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1.
Chem Rev ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490059

RESUMO

The adult myocardium has a limited regenerative capacity following heart injury, and the lost cells are primarily replaced by fibrotic scar tissue. Suboptimal efficiency of current clinical therapies to resurrect the infarcted heart results in injured heart enlargement and remodeling to maintain its physiological functions. These remodeling processes ultimately leads to ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF). Recent therapeutic approaches (e.g., regenerative and nanomedicine) have shown promise to prevent HF postmyocardial infarction in animal models. However, these preclinical, clinical, and technological advancements have yet to yield substantial enhancements in the survival rate and quality of life of patients with severe ischemic injuries. This could be attributed largely to the considerable gap in knowledge between clinicians and nanobioengineers. Development of highly effective cardiac regenerative therapies requires connecting and coordinating multiple fields, including cardiology, cellular and molecular biology, biochemistry and chemistry, and mechanical and materials sciences, among others. This review is particularly intended to bridge the knowledge gap between cardiologists and regenerative nanomedicine experts. Establishing this multidisciplinary knowledge base may help pave the way for developing novel, safer, and more effective approaches that will enable the medical community to reduce morbidity and mortality in HF patients.

2.
J Psychosom Res ; 120: 118-123, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Illness perception in younger age differs from that in older age. We aimed to examine the association between illness perception and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, between November 2016 and September 2017, a total of 779 adults (52.5% female) with premature CAD (diagnosed in men aged ≤ 45 y and women aged ≤ 55 y) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Brief Illness Perception, and the Short-Form Health Survey 36 questionnaires in an outpatient clinic 8 years after the diagnosis. RESULTS: The patients were treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (24.6%), percutaneous coronary intervention (39.5%), and medical treatment (35.8%). The cognitive, emotional, and comprehension aspects of illness perception had significant associations with both physical and mental health in univariable analysis (all Ps < 0.001). After adjustments for potential confounding factors, higher cognitive perception was independently associated with greater physical health [OR = 4.13, Confidence interval (CI): 3.53-4.72] and mental health (OR = 3.17, CI: 2.57-3.77). Additionally, emotional perception was also directly associated with higher physical (OR = 1.62, CI: 1.17-2.06) and mental (OR = 1.52, CI: 1.07-1.96) health; all Ps < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 3 different aspects of illness perception, cognitive perception appeared to have the greatest influence on HRQoL, either physical or mental health. Further studies are needed to investigate whether cognitive interventions can improve HRQoL in premature CAD patients and, thus, their outcome.

3.
CMAJ ; 191(9): E247-E256, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative corticosteroid use may reduce acute kidney injury. We sought to test whether methylprednisolone reduces the risk of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prespecified substudy of a randomized controlled trial involving patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (2007-2014); patients were recruited from 79 centres in 18 countries. Eligibility criteria included a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death based on a preoperative score of 6 or greater on the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation I. Patients (n = 7286) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous methylprednisolone (250 mg at anesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients, caregivers, data collectors and outcome adjudicators were unaware of the assigned intervention. The primary outcome was postoperative acute kidney injury, defined as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration (from the preoperative value) of 0.3 mg/dL or greater (≥ 26.5 µmol/L) or 50% or greater in the 14-day period after surgery, or use of dialysis within 30 days after surgery. RESULTS: Acute kidney injury occurred in 1479/3647 patients (40.6%) in the methylprednisolone group and in 1426/3639 patients (39.2%) in the placebo group (adjusted relative risk 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.11). Results were consistent across several definitions of acute kidney injury and in patients with preoperative chronic kidney disease. INTERPRETATION: Intraoperative corticosteroid use did not reduce the risk of acute kidney injury in patients with a moderate-to-high risk of perioperative death who had cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Our results do not support the prophylactic use of steroids during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT00427388.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 39(29): 2695-2696, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289514
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043245

RESUMO

To assess illness perceptions in patients with premature atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), 717 adults with premature CAD (diagnosis of CAD in men age < 45 years and women age < 55 years) completed sociodemographic indices, the Beck's Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Brief Illness Perceptions 8 years after the diagnosis. Mean age was 49.59 ± 3.57 years for men and 57.72 ± 4.90 years for women at the time of study. Both sexes were treated through coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, or medical treatment. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly more prevalent among women. Generally, the patients believed that their disease was chronic and well controlled and that it had no considerable negative impact on their routine life. Overall, patients had a low concern about their illness. Women had a more negative perception of their disease than did men which may indicate their need for higher psychological support.

