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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 36(7): 1211-1219, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949002

RESUMO

Erythropoietin (EPO) is the primary regulator of bone marrow erythropoiesis. Mouse models have provided evidence that EPO also promotes bone remodeling and that EPO-stimulated erythropoiesis is accompanied by bone loss independent of increased red blood cell production. EPO has been used clinically for three decades to treat anemia in end-stage renal disease, and notably, although the incidence of hip fractures decreased in the United States generally after 1990, it rose among hemodialysis patients coincident with the introduction and subsequent dose escalation of EPO treatment. Given this clinical paradox and findings from studies in mice that elevated EPO affects bone health, we examined EPO treatment as a risk factor for fractures in hemodialysis patients. Relationships between EPO treatment and hip fractures were analyzed using United States Renal Data System (USRDS) datasets from 1997 to 2013 and Consolidated Renal Operations in a Web-enabled Network (CROWNWeb) datasets for 2013. Fracture risks for patients treated with <50 units of EPO/kg/week were compared to those receiving higher doses by multivariable Cox regression. Hip fracture rates for 747,832 patients in USRDS datasets (1997-2013) increased from 12.0 per 1000 patient years in 1997 to 18.9 in 2004, then decreased to 13.1 by 2013. Concomitantly, average EPO doses increased from 11,900 units/week in 1997 to 18,300 in 2004, then decreased to 8,800 by 2013. During this time, adjusted hazard ratios for hip fractures with EPO doses of 50-149, 150-299, and ≥ 300 units/kg/week compared to <50 units/kg/week were 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.15), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.14-1.31), and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.31-1.52), respectively. Multivariable analyses of 128,941 patients in CROWNWeb datasets (2013) replicated these findings. This study implicates EPO treatment as an independent risk factor for hip fractures in hemodialysis patients and supports the conclusion that EPO treatment may have contributed to changing trends in fracture incidence for these patients during recent decades. Published 2021. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Anemia , Eritropoetina , Fraturas do Quadril , Falência Renal Crônica , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Animais , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Camundongos , Diálise Renal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 8: 20543581211003763, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868691

RESUMO

Introduction: Among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), recurrence is associated with poor allograft outcomes. We compared graft and patient survival of aHUS KTRs with and without prophylactic/early use of eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds complement protein C5, at the time of transplantation. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the United States Renal Data System. Out of 123 624 ESKD patients transplanted between January 1, 2008, and June 1, 2016, we identified 348 (0.28%) patients who had "hemolytic uremic syndrome" as the primary cause of ESKD. We then linked these patients to datasets containing the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code for eculizumab infusion. Patients who received eculizumab prior to or within 30 days of transplant represented the exposure group. We calculated crude incidence rates and conducted exact logistic regression, adjusted for recipient age and sex, for the study outcomes of graft loss, death-censored graft loss, and mortality. We also estimated the average treatment effect (ATE) by propensity-score matching, to reduce the bias in the estimated treatment effect on graft loss. Results: Our final study cohort included 335 aHUS KTRs (23 received eculizumab, 312 did not), with a mean duration of follow-up of 5.8 ± 2.7 years. There were no significant differences in baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between the eculizumab versus non-eculizumab group. Patients who received prophylactic/early eculizumab were less likely to experience graft loss compared with those who did not receive eculizumab (0% vs 20%, P = .02), with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.13 (P = .02). In the propensity-score-matched sample, the ATE (eculizumab vs non-eculizumab) was -0.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.25 to -0.15, P < .001); thus, treatment was associated with an average of 20% reduction in graft loss. There was no significant difference in the risk of death between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Although there was no significant difference in the risk of death, prophylactic/early use of eculizumab was significantly associated with improved graft survival among aHUS KTRs. Given the high cost of eculizumab, randomized controlled trials are much needed to guide prophylactic strategies to prevent graft loss.

