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1.
Genomics ; 113(5): 3002-3014, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229041

RESUMO

Phenotype diversity within cultivated Capsicum chinense is particularly evident for fruit shape and size. We used this diversity in C. chinense to further unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying fruit shape variation in pepper and related Solanaceous species. We identified candidate genes for C. chinense fruit shape, explored their contribution to population structure, and characterized their potential function in pepper fruit shape. Using genotyping by sequencing, we identified 43,081 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from diverse collections of C. chinense. Principal component, neighbor-joining tree, and population structure analyses resolved 3 phylogenetically robust clusters associated with fruit shapes. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was used to identify associated genomic regions with various fruit shape traits obtained from image analysis with Tomato Analyzer software. In our GWAS, we selected 12 SNPs associated with locule number trait and 8 SNP markers associated with other fruit shape traits such as perimeter, area, obovoid, ellipsoid and morphometrics (5y, 6y and 7y). The SNPs in CLAVATA1, WD-40, Auxin receptor, AAA type ATPase family protein, and RNA polymerase III genes were the major markers identified for fruit locule number from our GWAS results. Furthermore, we found SNPs in tetratricopeptide-repeat thioredoxin-like 3, enhancer of ABA co-receptor 1, subunit of exocyst complex 8 and pleiotropic drug resistance proteins associated with various fruit shape traits. CLAVATA1, WD-40 and Auxin receptor genes are known genes that affect tomato fruit shape. In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion knockout mutants and expression profiles for functional characterization of newly identified genes and to understand their role in fruit shape.

2.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 17(12): 2246-2258, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022325

RESUMO

Years of selection for desirable fruit quality traits in dessert watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) has resulted in a narrow genetic base in modern cultivars. Development of novel genomic and genetic resources offers great potential to expand genetic diversity and improve important traits in watermelon. Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of watermelon cultivar 'Charleston Gray', a principal American dessert watermelon, to complement the existing reference genome from '97103', an East Asian cultivar. Comparative analyses between genomes of 'Charleston Gray' and '97103' revealed genomic variants that may underlie phenotypic differences between the two cultivars. We then genotyped 1365 watermelon plant introduction (PI) lines maintained at the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). These PI lines were collected throughout the world and belong to three Citrullus species, C. lanatus, C. mucosospermus and C. amarus. Approximately 25 000 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were derived from the GBS data using the 'Charleston Gray' genome as the reference. Population genomic analyses using these SNPs discovered a close relationship between C. lanatus and C. mucosospermus and identified four major groups in these two species correlated to their geographic locations. Citrullus amarus was found to have a distinct genetic makeup compared to C. lanatus and C. mucosospermus. The SNPs also enabled identification of genomic regions associated with important fruit quality and disease resistance traits through genome-wide association studies. The high-quality 'Charleston Gray' genome and the genotyping data of this large collection of watermelon accessions provide valuable resources for facilitating watermelon research, breeding and improvement.


Assuntos
Citrullus/genética , Genoma de Planta , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença , Frutas , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 19(1): 171-190, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244303

RESUMO

Elevated CO2 along with drought is a serious global threat to crop productivity. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms plants use to protect these stresses is the key for plant growth and development. In this study, we mimicked natural stress conditions under a controlled Soil-Plant-Atmosphere-Research (SPAR) system and provided the evidence for how miRNAs regulate target genes under elevated CO2 and drought conditions. Significant physiological and biomass data supported the effective utilization of source-sink (leaf to root) under elevated CO2. Additionally, elevated CO2 partially rescued the effect of drought on total biomass. We identified both known and novel miRNAs differentially expressed during drought, CO2, and combined stress, along with putative targets. A total of 32 conserved miRNAs belonged to 23 miRNA families, and 25 novel miRNAs were identified by deep sequencing. Using the existing sweet potato genome database and stringent analyses, a total of 42 and 22 potential target genes were predicted for the conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. These target genes are involved in drought response, hormone signaling, photosynthesis, carbon fixation, sucrose and starch metabolism, etc. Gene ontology and KEGG ontology functional enrichment revealed that these miRNAs might target transcription factors (MYB, TCP, NAC), hormone signaling regulators (ARF, AP2/ERF), cold and drought factors (corA), carbon metabolism (ATP synthase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate), and photosynthesis (photosystem I and II complex units). Our study is the first report identifying targets of miRNAs under elevated CO2 levels and could support the molecular mechanisms under elevated CO2 in sweet potato and other crops in the future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Ipomoea batatas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Biomassa , Ciclo do Carbono/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Ipomoea batatas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
4.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 4, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29403516