6.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 45(1): 5-10, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556144

RESUMO

A major diagnostic challenge for cardiologists is to distinguish cardiac syndrome X (CSX) from obstructive coronary artery disease in women with typical angina and a positive exercise tolerance test (ETT). We performed this study to develop a scoring system that more accurately predicts CSX in this patient population. Data on 976 women with typical angina and a positive ETT who underwent coronary angiography at our center were randomly divided into derivation and validation datasets. We developed a backward stepwise logistic regression model that predicted the presence of CSX, and a scoring system was derived from it. The derivation dataset (809 patients) was calibrated by uing a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (8 degrees of freedom; χ2=12.9; P=0.115), and the area under the curve was 0.758. The validation dataset (167 patients) was calibrated in the same way (8 degrees of freedom; χ2=9.0; P=0.339), and the area under the curve was 0.782. Independent predictors of CSX were age <55 years; negative histories of smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or familial premature coronary artery disease; and highly positive ETTs. A total score >9.5 was the optimal cutoff point for differentiating CSX from obstructive coronary artery disease. Our proposed scoring system is a simple, objective, and accurate system for distinguishing CSX from obstructive coronary artery disease in women with typical angina and positive ETTs. It may help determine which of these patients need invasive coronary angiograms or noninvasive tests like computed tomographic coronary angiography.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Angina Microvascular/diagnóstico , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Angina Microvascular/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Altern Complement Med ; 24(4): 361-368, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cognitive decline, depression, and anxiety are among the major concerns in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Crocus sativus L. (saffron) seems to be a promising candidate for treatment of these conditions. DESIGN: In this 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, men and women with on-pump CABG, who had Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) score >70 and age <70 years, received either saffron capsules (15 mg/twice daily) or placebo. Patients were excluded if they had history of treatment with saffron or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders, serious medical conditions other than cardiovascular diseases, and hypersensitivity to herbal compounds. The primary outcome was defined as the difference in mean total score changes for WMS-Revised from the baseline to week 12 between the saffron and placebo groups. Secondary outcomes included difference in mean score changes from baseline to endpoint between the two treatment groups for Mini Mental Status Examination and subscales of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale ( www.irct.ir ; IRCT201408071556N63). RESULTS: No significant difference was detected in primary or secondary outcomes between the saffron and placebo groups. Also, no significant time × treatment interaction effect was found for any of the scales. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this trial do not support the hypothesis of potential benefits of saffron in treatment of CABG-related neuropsychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Crocus , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 5(3): 623-631, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse ethnic groups may differ regarding the risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study sought to assess the association between ethnicity and CAD risk and severity in six major Iranian ethnic groups. METHODS: In this study, 20,165 documented coronary artery disease patients who underwent coronary angiography at a tertiary referral heart center were recruited. The demographic, laboratory, clinical, and risk factor data of all the patients were retrieved. The Gensini score (an indicator of CAD severity) was calculated for all, and the risk factors and severity of CAD were compared between the ethnical groups, using adjusted standardized residuals, Kruskal-Wallis test, and multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants (14,131 [70.1%] men and 6034 [29.9%] women) was 60.7 ± 10.8 years. The Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%) ethnic groups had the highest prevalence of ≥4 simultaneous risk factors. The mean Gensini score was the highest for the Gilaks (77.1 ± 55.9) and the lowest among the Lors (67.5 ± 52.8). The multivariable regression analysis showed that the Gilaks had the worst severity (ß 0.056, 95% CI 0.009 to 0.102; P = 0.018), followed by the Torks (ß 0.032, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.059; P = 0.020). Meanwhile, the Lors showed the lowest severity (ß -0.087, 95% CI -0.146 to -0.027; P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that there was heterogeneity in CAD severity and a diverse distribution in its well-known traditional risk factors among major Iranian ethnic groups.

