increase in serum ALB, GLU, TC, TG, and TP and changes in the morphological structure of the spleen of mice. More importantly, results showed that butachlor significantly increased the expression level of ATG-5, decreased the protein expression of LC3B and M-TOR, and significantly decreased the mRNA content of M-TOR and p62. Results revealed that the mRNA contents of APAF-1, CYTC, and CASP-9 related genes were significantly decreased after butachlor treatment. Subsequently, the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10) were reduced in the spleen of treated mice. This study suggested that butachlor induce spleen toxicity and activate the immune response of spleen tissue by targeting the CYTC/BCL2/M-TOR pathway and caspase cascading activation of spleen autophagy and apoptosis pathways which may ultimately lead to immune system disorders.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Acetanilidas , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Camundongos , Baço
2.
Microb Pathog ; 161(Pt A): 105279, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742894

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are the secondary metabolites of certain toxigenic fungi which pose severe health stress in humans, animals and poultry. Certain biological agents and components are used to adsorb mycotoxins in poultry industry which provide promising results in this regard. Pichia kudriazevii (PK), a novel yeast, has the ability to enhance the immune status of poultry chicks. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of PK against aflatoxins associated immunosuppression and oxidative stress in broiler chicks. 180-one day old broiler chicks were equally divided into six groups and given different combinations of aflatoxins (300 and 600 µg/kg) and PK (1 g/kg). Parameters studied were antibody response to sheep red blood cells, lymphoproliferative response to PHA-P; phagocytic response by carbon clearance assay system, total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status of chicks. Results of this experiment confirmed the immunomodulation and antioxidant capacity of PK against 300 µg/kg aflatoxin level. However such amelioration was partial when PK was used with 600 µg/kg aflatoxins. Moreover, the exact ratio of aflatoxin: PK to cause such amelioration still needs to be investigated.

3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(9): 6581-6588, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432219

RESUMO

Helminths are the old dirty friends of humans from decades and may live undetected by the immune system for years in the tissues. They have evolved as good experts at subverting the immune system. Despite of their pathogenicity, they provide protection to their host against certain inflammatory diseases such as diabetes by modulating the immune mechanisms. These parasites are extra-cellular and induce Th2 response which triggers the adaptive immune cells as well as innate immune cells to work synergistically allowing Tregs to work in a toll-like receptor-dependent manure. T-helper cells type-2 also secrete certain anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and TGF-ß which also provide protection against type-1 diabetes. Several helminths such as T. crassiceps, S. venezuelensis, filarial worms, Schistosoma spp. and T. spiralis have been reported to prevent diabetes in mouse models as well as in some clinical trials. Immunomodulatory talent of helminths is receiving greater attention to prevent diabetes. Herein, an attempt has been made to review and highlight the possible immuno-modulatory mechanisms by which helminths provide protection against diabetes. Moreover, this review also emphasizes on the use of helminth-derived molecules or synthetic derivatives of helminth-antigens in clinical trials to overcome rapidly growing autoimmune disorders including diabetes.

4.
J Mol Struct ; 1243: 130808, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149064

RESUMO

Drugs re-purposing due to COVID-19 virus has declared a number of useful candidates for treatment and prevention of the virus. Ivermectin (IVM) has gained much popularity due to a strong background of magical applications against a broad spectrum of pathogens. The in- vitro studies of ivermectin have shown promise, the thorough clinical trials of its efficacy in the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 are still warranted. Useful strategies for analyzing projected use of IVM in human coronaviruses might be developed. It may be done by concluding ongoing clinical trials and culturing lessons from IVM usage in veterinary practice. The potential toxicity and careful dosage analyses are urgently required before declaring it as an anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug candidate. This manuscript overviews the background and potential threats associated with the off-label use of IVM as prophylactic drug or treatment option against COVID-19 virus.

5.
Acta Parasitol ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138414

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ehrlichiosis is one of the tick-borne diseases, which is not only neglected in Pakistan but only a few reports have been documented throughout the globe. The purpose of this study is to highlight and report the neglected pathogen from bovines in Pakistan. METHODS: In this study, the pathogen was detected initially based on microscopy, followed by the molecular confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of the pathogen from bovines from south Punjab, Pakistan. The hematological parameters were also assessed in Ehrlichia positive and negative animals. The information of different disease determinants was analyzed by a logistic regression model on SPSS. RESULTS: The study has reported an 11.98% (23/192) prevalence of Ehrlichiosis from bovines. The prevalence was slightly more in cattle (13.5%) as compared to the buffaloes (10.4%). The previous tick's history and tick control methods were proved to be the key factors with the occurrence of the disease. The isolates from Pakistan Ehrlichia spp. Pakistan/31, 36, and 8 clustered with the isolates from the USA, Nicaraguan, France, South Africa, and Uganda. Platelet count, hemoglobin level, and hematocrit were found significantly decreased in Ehrlichia affected animals when compared to the healthy bovines. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of ehrlichiosis from bovines in Pakistan and will provide the roadmap for future research.