RESUMO

The plant microbiome is a key determinant of plant health and productivity, and changes in the plant microbiome can alter the tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses and the quality of end produce. Little is known about the microbial diversity and its effect on carbohydrate metabolism in ripe fruits. In this study, we aimed to understand the diversity and function of microorganisms in relation to carbohydrate metabolism of ripe watermelon fruits. We used 16S metagenomics and RNAseq metatranscriptomics for analysis of red (PI459074, Congo, and SDRose) and yellow fruit-flesh cultivars (PI227202, PI435990, and JBush) of geographically and metabolically diverse watermelon cultivars. Metagenomics data showed that Proteobacteria were abundant in SDRose and PI227202, whereas Cyanobacteria were most abundant in Congo and PI4559074. In the case of metatranscriptome data, Proteobacteria was the most abundant in all cultivars. High expression of genes linked to infectious diseases and the expression of peptidoglycan hydrolases associated to pathogenicity of eukaryotic hosts was observed in SDRose, which could have resulted in low microbial diversity in this cultivar. The presence of GH28, associated with polygalacturonase activity in JBush and SDRose could be related to cell wall modifications including de-esterification and depolymerization, and consequent loss of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars. Moreover, based on the KEGG annotation of the expressed genes, nine α-galactosidase genes involved in key processes of galactosyl oligosaccharide metabolism, such as raffinose family were identified and galactose metabolism pathway was reconstructed. Results of this study underline the links between the host and fruit-associated microbiome in carbohydrate metabolism of the ripe fruits. The cultivar difference in watermelon reflects the quantum and diversity of the microbiome, which would benefit watermelon and other plant breeders aiming at the holobiont concept to incorporate associated microbiomes in breeding programs.

5.
Sci Rep ; 6: 38081, 2016 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901114

RESUMO

Accumulated capsaicinoid content and increased fruit size are traits resulting from Capsicum annuum domestication. In this study, we used a diverse collection of C. annuum to generate 66,960 SNPs using genotyping by sequencing. The study identified 1189 haplotypes containing 3413 SNPs. Length of individual linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks varied along chromosomes, with regions of high and low LD interspersed with an average LD of 139 kb. Principal component analysis (PCA), Bayesian model based population structure analysis and an Euclidean tree built based on identity by state (IBS) indices revealed that the clustering pattern of diverse accessions are in agreement with capsaicin content (CA) and fruit weight (FW) classifications indicating the importance of these traits in shaping modern pepper genome. PCA and IBS were used in a mixed linear model of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content and fruit weight to reduce spurious associations because of confounding effects of subpopulations in genome-wide association study (GWAS). Our GWAS results showed SNPs in Ankyrin-like protein, IKI3 family protein, ABC transporter G family and pentatricopeptide repeat protein are the major markers for capsaicinoids and of 16 SNPs strongly associated with FW in both years of the study, 7 are located in known fruit weight controlling genes.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsicum , Frutas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
6.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1646, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27857720