5.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(6): 424-432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is a public health emergency and appropriate medication prescription for pain remains challenging. Physicians have increasingly prescribed gabapentinoids for pain despite limited evidence supporting their use. We determined the prevalence of concomitant gabapentinoid and opioid prescriptions and evaluated their associations with outcomes among dialysis patients. METHODS: We used the United States Renal Data System to identify patients treated with dialysis with Part A, B, and D coverage for all of 2010. Patients were grouped into 4 categories of drugs exposure status in 2010: (1) no prescriptions of either an opioid or gabapentinoid, (2) ≥1 prescription of an opioid and no prescriptions of gabapentinoids, (3) no prescriptions of an opioid and ≥1 prescription of gabapenbtinoids, (4) ≥1 prescription of both an opioid and gabapentinoid. Outcomes included 2-year all-cause death, dialysis discontinuation, and hospitalizations assessed in 2011 and 2012. RESULTS: The study population included 153,758 dialysis patients. Concomitant prescription of an opioid and gabapentin (15%) was more common than concomitant prescription of an opioid and pregabalin (4%). In adjusted analyses, concomitant prescription of an opioid and gabapentin compared to no prescription of either was associated with increased risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.12-1.19), dialysis discontinuation (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03-1.27), and hospitalization (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.31-1.36). Concomitant prescription of an opioid and pregabalin compared to no prescription of either was associated with increased mortality (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.16-1.28) and hospitalization (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.33-1.41), but not dialysis discontinuation (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.35). Prescription of opioids and gabepentinoids compared to only being prescribed opioids was associated with higher risk of hospitalizations, but not mortality, or dialysis discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant prescription of opioids and gabapentinoids among US dialysis patients is common, and both drugs have independent effects on outcomes. Future research should prospectively investigate the potential harms of such drugs and identify safer alternatives for treatment of pain in end-stage renal disease patients.

6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(3): 637-649, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because stroke prevention is a major goal in the management of ESKD hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation, investigating racial/ethnic disparities in stroke among such patients is important to those who could benefit from strategies to maximize preventive measures. METHODS: We used the United States Renal Data System to identify ESKD patients who initiated hemodialysis from 2006 to 2013 and then identified those with a subsequent atrial fibrillation diagnosis and Medicare Part A/B/D. Patients were followed for 1 year for all-cause stroke, mortality, prescription medications, and cardiovascular disease procedures. The survival mediational g-formula quantified the percentage of excess strokes attributable to lower use of atrial fibrillation treatments by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: The study included 56,587 ESKD hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. Black, white, Hispanic, and Asian patients accounted for 19%, 69%, 8%, and 3% of the population, respectively. Compared with white patients, black, Hispanic, or Asian patients were more likely to experience stroke (13%, 15%, and 16%, respectively) but less likely to fill a warfarin prescription (10%, 17%, and 28%, respectively). Warfarin prescription was associated with decreased stroke rates. Analyses suggested that equalizing the warfarin distribution to that in the white population would prevent 7%, 10%, and 12% of excess strokes among black, Hispanic, and Asian patients, respectively. We found no racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause mortality or use of cardiovascular disease procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause stroke among hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation are partially mediated by lower use of anticoagulants among black, Hispanic, and Asian patients. The reasons for these disparities are unknown, but strategies to maximize stroke prevention in minority hemodialysis populations should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiarrítmicos/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo , Diálise Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
8.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(9): 1363-1371, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited existing data on psychiatric illness in ESKD patients suggest these diseases are common and burdensome, but under-recognized in clinical practice. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We examined hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses using inpatient claims from the first year of ESKD in adult and pediatric Medicare recipients who initiated treatment from 1996 to 2013. We assessed associations between hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses and all-cause death after discharge in adult dialysis patients using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: In the first ESKD year, 72% of elderly adults, 66% of adults and 64% of children had at least one hospitalization. Approximately 2% of adults and 1% of children were hospitalized with a primary psychiatric diagnosis. The most common primary psychiatric diagnoses were depression/affective disorder in adults and children, and organic disorders/dementias in elderly adults. Prevalence of hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses increased over time across groups, primarily from secondary diagnoses. 19% of elderly adults, 25% of adults and 15% of children were hospitalized with a secondary psychiatric diagnosis. Hazards ratios of all-cause death were higher in all dialysis adults hospitalized with either primary (1.29; 1.26 to 1.32) or secondary (1.11; 1.10 to 1.12) psychiatric diagnoses than in those hospitalized without psychiatric diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses are common in pediatric and adult ESKD patients, and are associated with subsequent higher mortality, compared with hospitalizations without psychiatric diagnoses. The prevalence of hospitalizations with psychiatric diagnoses likely underestimates the burden of mental illness in the population.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Kidney Int ; 96(5): 1176-1184, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358345