6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112225, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864983

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to excessive fluoride causes chronic damage in the body tissues and could lead to skeletal and dental fluorosis. Cartilage damage caused by excessive fluoride intake has gained wide attention, but how fluoride accumulation blocks the development of chondrocytes is still unclear. Here, we report a negative correlation between the length and growth plate width after NaF treatments via apoptosis and autophagy, with shrinkage of cells, nuclear retraction, dissolution of chondrocytes. Whereas, fluoride exposure had no significant effect on the number and distribution of the osteoclasts which were well aligned. More importantly, fluoride exposure induced apoptosis of tibial bone through CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways via targeting Caspase3, Caspase9, Bak1, and Bax expressions. Meanwhile, the Beclin1, mTOR, Pakin, Pink, and p62 were elevated in NaF treatment group, which indicated that long-term excessive fluoride triggered the autophagy in the tibial bone and produced the chondrocyte injury. Altogether, fluoride exposure induced the chondrocyte injury by regulating the autophagy and apoptosis in the tibial bone of ducks, which demonstrates that fluoride exposure is a risk factor for cartilage development. These findings revealed the essential role of CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways in long-term exposure to fluoride pollution and block the development of chondrocytes in ducks, and CytC/Bcl-2/P53 can be targeted to prevent fluoride induced chondrocyte injury.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento
7.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 199(10): 3825-3836, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216319

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a vital trace mineral involved in many physiological functions of the body. In the poultry industry, copper sulfate is being used as a major source of Cu. Copper in the bulk form is less available in the body, and much of its amount excreted out with feces causing environmental pollution and economic loss. The application of nanotechnology offers promise to address these issues by making nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) are relatively more bioavailable due to their small size and high surface to volume ratio. Although, there is limited research on the use of Cu-NP in the poultry industry. Some researchers have pointed out the importance of Cu-NP as an effective alternative of chemical, anti-bacterial agents, and growth promoters. The effect of Cu-NP depends on their size, dose rate and the synthesis method. Apart from there, high bioavailability Cu-NP exhibited positive effects on the immunity of the birds. However, some toxic effects of Cu-NP have also been reported. Further investigations are essentially required to provide mechanistic insights into the role of Cu-NP in the avian physiology and their toxicological properties. This review aims to highlight the potential effects of Cu-NP on growth, immune system, antioxidant status, nutrient digestibility, and feed conversion ratio in poultry. Moreover, we have also discussed the future implications of Cu-NP as a growth promoter and alternative anti-bacterial agents in the poultry industry.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Animais , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342199

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is an important disease affecting global public health which is spread by sand fly having different species. Various chemical drugs are used to treat and control Leishmaniasis including pentavalent antimonials, antimicrobial and antibiotics. Due to emergence of drug resistance, these therapeutic options are losing effectiveness in attaining success. Furthermore, these drugs are expensive and have toxic effects on liver and kidneys. There has been an emerging interest and excellent response by using plant based drugs and extracts to control Leishmaniasis. Different medicinal plants including Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sativum, Peganum harmala and Nigella sativa have shown excellent anti-leishmanial activity. Therefore, medicinal plants can help in effective drug development against Leishmaniasis diseases in both animals and humans which will be safer and health protective.


La Leishmaniasis es una enfermedad importante que afecta la salud pública mundial y que es transmitida por las moscas de la arena, que tienen diferentes especies. Se utilizan varios medicamentos químicos para tratar y controlar la Leishmaniasis, incluidos los antimoniales pentavalentes, antimicrobianos y antibióticos. Debido a la aparición de resistencia a los medicamentos, estas opciones terapéuticas están perdiendo eficacia para lograr el éxito. Además, estos medicamentos son costosos y tienen efectos tóxicos en hígado y riñones. Ha habido un interés emergente y una excelente respuesta mediante el uso de extractos y medicamentos a base de plantas para controlar la Leishmaniasis. Diferentes plantas medicinales como Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sativum, Peganum harmalay Nigella sativahan mostrado una excelente actividad anti-leishmanial. Por lo tanto, las plantas medicinales pueden ayudar en el desarrollo de fármacos eficaces contra las enfermedades de la leishmaniasis tanto en animales como en seres humanos, lo que será más seguro y proteja la salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Plantas Medicinais , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Pública
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 283: 109178, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652458