9.
J Tehran Heart Cent ; 12(2): 72-81, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28828022

RESUMO

Background: The C1019T polymorphism of the connexin-37 (GJA4) gene is a single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in atherosclerotic plaque rupture and atherosclerosis predisposition. We examined the association between the C1019T polymorphism of the GJA4 gene and the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Our study recruited 1000 patients with the final diagnosis of premature CAD and classified them into 2 groups: with a history of MI (n = 461) and without it (n = 539). The polymorphism variants were determined via the PCR-RFLP, and then genotyping was conducted through the high-resolution melting method. From a total of 1000 patients, 554 patients, who had been previously followed-up with a median follow-up time of 45.74 months vis-à-vis long-term major adverse cardiac events, were enrolled in this retrospective cohort phase. Results: The frequencies of the wild, heterozygous, and mutant genotypes of the C1019T polymorphism were 54.0%, 40.6%, and 5.4% in the MI group and 49.2%, 43.2%, and 7.6% in the non-MI group (p value = 0.187). After adjustment for the baseline covariates, no difference was found between the MI and non-MI groups apropos the frequency of the heterozygous genotype (p value = 0.625) and the mutant genotype (p value = 0.452). Regarding the level of human connexin-37, the serum level of this marker was not different between the MI and non-MI groups. Conclusion: The C1019T polymorphism of the GJA4 gene may not be useful for predicting the occurrence of MI in patients with premature CAD. The presence of this polymorphism in such patients may also have a low value for predicting long-term CAD complications.

10.
Acta Med Iran ; 54(4): 261-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27309268

RESUMO

Anxiety may negatively affect the course of coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to assess which factors are associated with anxiety in young adults with CAD. A cohort of individuals with premature coronary artery disease was formed between 2004-2011, as the Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC) study. Patients (men≤45-year-old, and women≤55-year-old) were visited between March 2013 and February 2014. All participants were examined, and their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. Then, all participants filled in the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Logistic regression models were used to identifying factors related to anxiety in both sexes. During the study, 708 patients (mean [SD] age: 45.3 [5.8] y, men:48.2%) were visited. Anxiety was present in 53.0% of participants (66.0% of women and 39.0% of men). The logistic regressions model showed that the associated factors for anxiety in men were opium usage (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.09-3.27), positive family history (OR=1.49, 95% CI:0.94-2.35), and creatinine serum level (OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.05-1.303); and in women were major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during follow-up (OR=2.30, 95% CI:1.25-4.23), hypertension (OR=1.71, 95% CI:1.07-2.73) and the duration of CAD (OR=0.99, 95% CI:0.98-1.00). In premature CAD patients, the determinants of anxiety seem to be different in each sex. Opium usage, positive family history of CAD, and creatinine serum levels in men, and MACE, hypertension, and duration of CAD in women appear the relevant factors in this regard.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Iran J Psychiatry ; 11(4): 214-223, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050181

RESUMO

Objective: Depressed coronary artery disease (CAD) patients may experience a poorer prognosis than non-depressed patients. The aim of this study was to find the associated factors for depressive symptoms in young adults with CAD. Method: This was a cross-sectional study within Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort (THC-PAC) study. Young adult CAD patients (men ≤ 45 year-old and women ≤ 55 year-old) were visited from March 2013 to February 2014. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and all patients were asked to fill in the Beck Depression Inventory II. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. A logistic regression model was used to find multiple associated factors of depressive symptoms. Results: Seven hundred seventy patients (mean ±SD age: 45.34 ±5.75 y, men: 47.7%) were visited. The point prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.9% in women and 30.2% in men (p < 0.001). Logistic regressions model revealed that the most important associated factors for depressive symptoms in the male premature CAD patients were opium usage (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.33-4.43), major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.17-3.93), initial coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) treatment (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.07-4.06), positive family history for CAD (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.11-3.01) and cigarette smoking (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.97-2.98). Hypertension showed a protective role in this group of patients (OR = 0.5, CI = 0.29-0.92). In the female patients, hypertension (OR = 1.5, CI = 0.96-2.22) and body mass index (BMI) (OR = 1.1, CI = 1.02-1.10) were associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: In premature CAD male patients, opium usage, MACE, initial CABG treatment, positive family history for CAD and cigarette smoking were associated with depressive symptoms; and hypertension and BMI were associated with depressive symptoms in women.