RESUMO

Principal component analysis (PCA) with 36,621 polymorphic genome-anchored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified collectively for Capsicum annuum and Capsicum baccatum was used to characterize population structure and species domestication of these two important incompatible cultivated pepper species. Estimated mean nucleotide diversity (π) and Tajima's D across various chromosomes revealed biased distribution toward negative values on all chromosomes (except for chromosome 4) in cultivated C. baccatum, indicating a population bottleneck during domestication of C. baccatum. In contrast, C. annuum chromosomes showed positive π and Tajima's D on all chromosomes except chromosome 8, which may be because of domestication at multiple sites contributing to wider genetic diversity. For C. baccatum, 13,129 SNPs were available, with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥0.05; PCA of the SNPs revealed 283 C. baccatum accessions grouped into 3 distinct clusters, for strong population structure. The fixation index (FST ) between domesticated C. annuum and C. baccatum was 0.78, which indicates genome-wide divergence. We conducted extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis of C. baccatum var. pendulum cultivars on all adjacent SNP pairs within a chromosome to identify regions of high and low LD interspersed with a genome-wide average LD block size of 99.1 kb. We characterized 1742 haplotypes containing 4420 SNPs (range 9-2 SNPs per haplotype). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of peduncle length, a trait that differentiates wild and domesticated C. baccatum types, revealed 36 significantly associated genome-wide SNPs. Population structure, identity by state (IBS) and LD patterns across the genome will be of potential use for future GWAS of economically important traits in C. baccatum peppers.

7.
Front Plant Sci ; 7: 1437, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713759

RESUMO

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19-0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21-0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm was used for estimation of 1436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS) and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in ß-D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops.

8.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 289(4): 513-21, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24585251

RESUMO

Knowledge of population structure and linkage disequilibrium among the worldwide collections of peppers currently classified as hot, mild, sweet and ornamental types is indispensable for applying association mapping and genomic selection to improve pepper. The current study aimed to resolve the genetic diversity and relatedness of Capsicum annuum germplasm by use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci across all chromosomes in samples collected in 2011 and 2012. The physical distance covered by the entire set of SSRs used was 2,265.9 Mb from the 3.48-Gb hot-pepper genome size. The model-based program STRUCTURE was used to infer five clusters, which was further confirmed by classical molecular-genetic diversity analysis. Mean heterozygosity of various loci was estimated to be 0.15. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was used to identify 17 LD blocks across various chromosomes with sizes from 0.154 Kb to 126.28 Mb. CAMS-142 of chromosome 1 was significantly associated with both capsaicin (CA) and dihydrocapsaicin (DCA) levels. Further, CAMS-142 was located in an LD block of 98.18 Mb. CAMS-142 amplified bands of 244, 268, 283 and 326 bp. Alleles 268 and 283 bp had positive effects on both CA and DCA levels, with an average R(2) of 12.15 % (CA) and 12.3 % (DCA). Eight markers from seven different chromosomes were significantly associated with fruit weight, contributing an average effect of 15 %. CAMS-199, HpmsE082 and CAMS-190 are the three major quantitative trait loci located on chromosomes 8, 9, and 10, respectively, and were associated with fruit weight in samples from both years of the study. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of using genome-wide SSR-based markers to assess features of LD and genetic diversity within C. annuum.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Filogenia , Software
9.
PLoS One ; 9(1): e86393, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24475113

RESUMO

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important crop with added nutritional value. Production of capsaicin is an important quantitative trait with high environmental variance, so the development of markers regulating capsaicinoid accumulation is important for pepper breeding programs. In this study, we performed association mapping at the gene level to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with capsaicin pathway metabolites in a diverse Capsicum annuum collection during two seasons. The genes Pun1, CCR, KAS and HCT were sequenced and matched with the whole-genome sequence draft of pepper to identify SNP locations and for further characterization. The identified SNPs for each gene underwent candidate gene association mapping. Association mapping results revealed Pun1 as a key regulator of major metabolites in the capsaicin pathway mainly affecting capsaicinoids and precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids. Six different SNPs in the promoter sequence of Pun1 were found associated with capsaicin in plants from both seasons. Our results support that CCR is an important control point for the flux of p-coumaric acid to specific biosynthesis pathways. KAS was found to regulate the major precursors for acyl moieties of capsaicinoids and may play a key role in capsaicinoid production. Candidate gene association mapping of Pun1 suggested that the accumulation of capsaicinoids depends on the expression of Pun1, as revealed by the most important associated SNPs found in the promoter region of Pun1.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Genes de Plantas/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequência de Bases , Capsicum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Primers do DNA/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Metaboloma , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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