RESUMO

Ticks, particularly the Rhipicephalus which are the most prevalent and invasive affect 80 % of the cattle population worldwide. Through transmission of pathogens, tick worry and physical damage to the hides, ticks cause economic loss of billions of dollars each year with 1 billion US dollars loss per annum reported only in Latin-America. These losses can be minimized only by successful management of Rhipicephalus ticks. Various strategies like chemical control, vaccination and biological control are aimed at control of Rhipicephalus ticks. There are some serious limitations associated with them like tick resistance, drug toxicity, antigenic variations etc. In contrast to these issues related with chemical tick control, the botanicals particularly the essential oils obtained from aromatic plants of medicinal importance are eco-friendly and non-toxic to most host. In recent years, essential oils-based control of cattle ticks has gained considerable attraction of scientists all over the world as depicted from this review. A comprehensive effort has been made to critically analyze the role of essential oils in controlling Rhipicephalus ticks with particular emphasis on the mode of action of bioactive compounds both as repellents and acaricides. Furthermore, we have pointed out the most important challenges which need to be addressed for development and commercialization of an essential oil based anti-tick product.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rhipicephalus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
10.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 586637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521076

RESUMO

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranks third in terms of fatal coronavirus diseases threatening public health, coming after SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus), and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus). SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) causes COVID-19. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the current outbreak of COVID-19 is the sixth global health emergency. As of December 3, 2020, 64 million people worldwide have been affected by this malaise, and the global economy has experienced a loss of more than $1 trillion. SARS-CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Betacoronavirus genus. The high nucleotide sequence identity of SARS-CoV-2 with the BatCoV RaTG13 genome has indicated that bats could be the possible host of SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 penetrates the host cell via binding its spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, which is similar to the mechanisms of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. COVID-19 can spread from person to person via respiratory droplets and airborne and contaminated fomites. Moreover, it poses a significant risk to smokers, the elderly, immunocompromised people, and those with preexisting comorbidities. Two main approaches are used to control viral infections, namely, vaccination, and biosecurity. Studies to analyze the antigenicity and immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates are underway, and few vaccines may be available in the near future. In the current situation, the Human Biosecurity Emergency (HBE) may be the only way to cope effectively with the novel SARS-CoV-2 strain. Here, we summarize current knowledge on the origin of COVID-19 as well as its epidemiological relationship with humans and animals, genomic resemblance, immunopathogenesis, clinical-laboratory signs, diagnosis, control and prevention, and treatment. Moreover, we discuss the interventional effects of various nutrients on COVID-19 in detail. However, multiple possibilities are explored to fight COVID-19, and the greatest efforts targeted toward finding an effective vaccine in the near future. Furthermore, antioxidants, polyphenols, and flavonoids, both synthetic and natural, could play a crucial role in the fight against COVID-19.

11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 533-543, nov. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100255

RESUMO

The livestock sector is continuously facing problems in controlling parasitic diseases especially Haemonchosis due to emergence of anthelminthic resistance and failure in vaccination control programmes. Therefore, to increase milk and meat production and emerging demand of meat free from drug residues development of new alternative approaches are appealing for prevention and control of Haemonchosis in small ruminants. Among alternatives, plants driven essentials oils have shown promising results in control of Haemonchus contortus infection at various concentrations by different assays including egg hatch assay, larval development assay, larval exsheathment assay and adult motility assay. Essential oils are complex mixtures of various impulsive or volatile compounds which have potential to control Haemonchosis. The current study reviews the therapeutic effects of essential oils of plants against Haemonchus contortus and to be used them against Haemonchus contortus for future perspectives.


El sector ganadero enfrenta continuamente problemas para controlar las enfermedades parasitarias, especialmente la hemoncosis, debido a la aparición de resistencia antihelmíntica y al fracaso en los programas de control de vacunación. Por lo tanto, para aumentar la producción de leche y carne, y la demanda emergente de carne libre de residuos de medicamentos, el desarrollo de nuevos enfoques alternativos es atractivo para la prevención y el control de la hemoncosis en pequeños rumiantes. Entre las alternativas, los aceites esenciales producidos por las plantas han mostrado resultados prometedores en el control de la infección por Haemonchus contortus a diversas concentraciones mediante diferentes ensayos, incluido el análisis de eclosión de huevos, el desarrollo de larvas, el análisis de vaciado de larvas y el ensayo de motilidad en adultos. Los aceites esenciales son mezclas complejas de varios compuestos impulsivos o volátiles que tienen potencial para controlar la hemonchosis. Este estudio revisa los efectos terapéuticos de los aceites esenciales de las plantas contra Haemonchus contortus y evalúa sus perspectivas futuras como agentes para combatir las enfermedades causadas por este parásito.