12.
Lancet ; 386(10000): 1243-1253, 2015 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26460660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388. FINDINGS: Patients were recruited between June 21, 2007, and Dec 19, 2013. Complete 30-day data was available for all 7507 patients randomly assigned to methylprednisolone (n=3755) and to placebo (n=3752). Methylprednisolone, compared with placebo, did not reduce the risk of death at 30 days (154 [4%] vs 177 [5%] patients; relative risk [RR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·70-1·07, p=0·19) or the risk of death or major morbidity (909 [24%] vs 885 [24%]; RR 1·03, 95% CI 0·95-1·11, p=0·52). The most common safety outcomes in the methylprednisolone and placebo group were infection (465 [12%] vs 493 [13%]), surgical site infection (151 [4%] vs 151 [4%]), and delirium (295 [8%] vs 289 [8%]). INTERPRETATION: Methylprednisolone did not have a significant effect on mortality or major morbidity after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The SIRS trial does not support the routine use of methylprednisolone for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia
13.
J Tehran Heart Cent ; 10(1): 34-42, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26157461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on premature coronary artery disease (CAD) are scarce. The Tehran Heart Center's Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis Cohort Study (THC-PAC) is the first study of its kind in the Middle East to assess major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in young CAD patients. METHODS: The cohort consists of CAD patients, males ≤ 45 years old and females ≤ 55 years old. The participants are residents of Tehran or its suburbs and underwent coronary angiography between June 2004 and July 2011. A 10-year follow-up, via either clinical visits or telephone calls at least once a year, was commenced in August 2012. The end point is considered MACE, encompassing death, myocardial infarction, stroke, new coronary involvement, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting. RESULTS: The cohort comprises 1232 eligible patients (613 [49.8%] males) at a mean age of 45.1 years (SD = 5.8). High frequencies of conventional risk factors, including hyperlipidemia (884 [71.8%]), hypertension (575 [46.7%]), positive family history (539 [43.8%]), cigarette smoking (479 [38.8%]), and diabetes mellitus (390 [31.7%]), were seen in the participants. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the enrolled patients was high (29.2 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)), and 532 (43.3%) and 440 (35.8%) of them were overweight and obese, respectively. The females' BMI was higher (30.4 ± 5.3 vs. 28.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2; P < 0.001) and they had a greater mean abdominal circumference (99.9 ± 13.5 vs. 98.1 ± 9.3 cm; P = 0.035). Between August 2012 and August 2013, follow-up was successful in 1173 (95.2%) patients (median follow-up duration = 55.3 months, 95%CI: 53.5-57.0 months). CONCLUSION: Our younger patients with CAD had a high frequency of risk factors compared to the same-age general population and all-age CAD patients, which may predispose them to higher incidence of recurrent MACE.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 183: 149-55, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26005776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A decreased risk of developing depression has been reported among statin users. Aside from their lipid-lowering effects, statins are considered immunomodulatory agents and have protective effects against oxidative stress and inflammation which are well known for their association with depression. The aim of the present study was to compare the probable antidepressant effects of simvastatin and atorvastatin among post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients with high and low potentials for blood-brain-barrier penetration, respectively. METHOD: Forty-six outpatients who had undergone CABG in the last 6 months and suffered from mild to moderate depression participated in a parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and were randomized to undergo 6 weeks of treatment with either simvastatin (20mg/day) or atorvastatin (20mg/day). Participants were evaluated using Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) at baseline and weeks 3 and 6. The primary outcome was to evaluate the efficacy of simvastatin in improving the depressive symptoms. RESULT: General linear model repeated measures demonstrated significant effect for time×treatment interaction on the HDRS scores [F (1.62, 71.06)=3.41, P=0.048]. There was no significant difference between the treatment groups regarding the adverse events. No one experienced serious adverse event. LIMITATION: The limitations of the present study were its small sample size and the short-term follow-up period. CONCLUSION: Treatment with simvastatin seems to be well tolerated with superior antidepressant effects compared to atorvastatin in post-CABG patients. Long-term outcomes of this practice and its probable influence on other psychological aspects are yet to be investigated in future studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian registry of clinical trials (http://www.irct.ir): IRCT201410271556N68.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Depressão/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Int J Prev Med ; 6: 36, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25984286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) can greatly affect the clinical outcome of medical problems. We sought to assess the in-hospital mortality of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to their SES. METHODS: All patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center due to 1(st)-time ACS between March 2004 and August 2011 were assessed. The patients who were illiterate/lowly educated (≤5 years attained education) and were unemployed were considered low-SES patients and those who were employed and had high educational levels (>5 years attained education) were regarded as high-SES patients. Demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and in-hospital medical progress data were recorded. Death during the course of hospitalization was considered the end point, and the impact of SES on in-hospital mortality was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 6246 hospitalized patients (3290 low SES and 2956 high SES) were included (mean age = 60.3 ± 12.1 years, male = 2772 [44.4%]). Among them, 79 (1.26%) patients died. Univariable analysis showed a significantly higher mortality rate in the low-SES group (1.9% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible cofounders, SES still showed a significant effect on the in-hospital mortality of the ACS patients in that the high-SES patients had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio: 0.304, 95% confidence interval: 0.094-0.980; P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with low SES were at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality due to the ACS. Furthermore, the results suggest the need for increased availability of jobs as well as improved levels of education as preventive measures to curb the unfolding deaths owing to coronary artery syndrome.

