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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394777

RESUMO

Cameron Highland is a popular tourist hub in the mountainous area of Peninsular Malaysia. Most communities in this area suffer frequent incidence of debris flow, especially during monsoon seasons. Despite the loss of lives and properties recorded annually from debris flow, most studies in the region concentrate on landslides and flood susceptibilities. In this study, debris-flow susceptibility prediction was carried out using two data mining techniques; Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) models. The existing inventory of debris-flow events (640 points) were selected for training 70% (448) and validation 30% (192). Twelve conditioning factors namely; elevation, plan-curvature, slope angle, total curvature, slope aspect, Stream Transport Index (STI), profile curvature, roughness index, Stream Catchment Area (SCA), Stream Power Index (SPI), Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Topographic Position Index (TPI) were selected from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data. Multi-collinearity was checked using Information Factor, Cramer's V, and Gini Index to identify the relative importance of conditioning factors. The susceptibility models were produced and categorized into five classes; not-susceptible, low, moderate, high and very-high classes. Models performances were evaluated using success and prediction rates where the area under the curve (AUC) showed a higher performance of MARS (93% and 83%) over SVR (76% and 72%). The result of this study will be important in contingency hazards and risks management plans to reduce the loss of lives and properties in the area.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 58(2): 1317-1329, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596502

RESUMO

Microcrystalline core-shell powders of lanthanide-based coordination polymers with general chemical formula ([Ln(cpbOH)]∞)1- x@([Ln'(cpbOH)]∞) x with Hcpb = 1,4-carboxyphenylboronic acid have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Their luminescent properties have been studied. They are drastically different from those of heterolanthanide coordination polymers, also called "molecular alloys", that present the same crystal structure and chemical composition. Study of the photophysical properties of core-shell lanthanide-based coordination polymers reveals that it is possible to control efficiently the intermetallic energy transfers between lanthanide ions. Furthermore, multiemissive compounds, under unique irradiation, in both visible and infrared regions are easily feasible. Core-shell microstructured lanthanide-based coordination polymers have also been prepared with terephthalic (H2bdc) and trimesic (H3tma) acids as ligands for evidencing that lanthanide-ion-based coordination compounds are excellent candidates for 3D molecular epitaxial growth.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(1): 462-475, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540189

RESUMO

Reactions in water of lanthanide chlorides with the sodium salt of 1,4-carboxyphenylboronic acid lead to two series of isostructural compounds with respective general chemical formulas [Ln(cpb)3(H2O)2]∞ for Ln = La or Ce and [Ln(cpbOH)(H2O)2·(cpb)]∞ for Ln = Pr-Lu (except Pm) plus Y. Heterolanthanide coordination polymers that are isostructural to the second series have been synthesized, and their photophysical properties have been studied. This study evidences that it is possible to design multiemissive lanthanide-based coordination polymers that could find their application as multigauge luminescent thermometric probes.

4.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 19(7): 853-861, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066691

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate sterilization practices and effectiveness in the Lebanese private dental sector and identify potential factors contributing to sterilization failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 13-item questionnaire consisting of four demographic/professional questions and nine questions related to sterilization practices along with self-contained biologic indicators (SCBIs) were delivered to a representative sample of Lebanese private offices. Univariate statistics and bivariate analyses were performed to compare sterilization failure rates according to demographic, professional, and sterilization-related conditions. RESULTS: Out of the 560 dentists contacted, 205 dentists returned the completed questionnaires and undamaged processed SCBIs. The tested autoclaves (n = 134) were mostly dynamic air removal (69.4%) and had a mean age of 10.5 ± 6.9 years. The dry heat ovens (n = 71) were all static air and had 12.9 ± 8.1 years. The dental assistants performed the routine sterilization procedures in nearly 62% of the practices and sterilization cycles were run 4 to 6 times per week in 75% of the offices. Correct temperature/time ratios were applied in 97% of the autoclaves and 80.3% of the ovens. Few dental practices reported having preventive maintenance (17.9% for the autoclaves and 14.1% for the ovens). Routine monitoring of sterilizer efficacy was infrequently performed and was mostly conducted using physical indicators. Sterilization failure rate was higher for the ovens (16.9%) than for the autoclaves (7.5%). Incorrect temperature/time ratio was the main significant factor associated with sterilization failures. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated a relatively high rate of sterilization failures in the Lebanese private dental sector and identified the human error in setting sterilization cycle parameters as the predominant cause of failure. These findings should prompt actions toward increasing knowledge of the sterilization processes and their monitoring among dental professionals and improving the quality control of sterilization through collaborative efforts among health authorities, dental schools, and associations. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents the first published data relative to sterilization practices and effectiveness in private Lebanese dental offices and provides a rationale to implement biologic monitoring protocols in Lebanon as long practiced in developed countries.


