Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 64
Filtrar
1.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 10(38): e0072121, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554000

RESUMO

Three complete severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes from Ethiopian patients were compared with deposited global genomes. Two genomes belonged to genetic group 20A/B.1/GH, and the other belonged to genetic group 20A/B.1.480/GH. Enhancing genomic capacity is important to investigate the transmission and to monitor the evolution and mutational patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in this country.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370744

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Of 2.5 million newborn deaths each year, serious neonatal infections are a leading cause of neonatal death for which inpatient treatment is recommended. However, manysick newborns in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia do not have access to inpatientcare. A World Health Organization (WHO) guideline recommends simplified antibiotic treatment atan outpatient level for young infants up to two months of age with possible serious bacterial infection (PSBI), when referral is not feasible.We implemented this guidelinein Ethiopia to increase coverage of treatment and to learn about potential facilitating factors and barriers for implementation. METHODS: We conducted implementation research in two districts (Tiro Afata and Gera) in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, to learn about the feasibility of implementing the WHO PSBI guideline within a programme setting using the existing health care structure. We conducted orientation meetings and policy dialogue with key stakeholders and trained health extension workers and health centre staff to identify and manage sick young infants with PSBI signs at a primary health care unit. We established a Technical Support Unit (TSU) to facilitate programme learning, built health workers' capacity and provided support for quality control, monitoring and data collection.We sensitized the community to appropriate care-seeking and supported the health care system in implementation. The research team collected data using structured case recording forms. RESULTS: From September 2016 to August 2017, 6185 live births and 601 sick young infants 0-59 days of age with signs of PSBI were identified. Assuming that 25% of births were missed (total births 7731) and 10% of births had an episode of PSBI in the first two months of life, the coverage of appropriate treatment for PSBI was 77.7% (601/773). Of 601 infants with PSBI, fast breathing only (pneumonia) was recorded in 432 (71.9%) infants 7-59 days of age; signs of clinical severe infection (CSI) in 155 (25.8%) and critical illnessin 14 (2.3%). Of the 432 pneumonia cases who received oral amoxicillin treatment without referral, 419 (97.0%) were successfully treated without any deaths. Of 169 sick young infants with either CSI or critical illness, only 110 were referred to a hospital; 83 did not accept referral advice and received outpatient injectable gentamicin plus oral amoxicillin treatment either at a health post or health centre. Additionally, 59 infants who should have been referred, but were not received injectable gentamicin plus oral amoxicillin outpatient treatment. Of infants with CSI, 129 (82.2%) were successfully treated as outpatients, while two died (1.3%). Of 14 infants with critical illness, the caregivers of five accepted referral to a hospital, and nine were treated with simplified antibiotics on an outpatient basis. Two of 14 (14.3%) infants with critical illness died within 14 days of initial presentation. CONCLUSION: In settings where referral to a hospital is not feasible, young infants with PSBI can be treated on an outpatient basis at either a health post or health centre, which can contribute to saving many lives. Scaling-up will require health system strengthening including community mobilization. REGISTRATION: Trial is registered on Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12617001373369.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009632, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by disseminated Leishmania donovani infection which affects almost half a million people annually. Most of the patients are reported from the Indian sub-continent, Eastern Africa and Brazil. In this study, we aimed to determine the levels of antibodies and cytokines in visceral leishmaniasis patients and to examine associations of parasitemia with the clinical states of patients. A prospective study was carried out, enrolling a total of 48 active VL patients who were evaluated before, during different time points and, three months after treatment. Serum cytokine concentrations, antibody levels, parasitemia, laboratory (hematologic and biochemical) measurements, and clinical parameters were assessed. RESULTS: Counts of WBC and platelets, and measurements of hemoglobin (Hb) increased during treatment (P ≤ 0.05). Elevated levels of circulating IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-ß1 were measured before treatment. The observed increase in serum IL-10 remarkably declined within 7 days after the start of treatment. Anti-leishmanial antibody index (AI) was high in all VL patients irrespective of spleen aspirate parasite grade before treatment and at different times during treatment. However, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease of AI was observed 120 days post-treatment. IL-2 serum levels were below the detection limit at all sampling points. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-ß1 can be used as markers of active visceral leishmaniasis. In addition, measuring circulating cytokines concentrations, particularly IL-10, in combination with other clinical evaluations, could be used as criteria for the cure. The observation that a high serum concentration of IFN-gamma at baseline was associated with low parasitemia deserves further investigations.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444646