16.
The Lancet ; 386(10000): 1243-1253, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-32878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:Cardiopulmonary bypass initiates a systemic inflammatory response syndrome that is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Steroids suppress inflammatory responses and might improve outcomes in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. We aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.METHODS:The Steroids In caRdiac Surgery (SIRS) study is a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. We used a central computerised phone or interactive web system to randomly assign (1:1) patients at high risk of morbidity and mortality from 80 hospital or cardiac surgery centres in 18 countries undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to receive either methylprednisolone (250 mg at anaesthetic induction and 250 mg at initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass) or placebo. Patients were assigned with block randomisation with random block sizes of 2, 4, or 6 and stratified by centre. Patients aged 18 years or older were eligible if they had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation of at least 6. Patients were excluded if they were taking or expected to receive systemic steroids in the immediate postoperative period or had a history of bacterial or fungal infection in the preceding 30 days. Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcomes were 30-day mortality and a composite of death and major morbidity (ie, myocardial injury, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure) within 30 days, both analysed by intention to treat. Safety outcomes were also analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427388... (AU)


Assuntos
Metilprednisolona , Circulação Extracorpórea
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 17: 309, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25328605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or without CPB technique (off-pump) can be associated with different mortality and morbidity and their outcomes remain uncertain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the early outcome of on-pump versus off-pump CABG. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective database review of 13866 patients (13560 patients undergoing on-pump CABG and 306 patients undergoing off-pump CABG) at Tehran Heart Center between January 2002 and January 2007. We compared preoperative, operative, and postoperative characteristics between them. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality in the on-pump group was 0.8% compared to 0.7% in the off-pump group (P=0.999) and in-hospital morbidity was 11.7% and 6.5%, respectively (OR: 1.533, 95%CI: 0.902-2.605, P=0.114). Postoperative atrial fibrillation was more prevalent in on-pump versus off-pump surgery (6.0% vs 3.0%, P=0.028), however there were no statistical significant differences in other postoperative complications with regard to cardiac arrest (P=0.733), prolonged ventilation (P=0.363), brain stroke (P=0.999), renal failure (P=0.525), and postoperative bleeding (P=0.999). The mean length of stay in hospital (P=0.156) and in ICU (P=0.498) was also similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results from an Iranian population-based study showed similar early mortality and morbidity of off-pump CABG in comparison to on-pump surgery.