Assuntos
Clínicas Odontológicas , Odontólogos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Falha de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Esterilização/instrumentação , Esterilização/métodos , Esterilização/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos Odontológicos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Controle de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Int J Dent ; 2017: 5057248, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642792

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evaluate infection control knowledge, attitude, and practice in Lebanese private dental clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey including 46 questions related to routine safety procedures was sent to 1150 Lebanese dentists between July 1st and 2nd, 2015. The study sample was selected from the database of registered dentists based on a proportional random sampling ensuring equitable representation of the 5 geographic regions of Lebanon. A subset of 29 questions was used to generate an overall score of compliance (excellent, good, fair, and poor). Comparisons according to gender, type, region, and years of practice were performed. RESULTS: 417 dentists returned the completed questionnaires. 96% expressed concern about infection transmission, 90.6% were vaccinated against Hepatitis B, and 61.8% asked routinely about patients medical history. Only 43% used protective eyewear. Although most dentists (65%) used autoclaves, dry heat was still used. Significant correlations were found between gender and use of personal protective equipment. Less compliance was shown by clinicians with fewer years of experience. In the overall compliance questionnaire, the mean percentage of correct answers was roughly 54% with <5% of the practitioners scoring "excellent." Conclusions. The study found inadequacy of compliance in private Lebanese dental clinics necessitating improved educational training and sustained monitoring by regulatory bodies.

6.
Asian Spine J ; 11(2): 167-173, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443159

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-controlled study. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess genetic influence in Saudi Arabian children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The genetic locus linked to chromosome 19p for idiopathic scoliosis has been described. A pilot study conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar showed that three microsatellite markers (D19S216, D19S894, and DS1034) of chromosome 19p13.3 were significant in Saudi Arabian females compared with healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 100 unrelated Saudi Arabian girls treated for AIS, their parents, healthy siblings, and healthy subjects were recruited for genetic analysis of markers on chromosome 19p13.3. After informed consent was obtained from their parents, blood samples were collected and parametric and nonparametric linkage analyses were performed using GENEHUNTER ver. 2.1. Multipoint linkage analysis was used to specify an autosomal dominant trait with a gene frequency of 0.01 and an estimated penetrance of 80% at the genotypic and allelic levels. RESULTS: Five hundred blood samples were collected and analyzed for microsatellite markers (D19S216, D19S894, and DS1034) of chromosome 19p13.3. Comparison among patients, family members, and healthy subjects revealed no significant association between markers and scoliosis at the genotypic level: D19S216 (p=0.21), D19S894 (p=0.37), and DS1034 (p=0.25). However, at the allelic level, a statistically significant association was observed for marker DS1034 (p=0.008), and marker D19S216 showed significance between fathers and patients (p<0.001) compared with patients and mothers. The other two markers, D19S216 (p=0.25) and D19S894 (p=0.17), showed no significant association between patients and mothers. CONCLUSIONS: At the allelic level, marker DS1034 was significantly associated with AIS patients and their fathers. This allelic marker on chromosome 19p13.3 appears to be important in AIS etiology.

7.
J Med Invest ; 59(1-2): 69-78, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22449995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare visual outcomes, intraoperative and postoperative complications of 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (25-G TSV) versus conventional 20-gauge vitrectomy in epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery. METHODS: A retrospective comparative study was conducted on 200 eyes with idiopathic ERM who underwent either primary 20-gauge vitrectomy (n=95) or 25-G TSV (n=105) with 6 months follow up. The following parameters were collected and compared: age, gender, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), postoperative anterior chamber inflammation, intraoperative and postoperative complications. RESULTS: Twenty-five gauge group achieved a significantly better vision at the 1(st) postoperative month (p=0.008) and a significantly higher incidence of visual improvement 6 months postoperatively (p=0.04) than 20-gauge group. Intraocular pressure was significantly higher at the 1(st), 3(rd) and 6(th) postoperative months compared with baseline in the 20-G group. However, in the 25-gauge group IOP remained near to the baseline at the same period. Twenty five-gauge group achieved a significantly lower anterior chamber inflammation and a lower incidence of postoperative cystoid macular edema (CME) (p=0.01), hyphema (p=0.000) and after cataract (p=0.000) than 20-gauge group. CONCLUSIONS: The 25-gauge sutureless vitrectomy achieves rapid and higher visual improvement, less postoperative inflammation and complications than the 20-gauge vitrectomy in ERM surgery.