RESUMO

A poor understanding of malnutrition burden is a common reason for not prioritizing the care of small and nutritionally at-risk infants aged under-six months (infants u6m). We aimed to estimate the anthropometric deficit prevalence in infants u6m attending health centres, using the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF), and to assess the overlap of different individual indicators. We undertook a two-week survey of all infants u6m visiting 18 health centres in two zones of the Oromia region, Ethiopia. We measured weight, length, and MUAC (mid-upper arm circumference) and calculated weight-for-length (WLZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ). Overall, 21.7% (95% CI: 19.2; 24.3) of infants u6m presented CIAF, and of these, 10.7% (95% CI: 8.93; 12.7) had multiple anthropometric deficits. Low MUAC overlapped with 47.5% (95% CI: 38.0; 57.3), 43.8% (95% CI: 34.9; 53.1), and 42.6% (95% CI: 36.3; 49.2) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Underweight overlapped with 63.4% (95% CI: 53.6; 72.2), 52.7% (95% CI: 43.4; 61.7), and 59.6% (95% CI: 53.1; 65.9) of the stunted, wasted, and CIAF prevalence, respectively. Anthropometric deficits, single and multiple, are prevalent in infants attending health centres. WAZ overlaps more with other forms of anthropometric deficits than MUAC.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza
5.
Malar J ; 20(1): 213, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular monitoring of anti-malarial drug efficacy is vital for establishing rational malaria treatment guidelines and ensuring adequate treatment outcomes. This study aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the management of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Relevant published studies were searched from the databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and Clinical trial registry) on published artemether-lumefantrine therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in Ethiopia from 2004 to 2020. The retrieved studies were assessed for quality using the modified Newcastle Ottawa Scale for observational studies and modified Jadad scale for interventional studies. Risk of bias was also assessed by using ROBINS-I tool. OpenMeta-Analyst software was used for the statistical analysis. The review protocol is registered in PROSPERO, number CRD42020201859. RESULTS: Fifteen studies (1523 participants) were included in the final analysis. The overall PCR-uncorrected pooled proportion of treatment success of artemether-lumefantrine therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria was 98.4% (95%CI 97.6-99.1). A random-effects model was used because of considerable heterogeneity [χ2 = 20.48, df (14), P = 0.011 and I2 = 31.65]. PCR-corrected pooled proportion of treatment success of artemether-lumefantrine therapy was 98.7% (95% CI 97.7-99.6). A random-effects model was used [χ2 = 7.37, df(6), P = 0.287 and I2 = 18.69]. Most studies included in the present review achieved a rapid reduction of fevers and parasitaemia between D0 and D3 of assessment. Adverse events were mostly mild and only two cases were reported as serious, but were not directly attributed to the drug. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis suggests that artemether-lumefantrine therapy is efficacious and safe in treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. However, owing to the high risk of bias in the included studies, strong conclusions cannot be drawn. Further high-quality RCTs assessing anti-malarial efficacy and safety should be performed to demonstrates strong evidence of changes in parasite sensitivity to artemether-lumefantrine in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Etiópia , Humanos
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Child malnutrition (undernutrition) and adult non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are major global public health problems. While convincing evidence links prenatal malnutrition with increased risk of NCDs, less is known about the long-term sequelae of malnutrition in childhood. We therefore examined evidence of associations between postnatal malnutrition, encompassing documented severe childhood malnutrition in low/middle-income countries (LMICs) or famine exposure, and later-life cardiometabolic NCDs. METHODS: Our peer-reviewed search strategy focused on 'severe childhood malnutrition', 'LMICs', 'famine', and 'cardiometabolic NCDs' to identify studies in Medline, Embase, Global Health, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. We synthesised results narratively and assessed study quality with the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence checklist. RESULTS: We identified 57 studies of cardiometabolic NCD outcomes in survivors of documented severe childhood malnutrition in LMICs (n=14) and historical famines (n=43). Exposure to severe malnutrition or famine in childhood was consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (7/8 studies), hypertension (8/11), impaired glucose metabolism (15/24) and metabolic syndrome (6/6) in later life. Evidence for effects on lipid metabolism (6/11 null, 5/11 mixed findings), obesity (3/13 null, 5/13 increased risk, 5/13 decreased risk) and other outcomes was less consistent. Sex-specific differences were observed in some cohorts, with women consistently at higher risk of glucose metabolism disorders and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Severe malnutrition or famine during childhood is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic NCDs, suggesting that developmental plasticity extends beyond prenatal life. Severe malnutrition in childhood thus has serious implications not only for acute morbidity and mortality but also for survivors' long-term health. Heterogeneity across studies, confounding by prenatal malnutrition, and age effects in famine studies preclude firm conclusions on causality. Research to improve understanding of mechanisms linking postnatal malnutrition and NCDs is needed to inform policy and programming to improve the lifelong health of severe malnutrition survivors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Desnutrição , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Criança , Fome Epidêmica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Gravidez
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 6, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33520075

