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1.
J Biotechnol ; 260: 11-17, 2017 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859954

RESUMO

Wastewater from textile industries contains azo dye residues that negatively affect most environmental systems. The biological treatment of these wastes is the best option due to safety and cost concerns. Here we isolated and identified 19 azo dye-degrading fungi and optimized conditions resulting in enhanced degradation. The fungi belonged to five species of Aspergillus and a single Lichtheimia sp. All fungi were evaluated for their ability to decolorize 20 azo dyes. While the most easily transformable azo dye was direct violet (decolorization ranged from 71.1 to 93.3%), the most resistant to decolorization was fast green azo dye. The greatest degradation potential of azo dyes (direct violet and methyl red) was optimized using the most promising four fungal strains and changing media glucose concentration, nitrogen source, and micronutrients. Biomass, lignin peroxidase, and laccases production were also determined in the optimization studies. The decolorization of both azo dyes by the four fungal strains was greatly enhanced by glucose supplementation. The fungal strains were not able to produce lignin peroxidases in the absence of organic nitrogen source. Both yeast extract and casamino acid supplementation enhanced decolorization of direct violet and methyl red dyes and production of lignin peroxidase by the fungal strains. In contrast, the laccases were absent in the similar medium enriched with the same organic nitrogen sources.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Compostos Azo/análise , Mucorales/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 108: 191-202, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27448793

RESUMO

Silymarin, a Silybum marianum seed extract containing a mixture of flavonolignans including silybin, is being used as an antihepatotoxic therapy for liver diseases. In this study, the enhancing effect of gamma irradiation on plant growth parameters of S. marianum under salt stress was investigated. The effect of gamma irradiation, either as a single elicitor or coupled with salinity, on chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression and silybin A + B yield was also evaluated. The silybin A + B content in S. marianum fruits was estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An increase in silybin content was accompanied by up-regulation of the CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3 genes, which are involved in the silybin biosynthetic pathway. The highest silybin A + B production (0.77 g/100 g plant DW) and transcript levels of the three studied genes (100.2-, 91.9-, and 24.3-fold increase, respectively) were obtained with 100GY gamma irradiation and 4000 ppm salty water. The CHS2 and CHS3 genes were partially sequenced and submitted to the NCBI database under the accession numbers KT252908.1 and KT252909.1, respectively. Developing new approaches to stimulate silybin biosynthetic pathways could be a useful tool to potentiate the use of plants as renewable resources of medicinal compounds.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Cardo-Mariano/genética , Silimarina/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Raios gama , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação , Cardo-Mariano/metabolismo , Cardo-Mariano/efeitos da radiação , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Silibina , Silimarina/genética
3.
Nat Prod Res ; 30(16): 1816-23, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26336904

RESUMO

Thirty actinomycete isolates were isolated from soil and tested against Candida albicans in vitro. The active isolate was identified by 16s-rRNA gene sequencing method as Streptomyces toxytricini. The antifungal compound was extracted with ethyl acetate followed by diethyl ether. Both HPLC and GC-MS analysis confirmed presence of one pure compound in the diethyl ether extract. The compound is a yellow liquid has a maximum absorbance at 240 nm in methanol. The chemical structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D-NMR and IR analyses. The elucidated molecular formula was C36H54O14. The compound is a polyacetal tricyclononane derivative, composed of a tricyclononane ring attached from the carbon atom number four with an oligo-acetal chain (six acetal groups in chain) and from the carbon atom number seven with a methoxy carbonyl benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid. The purposed name is: 4- {[tricycle(3.2.1.1(1,3))non-8-yl] methoxy carbonyl benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid} (2,4,5,6,7,8,9 heptaoxa, 3-ethoxy, 5,6,7,9-tetramethyl unidecane).


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/química , Actinobacteria/química , Alcanos , Antifúngicos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular
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