Assuntos
Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/instrumentação , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/instrumentação , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária sem Circulação Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Lab Med ; 45(4): 302-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25316661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Genetic variations play a major role in the process of atherosclerosis. Recently, rs9289231 genetic variations of the Kalirin gene (KALRN) on chromosome 3q21.2 have been introduced as potential genetic markers for coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVE: In this case-control study, we investigated the association between genetic susceptibility to CAD and rs9289231 G/T polymorphism, located on the KALRN gene, in an Iranian population. METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 1486 individuals undergoing coronary angiography. Of these, we considered the 1007 patients with CAD to be case individuals and the 479 individuals with normal coronary conditions to be control individuals. We performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping via the high resolution melting (HRM) technique. RESULTS: Our data showed that the minor allele (G) frequency of rs9289231 SNP was higher in our CAD group than that in our control group (odds ratio, 1:37; confidence interval, 1.07-1.74; P = .01). The results of our data analysis highlighted a genetic association between rs9289231 polymorphism and severity and development of CAD. CONCLUSIONS: We consider the GG genotype and the G allele of rs9289231 polymorphism of KALRN to be genetic risk factors for CAD in an Iranian population, especially in early-stage atherosclerotic vascular disease.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3 , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Am Heart J ; 167(5): 660-5, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24766975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steroids may improve outcomes in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP). There is a need\ for a large randomized controlled trial to clarify the effect of steroids in such patients. METHODS: We plan to randomize 7,500 patients with elevated European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation who are undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of CBP to methylprednisolone or placebo. The first coprimary outcome is 30-day all-cause mortality, and the most second coprimary outcome is a composite of death, MI, stroke, renal failure, or respiratory failure within 30 days. Other outcomes include a composite of MI or mortality at 30 days, new onset atrial fibrillation, bleeding and transfusion requirements, length of intensive care unit stay and hospital stay, infection, stroke, wound complications, gastrointestinal complications, delirium, postoperative insulin use and peak blood glucose, and all-cause mortality at 6 months. RESULTS: As of October 22, 2013, 7,034 patients have been recruited into SIRS in 82 centers from 18 countries. Patient's mean age is 67.3 years, and 60.4% are male. The average European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation is 7.0 with 22.1% having an isolated coronary artery bypass graft procedure, and 66.1% having a valve procedure. CONCLUSIONS: SIRS will lead to a better understanding of the safety and efficacy of prophylactic steroids for cardiac surgery requiring CBP.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiopatias/cirurgia , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
BMJ Open ; 4(3): e004842, 2014 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24598306

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Steroids In caRdiac Surgery trial (SIRS) is a large international randomised controlled trial of methylprednisolone or placebo in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass pump. At the time of surgery, compared with placebo, methylprednisolone divided into two intravenous doses of 250 mg each may reduce the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: With respect to the study schedule, over 7000 substudy eligible patients from 81 centres in 18 countries were randomised in December 2013. The authors will use a logistic regression to estimate the adjusted OR of methylprednisolone versus placebo on the primary outcome of AKI in the 14 days following surgery (a postoperative increase in serum creatinine of ≥50%, or ≥26.5 µmol/L, from the preoperative value). The stage of AKI will also be considered, as will the outcome of AKI in those with and without preoperative chronic kidney disease. After receipt of grant funding, the authors began to record additional perioperative serum creatinine measurements in consecutive patients enrolled at substudy participating centres, and patients were invited to enroll in a 6-month serum creatinine collection. In these trial subpopulations, the authors will consider the outcome of AKI defined in alternate ways, and the outcome of a 6-month change in kidney function from the preoperative value. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The authors were competitively awarded a grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for this SIRS AKI substudy. Ethics approval was obtained for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at participating centres. The additional kidney data collection first began for patients enrolled after 1 March 2012. In patients who provided consent, the last 6-month kidney outcome data will be collected in 2014. The results will be reported no later than 2015. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Number NCT00427388.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Canadá , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Protocolos Clínicos , Creatinina/sangue , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
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