Assuntos
Animais , Plantas/química , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21371-21380, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124070

RESUMO

Cadmium is an important widely distributed heavy metal in the environment due to its several industrial uses, while milk thistle is an important herb and is a source of several antioxidant particularly silymarin which is a pharmacological active substance present in seeds of milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). The current study investigated pathological effects of cadmium (Cd) and their amelioration with silymarin (SL) and milk thistle (MT) quails. A total of 144 quails were equally divided into 9 groups and given different combinations of cadmium chloride (150 and 300 mg/kg feed), SL (250 mg/kg), and MT (10 g/kg) feed. Parameters studied were clinical signs, mortality, organ weights, testes weight and volume, and gross and microscopic pathology. Results of this study indicated an increased mortality and reduced body weight in cadmium-treated quails. Quails were dull, depressed compared with control. Swollen hemorrhagic liver along with atrophied testes were also observed in these groups. No active spermatozoa were observed in lumen of seminiferous tubules of Cd-treated birds presenting arrest of spermatogenesis. Supplementing MT and SL ameliorated mortality, organ weights, spermatogenesis, and histopathological lesions. It may be concluded that MT and SL proved beneficial in cadmium-induced toxicities in Japanese quails.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Coturnix/fisiologia , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Cardo-Mariano/metabolismo , Silimarina/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Seminíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
13.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(2): 246-250, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcocystosis is a worldwide distributed parasitic zoonosis. However, scarce knowledge is available about the infection of sarcocystosis in yaks. RESULTS: Herein, we conducted this study to survey the seroprevalence of sarcocystosis in yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. A total of 2549 serum samples were obtained during 2011-2017, which were assayed using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that the overall seroprevalence of sarcosporidiosis in QTP yaks was 0.90% (95 CI 0.6-1.4). The seroprevalence ranged from 0.20% (95 CI 0-1.1) to 1.67% (95 CI 0.8-3.0) in yaks in different areas. The seroprevalence was 0.73% (95 CI 0.3-1.4) in male yaks and 0.06% (95 CI 0.6-1.8) in female yaks. In different ages, the seroprevalence ranged from 0 (95 CI 0-1.4) to 1.47% (95 CI 0.6-3.0). In different years, the seroprevalence ranged from 0 (95 CI 0-1.4) to 1.86% (95 CI 0.7-4.0). In the current study herein, region and age were revealed to be the obvious influencing risk factors by conditional stepwise logistic regression. DISCUSSION: The current study herein first found the emerging infection of sarcosporidiosis in yaks from high plateaus, which contributes to outline the epidemiological scenario of sarcosporidiosis in yaks in China. Moreover, our findings highlight the urgent need of studies in yaks on the QTP at further and more comprehensive level.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tibet/epidemiologia
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(5): 441-452, sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-915687

RESUMO

Ectoparasitism in animals has become an issue of great concern that needs to be resolved to prevent huge economic losses occurring to livestock industry all over the world. Synthetic adrugs have been playing a major role in controlling ectoparasites, but their frequent and irrational use has resulted in drug resistance to routinely used chemicals and their residual effects on food and environment. Therefore, this approach of using chemical acaricides and insecticides is losing its popularity and effectiveness in controlling ectoparasites. So, the development of alternative approaches in ectoparasite management is currently required. Among alternative protocols, plants and their essential oils have played remarkable role in controlling different ectoparasites (ticks, flies, mites, lice) of veterinary importance. Essential oils have been proved to be cheaper, more effective and safer therapeautic agents against different ectoparasites of livestock importance.