RESUMO

Seizures have been associated with uremia, but there are few data regarding the prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with epilepsy compared to those with ESRD without epilepsy. Here we conducted a retrospective cohort study using the United States Renal Data System to assess mortality and antiseizure medication prescriptions among patients with ESRD with and without a diagnosis of epilepsy. A modified Poisson regression with a robust variance was used to estimate the association between epilepsy status and mortality, and evaluate effect modification by neurology consultation. Additionally antiseizure medications were assessed in relation to mortality among those with epilepsy. Of 148,294 patients with ESRD in the cohort, 13,094 (8.8%) met a claims-based definition for epilepsy. Among those with epilepsy, 80.9% filled an anticonvulsant or hydantoin prescription in 2013-2014, compared to 33.3% without epilepsy. After adjustment for confounders, the mortality risk among those with epilepsy was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.14) times higher than those without. An epilepsy diagnosis was associated with a 15% increase in mortality risk among patients who did not have a neurology consultation (relative risk: 1.15 [95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.20]), but this risk was attenuated among patients with a neurology consultation (1.07 [1.03, 1.11]). Prescription of gabapentin to patients with an epilepsy diagnosis compared to other antiseizure medications was associated with increased mortality (1.08 [1.01, 1.15]). Thus, patients with ESRD treated with dialysis have a high prevalence of epilepsy, which was associated with increased mortality risk compared to those without epilepsy. Hence, appropriate multidisciplinary care, treatment, and medication selection may reduce mortality among dialysis patients with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(7): 904-910, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The association of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors with survival rates of nursing home (NH) residents with treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. We examined whether race/ethnicity, ZIP code-level, and individual-level indicators of poverty relate to mortality of NH residents on dialysis. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Using the United States Renal Data System database, we identified 56,194 nursing home residents initiated on maintenance dialysis from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2013, followed until May 31, 2014. MEASUREMENTS: We evaluated baseline characteristics of the NH cohort on dialysis, including race and ethnicity. We assessed the Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibility status as an indicator of individual-level poverty and ZIP code-level median household income (MHI) data. We conducted Cox regression analyses with all-cause mortality as the outcome variable, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic factors including end-of-life preferences. RESULTS: Adjusted Cox analysis showed a significantly lower risk of death among black vs nonblack NH residents [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.94]. Dual-eligibility status was significantly associated with lower risk of death compared to those with Medicare alone (AHR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78, 0.82). Compared to those in higher MHI quintile levels, NH ESRD patients in the lowest quintile were significantly associated with higher risk of death (AHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06, 1.13). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Black and Hispanic NH residents on dialysis had an apparent survival advantage. This "survival paradox" occurs despite well-documented racial/ethnic disparities in ESRD and NH care and warrants further exploration that could generate new insights into means of improving survival of all NH residents on dialysis. Area-level indicator of poverty was independently associated with mortality, whereas dual-eligibility status for Medicare and Medicaid was associated with lower risk of death, which could be partly explained by improved access to care.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Casas de Saúde , Pobreza , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
11.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(5): 890-903, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data from clinical trials to inform practice in maintenance hemodialysis are limited. Incorporating randomized trials into dialysis clinical care delivery should help generate practice-guiding evidence, but the feasibility of this approach has not been established. METHODS: To develop approaches for embedding trials into routine delivery of maintenance hemodialysis, we performed a cluster-randomized, pragmatic trial demonstration project, the Time to Reduce Mortality in ESRD (TiME) trial, evaluating effects of session duration on mortality (primary outcome) and hospitalization rate. Dialysis facilities randomized to the intervention adopted a default session duration ≥4.25 hours (255 minutes) for incident patients; those randomized to usual care had no trial-driven approach to session duration. Implementation was highly centralized, with no on-site research personnel and complete reliance on clinically acquired data. We used multiple strategies to engage facility personnel and participating patients. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 7035 incident patients from 266 dialysis units. We discontinued the trial at a median follow-up of 1.1 years because of an inadequate between-group difference in session duration. For the primary analysis population (participants with estimated body water ≤42.5 L), mean session duration was 216 minutes for the intervention group and 207 minutes for the usual care group. We found no reduction in mortality or hospitalization rate for the intervention versus usual care. CONCLUSIONS: Although a highly pragmatic design allowed efficient enrollment, data acquisition, and monitoring, intervention uptake was insufficient to determine whether longer hemodialysis sessions improve outcomes. More effective strategies for engaging clinical personnel and patients are likely required to evaluate clinical trial interventions that are fully embedded in care delivery.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
12.
Urology ; 129: 180-187, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005657