Assuntos
Membrana Epirretiniana/cirurgia , Técnicas de Sutura , Vitrectomia/instrumentação , Vitrectomia/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
8.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 249(3): 369-76, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20848125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (25-G TSV) in the management of vitreoretinal complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: A retrospective review of a noncomparative interventional case series including 200 eyes of 164 consecutive patients who underwent 25-G TSV for the management of PDR was performed. The main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative visual acuity and intraocular pressure (IOP), the surgical success rate, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. All cases had a follow-up period of at least 6 months. RESULTS: The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) visual acuity was significantly improved from 1.55 preoperatively to 0.72 at the final visit. No intraoperative complications related to the 25-G TSV procedure were recorded. Transient hypotony was recorded in 18 eyes (9%) on postoperative day 1 and 15 eyes (7.5%) on postoperative day 5. Two of these eyes (1%) had choroidal detachment on postoperative day 5. One case showed bacterial endophthalmitis after the second surgery. The single operation and final surgical success rates were 81.5% and 98% respectively. CONCLUSION: These outcomes of 25-G TSV showed its safety and efficacy in the management of PDR.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/cirurgia , Microcirurgia/métodos , Vitrectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Facoemulsificação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Técnicas de Sutura , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
9.
Hum Resour Health ; 5: 9, 2007 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17381837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH). The World Health Report (WHR) 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006-2015), with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs), the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composition and needs of HRH is hindering health sector reform. This highlights an urgent need to understand the current reality of HRH in several EMR countries.The objectives of this paper are to: (1) lay out the facts on what we know about the HRH for EMR countries; (2) generate and interpret evidence on the relationship between HRH and health status indicators for LMICs and middle and high income countries (MHICs) in the context of EMR; (3) identify and analyze the information gaps (i.e. what we do not know) and (4) provide forward thinking by identifying priorities for research and policy. METHODS: The variables used in the analysis were: nurse and physician density, gross national income, poverty, female literacy, health expenditure, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR), Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) and Life Expectancy (LE). Univariate (charts), bivariate (Pearson correlation) and multivariate analysis (linear regression) was conducted using SPSS 14.0, besides a synthesis of HRH literature. RESULTS: Results demonstrate the significant disparities in physician and nurse densities within the EMR, particularly between LMICs and MHICs. Besides this, significant differences exist in health status indicators within the EMR. Results of the Pearson correlation revealed that physician and nurse density, as well as female literacy in EMR countries were significantly correlated with lower mortality rates and higher life expectancy. Results of the regression analysis for both LMICs and MHICs reveal that physician density is significantly associated with all health indicators for both income groups. Nurse density was found to be significantly associated with lower MMR for the two income groups. Female literacy is notably related to lower IMR and U5MR for both income groups; and only with MMR and LE in LMICs. Health expenditure is significantly associated with lower IMR and U5MR only for LMICs. Based on results, gap analysis and the literature synthesis, information gaps and priorities were identified. CONCLUSION: The implication of the results discussed in this paper will help EMR countries, particularly LMICs, determine priorities to improve health outcomes and achieve health-related Millenium Development Goals.

10.
J Pediatr Oncol Nurs ; 23(6): 311-20, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17035621

RESUMO

This study describes the relationship between different indicators of pain, including self-reports, behavioral observations, and physiological measures, in children with cancer undergoing invasive procedures. Forty-five children between the ages of 4 and 10 years were evaluated while undergoing Port-a-Cath access. The study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of the Children's Cancer Center in Beirut, Lebanon. Children used 2 self-report measures of pain (the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and an adaptation of the FACES, the DOLLS). Parents and nurses assessed the child's pain on the FACES and the child's distress on the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress-Revised. Nurses recoded behavioral observations as well as physiological responses to pain. There was a high degree of consistency between the self-reports and moderate to high correlations between self-reports, behavioral parameters, and physiological parameters, suggesting that accurate pain assessments can be made by both nurses and parents. The results also demonstrate adequate validity and reliability of the DOLLS scale in a Lebanese population, in addition to being the preferred assessment tool for all the children in the study.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Líbano , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico
11.
Public Health Nutr ; 9(3): 313-9, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16684382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Breast-feeding (BF) provides the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. The prevalence of BF in Lebanon shows mixed results. The present study was the first large-scale, extensive survey on BF parameters in Lebanon that aimed to explore demographic, socio-economic and other fundamental issues associated with the initiation and duration of BF by Lebanese mothers. DESIGN: The survey was cross-sectional in design and administered over 10 months. SETTING: Information on all variables was collected from mothers at health centres. SUBJECTS: Two-stage sampling was conducted to select participants. A total of 1,000 participants were randomly selected. A consent form was provided to each participant. Data were collected from 830 of these. RESULTS: Almost all mothers were Lebanese, married and had given birth in a hospital. About a third stated that breast milk was the first food introduced after birth. Although 55.9% started breast-feeding their newborns within a few hours after birth, and 18.3% within half an hour, 21.2% replied that they initiated BF a few days after birth. Only 4.6% of the mothers replied that they never breast-fed their infant. Timing of initiation of BF was associated with the type of delivery (vaginal/Caesarean section) and hospital-related factors (rooming-in, night feedings and frequency of mother-infant interaction). Of the mothers who breast-fed exclusively beyond 6 months, 86.7% had initiated BF a few hours following delivery, while only 13.3% had initiated BF a few days later. Compared with the exceptionally high proportion of BF initiation, exclusivity of BF was low, dropping to 52.4% at 1 month. Exclusivity of BF was also associated with place of residence (urban/rural) and negatively associated with educational level of the mother. Duration of BF was inversely associated with the use of pain killers during delivery and maternal education. Rural mothers and those who practised exclusive BF maintained BF for a longer duration. CONCLUSION: Initiation rates of BF are very high in Lebanon but rates of exclusive BF are low and duration of BF is short. Future research targeting the factors associated with BF, with particular emphasis on exclusivity, is needed. For the 95.4% of mothers who initiated BF, an ecological perspective on intervention aimed at women and their social support system is required to improve duration and exclusivity.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo , População Urbana , Desmame
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