En los animales el ectoparasitismo se ha convertido en un tema de gran preocupación que debe resolverse para evitar que se produzcan grandes pérdidas económicas para la industria ganadera en todo el mundo. Los aditivos sintéticos han desempeñado un papel importante en el control de los ectoparásitos, pero su uso frecuente e irracional ha dado como resultado la resistencia a los fármacos utilizados habitualmente y efectos residuales sobre los alimentos y el medio ambiente. Por lo tanto, el enfoque basado en el uso de acaricidas e insecticidas químicos está perdiendo popularidad y efectividad en el control de los ectoparásitos. Por lo tanto, actualmente se requiere el desarrollo de enfoques alternativos en el manejo de ectoparásitos. Entre los protocolos alternativos, las plantas y sus aceites esenciales han jugado un papel notable en el control de diferentes ectoparásitos (garrapatas, moscas, ácaros, piojos) de importancia veterinaria. Se ha demostrado que los aceites esenciales son agentes terapéuticos más baratos, más efectivos y más seguros contra diferentes ectoparásitos de importancia ganadera.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Veterinária , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Microb Pathog ; 117: 139-147, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427710

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral transboundary disease of small ruminants is not only prevalent in Pakistan but also in other countries where people rely on agriculture and animal products. The present study was aimed at describing the pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in local (Kajli sheep; Beetal goats) as well as imported small ruminant breeds (Dorper sheep; Australian Boer goat). Morbidity and mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in indigenous Kajli sheep (75.37 and 32.80%) and Beetal goats (81.10 and 37.24%) as compared to Dorper sheep (6.99 and 1.48%) and Australian Boer goat (5.01 and 2.23%). Affected animals exhibited high fever, severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, respiratory distress and nodular lesions on lips and nostrils. Thick mucous discharge was oozing out from nostrils. On necropsy, lungs were congested and pneumonic, with nodular and cystic appearance. Intestines were hemorrhagic with zebra stripping. Characteristic histopathological lesions of PPR were noted in intestines, lymphoid organs and lungs. In GI tract, stunting and blunting of villi, necrotic enteritis, and infiltration of mononuclear cells in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Small intestines exhibited diffuse edema of the submucosa along with proliferation of fibrocytes leading to thickened submucosa which has not been reported previously. Lymphoid organs showed partial to complete destruction of lymphoid follicles. Lesions of the respiratory tract included depictive of bronchopneumonia, severe congestion of trachea and apical lobe of lungs with deposition of fibrinous materials. Histopathological lesions of respiratory tract were severe and characteristic of broncho-interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia and fibrinous pneumonia. The alveoli were filled with edematous fluid mixed with fibrinous exudate, numerous alveolar macrophages, mononuclear cells along with thickened interalveolar septa and presence of intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. One-Step RT-PCR using NP3 and NP4 primers confirmed a PPR virus of 352 bp size in spleen, lungs and mesenteric and brachial lymph node samples. It was concluded that morbidity and mortality due to PPR were significantly higher in indigenous breeds of sheep and goat as compared to imported sheep and goat breeds. PPR has rendered various lesions in GI and respiratory tract which are characteristic in nature for the diagnosis of the disease under field condition.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/patologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/fisiopatologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Ovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/fisiopatologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/virologia , Rim/patologia , Rim/virologia , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/diagnóstico , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Prevalência , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
16.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 181(1): 62-70, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28497347

RESUMO

Nano-sized copper particles are widely used in various chemical, physical, and biological fields. However, earlier studies have shown that nano copper particles (40-100 µg/mL) can induce cell toxicity and apoptosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the role of nano copper in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis in PK-15 cells. The cells were treated with different doses of nano copper (20, 40, 60, and 80 µg/mL) to determine the effects of apoptosis using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescence staining and a flow cytometry assay. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the PK-15 cells were examined using commercially available kits. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the Bax, Bid, Caspase-3, and CYCS genes were assessed by real-time PCR. The results revealed that nano copper exposure induced apoptosis and changed the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, nano copper significantly altered the levels of the Bax, Bid, Caspase-3, and CYCS genes at a concentration of 40 µg/mL. To summarize, nano copper significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the level of SOD and increased the level of MDA in PK-15 cells. Altogether, these results suggest that nano copper can play an important role in inducing the apoptotic pathway in PK-15 cells, which may be the mechanism by which nano copper induces nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Células Cultivadas , Cobre/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Microb Pathog ; 111: 139-144, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826766