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the recent epidemiology of pediatric urinary stone disease (USD) in the United States. METHODS: We utilized the 2004-2016 Optum© Clinformatics® Data Mart database, a de-identified adjudicated administrative health claims database that includes 15-18 million individuals covered annually by commercial insurance in all 50 US states. The analysis included 12,739,125 children aged 0-18 years. We calculated annual rates of USD, ambulatory visits, and procedures, and the prevalence of prescription fills. RESULTS: The 2005-2016 USD rate was 59.5 cases per 100,000 person-years. The annual rate rose gradually from 2005 to a peak of 65.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in 2011. The USD rate increased with increasing age, and was highest among females compared to males, non-Hispanic Whites compared to other race/ethnic groups, and those residing in the South compared to other geographic regions. The overall 2005-2016 rate in the 120 days following a USD episode was 1.9 for ambulatory visits, 0.24 for surgical procedures, and 1.1 for imaging procedures. Ureteroscopy was the most common surgical procedure and CT scan was the most common imaging procedures, although ultrasound utilization increased over time. Medications were filled in 46.9% of cases, and use was lowest among males (43.1%), Asians (34.8%), and in the Northeast (34.3%). Opiate agonists were the most prevalent prescription (39.9%). CONCLUSION: Our study provides one of the most comprehensive examinations of pediatric USD to date, demonstrating shifting rates and treatment patterns over time, as well as differences by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and geographic region.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos , Cálculos Urinários/etnologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Doenças Urológicas/etnologia
14.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(9): 1224-1235, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a risk prediction model that would help individualize treatment and improve the shared decision-making process between clinicians and patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We developed a risk prediction tool for mortality during the first year of dialysis based on pre-end-stage renal disease characteristics in a cohort of 35,878 US veterans with incident end-stage renal disease who transitioned to dialysis treatment between October 1, 2007, and March 31, 2014 and then externally validated this tool among 4284 patients in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) health care system who transitioned to dialysis treatment between January 1, 2007, and September 30, 2015. RESULTS: To ensure model goodness of fit, 2 separate models were selected for patients whose last estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before dialysis initiation was less than 15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or 15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or higher. Model discrimination in the internal validation cohort of veterans resulted in C statistics of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.70-0.72) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.65-0.67) among patients with eGFR lower than 15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or higher, respectively. In the KPSC external validation cohort, the developed risk score exhibited C statistics of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74-0.79) in men and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.71-0.76) in women with eGFR lower than 15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.74) in men and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.62-0.72) in women with eGFR of 15 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or higher. CONCLUSION: A new risk prediction tool for mortality during the first year after transition to dialysis (available at www.DialysisScore.com) was developed in the large national Veterans Affairs cohort and validated with good performance in the racially, ethnically, and gender diverse KPSC cohort. This risk prediction tool will help identify high-risk populations and guide management strategies at the transition to dialysis.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Participação do Paciente , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
15.
Kidney Int Rep ; 3(3): 602-609, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29854967

RESUMO

Introduction: Abrupt declines in kidney function often occur in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease and may exacerbate the need to initiate dialysis treatment. It is unclear how frequently such events occur in patients transitioning to chronic dialysis therapy, and what outcomes they are associated with. Methods: We examined a national cohort of 23,349 US veterans with incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and with available pre-ESRD estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to identify abrupt declines in kidney function, defined as an unexpected >50% decrease in eGFR at the time of chronic dialysis transition. Associations with all-cause mortality and with renal recovery were examined in Cox proportional hazard and competing risk regression models. Results: A total of 4804 (21%) patients experienced an abrupt decline in kidney function at dialysis transition. Renal recovery occurred in 586 (12.2%) and 297 (1.6%) patients with and without an abrupt decline, respectively (adjusted subhazard ratio: 4.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.72-5.27; P < 0.001). In the first 6 months after dialysis transition 1178 patients (24.5%) with abrupt decline died (annualized mortality rate 574/1000 patient-years), compared with 2354 deaths (12.7%) in patients without abrupt decline (274 deaths/1000 patient-years). An abrupt decline was associated with 45% higher mortality after multivariable adjustments (hazard ratio: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.33-1.57). Conclusion: Abrupt declines in kidney function are common in patients transitioning to chronic dialysis, and are associated with higher mortality. Patients with abrupt declines also experience a higher rate of renal recovery; hence, careful attention to residual kidney function is warranted in these patients.