RESUMO

Recently, use of botanicals as an alternative to anticoccidial drugs has been appealing approach for controlling avian coccidiosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of aqueous methanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight) of Beta vulgaris (roots) in broiler chicks. A total of 315 day old broiler chicks were divided into seven equal groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G). At 14th day of age, all groups except group G, which served as non infected non medicated control, were infected orally with 60,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. At the same day, groups A, B and C were treated with graded oral doses of B. vulgaris aqueous methanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Group D was treated with Vitamin-E, group E served as infected medicated control group (Baycox® treated) and group F served as infected non medicated control group (PBS treated). Treatment with extract, reference drug Baycox®, Vitamin E and PBS was continued for three consecutive days (14-16 days of age). Though, not at par with reference drug (Baycox®), B. vulgaris demonstrated good anticoccidial activity adjudged based on considered criteria, i.e., feed conversion ratio, lesion score, oocyst score and oocysts per gram of feces. Results of serum profile of infected chicks revealed no adverse effects of aqueous methanolic extract of B. vulgaris on the experimental chicks.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Boratos/farmacologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Enzimas/sangue , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Triazinas/farmacologia , Vitamina E/farmacologia
18.
Microb Pathog ; 109: 253-262, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28602837

RESUMO

Fasciolosis is an important plant borne trematode zoonosis in ruminants caused by the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigentica, It is classified as a neglected tropical disease and found in more than 50 countries especially where sheep and cattle are reared. Fasciolosis is a serious animal health problems in many rural and urban areas of world, causing significant financial losses due to decrease in production and viscera condemnation in animals. Accurate diagnosis of fasciolosis is always remained a challenging task for the field practitioners. There is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at international level. Therefore, we intended to provide a complete overview on the prevalence and epidemiology of fasciolosis in farm animals from a global prospective. It includes to map the global distribution of fasciolosis in different areas of the world to identify the endemic regions which may be a source of potential disease outbreak. The financial liability related to fasciolosis on the livestock production has also been addressed. For this purpose, the published data during 2000-2015 (15 years) on fasciolosis was reviewed and collected by electronic literature search of four databases including Google, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Data presented are contemplated to enhance our current understanding of the parasite's geographical distribution, host range, and economic losses. Information provided would be useful for the application of more effective control strategies against fasciolosis in different geo-economics regions of the world.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/economia , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/diagnóstico , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Geografia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Gado/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Zoonoses
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 143: 49-53, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28622791

RESUMO

Several haemoparasites commonly infect avian species, including chicken that significantly decline productivity and ultimately lead to high mortality rate. The current study was designed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of haemoparasites in domesticated chickens in and around District Layyah, Punjab Province, Pakistan. For this purpose, blood samples from a total of 384 backyard chickens were collected from wing vein using sterile insulin syringe. The parasites were identified from Giemsa stained thin blood smears based on morphological features using standard keys. Results demonstrated that a total of 265 backyard chickens (69%) were infected with haemoparasites in District Layyah. According to genus-wise distribution, 31.5%, 24.4% and 13% prevalence of genera Plasmodium/Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and mixed species were recorded, respectively. Among associated risk factors, the prevalence was relatively higher in females, chicks, naked neck breeds, scavengers feeding patterns and chickens reared at fully open coops type. The information given in the study could be of much importance in planning of an effective haemoparasites control program at District and Provincial level.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Haemosporida , Malária/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Malária/sangue , Malária/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Fatores de Risco
20.
Microb Pathog ; 107: 404-408, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389347

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is an important bacterium, causing severe respiratory infection, and arthritis in dairy animals worldwide. This study is based on 50 suckling calves among which 15 showed respiratory distress, lameness and swollen joints and died later. M. bovis was isolated and identified from all dead (n = 15) and live (17.14%; 06 out of 35) calves on the basis of bacteriological examination. In morbid calves, the carpus and stifle joints were severely affected, while necropsy revealed multiple well-circumscribed calcified abscesses and caseous exudates in cranio-ventral and diaphragmatic lobes of lungs. Suppurative polyarthritis, fibrino-suppurative, teno-synovitis and otitis media were the common and striking lesion observed at postmortem examination. Histopathological examination revealed broncho-interstitial pneumonia and necrotic fibrino-purulent broncho-pneumonia in lungs. Similarly, synovial membranes and joints revealed presence of multiple foci of liquefactive necrosis surrounded by lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages and peripheral fibroplasia. In the bacteriological investigations, the characteristic fried egg colonies of M. bovis further confirmed this infection in all suspected cases. In conclusion, the current clinico-histo-pathological features are the depictive picture, and is the first report of M. bovis infection in calves in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Mycoplasma bovis/patogenicidade , Abscesso/patologia , Animais , Artrite/microbiologia , Artrite/patologia , Artrite Infecciosa , Autopsia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Coxeadura Animal , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/mortalidade , Mycoplasma bovis/isolamento & purificação , Otite Média Supurativa/microbiologia , Otite Média Supurativa/patologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Sinovite/microbiologia , Sinovite/patologia
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