16.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 71(3 Suppl 1): A7, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477157
17.
Transplantation ; 102(6): 994-1004, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend caution in prescribing opioids for chronic pain. The characteristics of opioid prescription (OpRx) among kidney transplant (KTx) recipients have not been described in a national population. METHODS: We assessed OpRx prevalence among prevalent KTx recipients, and associated duration (long-term, defined as ≥90 days in a year) and dosing (in morphine milligram equivalents per day of <50, 50-89, and ≥90) with outcomes, death and graft loss, among incident KTx recipients using 2006-2010 US Renal Data System files, including Medicare Part D for medication ascertainment. Cox models controlled for recipient factors. RESULTS: Of 36,486 KTx recipients in the 2010 prevalent cohort, approximately 14.6% had long-term OpRx. The strongest association with long-term OpRx after KTx was long-term OpRx before KTx (64%; adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, 95.2, 74.2-122.1). Incident KTx recipients with long-term OpRx had increased risk of mortality and graft loss compared with those without OpRx or short-term OpRx after KTx. This risk was highest among recipients with long-term OpRx doses of ≥90 morphine milligram equivalents or higher per day (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval, 1.61, 1.24-2.10 for death, and 1.33, 1.05-1.67 for graft loss, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to either no or short-term OpRx, long-term, and especially long-term high-dose OpRx, is associated with increased risk of death and graft loss in US KTx recipients. Causal relationships cannot be inferred, and OpRx may be an illness marker. Nevertheless, efforts to treat pain effectively in KTx recipients with less toxic interventions and decrease OpRx deserve consideration.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplantados , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, U.S. , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/mortalidade , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Incidência , Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Masculino , Medicare Part D , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(12): 3658-3670, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935654

RESUMO

Aggressive pain treatment was advocated for ESRD patients, but new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend cautious opioid prescription. Little is known regarding outcomes associated with ESRD opioid prescription. We assessed opioid prescriptions and associations between opioid prescription and dose and patient outcomes using 2006-2010 US Renal Data System information in patients on maintenance dialysis with Medicare Part A, B, and D coverage in each study year (n=671,281, of whom 271,285 were unique patients). Opioid prescription was confirmed from Part D prescription claims. In the 2010 prevalent cohort (n=153,758), we examined associations of opioid prescription with subsequent all-cause death, dialysis discontinuation, and hospitalization controlled for demographics, comorbidity, modality, and residence. Overall, >60% of dialysis patients had at least one opioid prescription every year. Approximately 20% of patients had a chronic (≥90-day supply) opioid prescription each year, in 2010 usually for hydrocodone, oxycodone, or tramadol. In the 2010 cohort, compared with patients without an opioid prescription, patients with short-term (1-89 days) and chronic opioid prescriptions had increased mortality, dialysis discontinuation, and hospitalization. All opioid drugs associated with mortality; most associated with worsened morbidity. Higher opioid doses correlated with death in a monotonically increasing fashion. We conclude that opioid drug prescription is associated with increased risk of death, dialysis discontinuation, and hospitalization in dialysis patients. Causal relationships cannot be inferred, and opioid prescription may be an illness marker. Efforts to treat pain effectively in patients on dialysis yet decrease opioid prescriptions and dose deserve consideration.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Manejo da Dor , Padrões de Prática Médica , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Estudos de Coortes , Coleta de Dados , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Kidney J ; 10(1): 55-61, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28638604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Access to nephrology care prior to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is significantly associated with lower rates of morbidity and mortality. We assessed the association of area-level and individual-level indicators of poverty and race/ethnicity on pre-ESRD care provided by nephrologists. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study using the US Renal Data System database, we identified 739 537 patients initiated on maintenance dialysis from 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2012. We assessed the Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibility status as an indicator of individual-level poverty and ZIP code-level median household income (MHI) data obtained from the 2010 US census. We conducted multivariable logistic regression of pre-ESRD nephrology care as the outcome variable. RESULTS: Among patients in the lowest area-level MHI quintile, 61.28% received pre-ESRD nephrology care versus 67.68% among those in higher quintiles (P < 0.001). Similarly, the proportions of dual-eligible and nondual-eligible patients who had pre-ESRD nephrology care were 61.49 and 69.84%, respectively (P < 0.001). Patients in the lowest area-level MHI quintile were associated with significantly lower likelihood of pre-ESRD nephrology care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-0.87]) compared with those in higher quintiles. Both African American (AA) and Hispanic patients were significantly less likely to have received pre-ESRD nephrology care [aOR 0.85 (95% CI 0.84-0.86) and aOR 0.72 (95% CI 0.71-0.74), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Individual- and area-level measures of poverty, AA race and Hispanic ethnicity were independently associated with a lower likelihood of pre-ESRD nephrology care. Efforts to improve pre-ESRD nephrology care may require focusing on the poor and minority groups.

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