RESUMO

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly and creating a huge economic, social and public health challenge worldwide. Although currently an effective vaccine is ready, its distribution is limited, and hence the only currently available lever to reduce transmission is to identify and isolate individuals who are contagious. Thus, testing for SARS CoV-2 has a paramount importance. However, testing in many African countries including Ethiopia has multidimensional growing challenges. Here, we tried to identify, categorize and summarize the challenges of COVID-19 testing in Africa from Ethiopian experience.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , África , Etiópia , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has revealed the global public health importance of robust diagnostic testing. To overcome the challenge of nucleic acid (NA) extraction and testing kit availability, an efficient method is urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: To establish an efficient, time and resource-saving and cost-effective methods, and to propose an ad hoc pooling approach for mass screening of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We evaluated pooling approach on both direct clinical and NA samples. The standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test of the SARS CoV-2 was employed targeting the nucleocapsid (N) and open reading frame (ORF1ab) genomic region of the virus. The experimental pools were created using SARS CoV-2 positive clinical samples and extracted RNA spiked with up to 9 negative samples. For the direct clinical samples viral NA was extracted from each pool to a final extraction volume of 200µL, and subsequently both samples tested using the SARS CoV-2 RT-PCR assay. RESULTS: We found that a single positive sample can be amplified and detected in pools of up to 7 samples depending on the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the original sample, corresponding to high, and low SARS CoV-2 viral copies per reaction. However, to minimize false negativity of the assay with pooling strategies and with unknown false negativity rate of the assay under validation, we recommend pooling of 4/5 in 1 using the standard protocols of the assay, reagents and equipment. The predictive algorithm indicated a pooling ratio of 5 in 1 was expected to retain accuracy of the test irrespective of the Ct value samples spiked, and result in a 137% increase in testing efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: The approaches showed its concept in easily customized and resource-saving manner and would allow expanding of current screening capacities and enable the expansion of detection in the community. We recommend clinical sample pooling of 4 or 5 in 1. However, we don't advise pooling of clinical samples when disease prevalence is greater than 7%; particularly when sample size is large.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Algoritmos , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/economia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/economia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
9.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(4): 428-434, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Better understanding of glucose metabolism in patients with HIV after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to target treatment and follow-up for diabetes risk and other non-communicable diseases in resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to assess the changes and predictors of glucose metabolism and blood pressure among patients with HIV on ART for 12 months. METHODS: One-year follow-up of Ethiopian patients with HIV after initiation of ART was done. Outcomes were changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 30-minute (30mPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) after oral glucose tolerance test, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma insulin (p-insulin), homeostatic model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and blood pressure.   RESULTS: The mean age was 33 years, and the majority were women. During the first 12 months, levels of all plasma glucose parameters decreased, while p-insulin (10B 3.1; 95% CI2.4, 4.0), HOMA-IR (10B 3.1; 95% CI2.3, 4.0) and systolic blood pressure (B 4.0; 95% CI2.5, 5.5) increased. Fat-free mass at baseline predicted higher increments in p-insulin, HOMA-IR and blood pressure; whereas, fat mass predicted higher increment in HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: Among Ethiopian patients with HIV, blood pressure and insulin increased, and all glucose parameters declined during 12-month of ART. Only longer-term follow-up will tell us whether insulin increase is due to insulin resistance or from recovering ß-cells.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Etiópia , Jejum , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Longevidade , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 722-730, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is a common cause of diarrhoea in young children (aged younger than 24 months) in low-resource settings but is currently challenging to diagnose. Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy with auramine-phenol staining (LED-AP), recommended for tuberculosis testing, can also detect Cryptosporidium species. A lateral-flow test not requiring refrigerator storage (by contrast with most immunochromatographic lateral-flow assays) has also recently been developed for Cryptosporidium spp detection. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and operational feasibility of LED-AP and the lateral-flow test strip for cryptosporidiosis in children. METHODS: We did a prospective diagnostic accuracy study in two health-care facilities in Ethiopia, in a consecutive series of children younger than 5 years of age with diarrhoea (three or more loose stools within the previous 24 h) or dysentery (at least one loose stool with stains of blood within the previous 24 h). Stool samples were tested for Cryptosporidium spp by LED-AP and the lateral-flow test strip; accuracy of each test was estimated by independent and blind comparison with a composite reference standard comprising quantitative immunofluorescent antibody test (qIFAT), ELISA, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Quantitative cutoff values for diarrhoea-associated infection were established in an embedded case-control substudy, with cases of cryptosporidiosis coming from the 15 districts in and around Jimma and the eight districts surrounding Serbo, and community controls without diarrhoea in the previous 48 h recruited by weekly frequency matching by geographical district of the household, age group, and enrolment week. FINDINGS: Stool samples from 912 children with diarrhoea or dysentery and 706 controls from the case-control substudy were tested between Dec 22, 2016, and July 6, 2018. Estimated reference-standard cutoff values for cryptosporidiosis positivity were 2·3 × 105 DNA copies per g of wet stool for qPCR, and 725 oocysts per g for qIFAT. LED-AP had a sensitivity for cryptosporidiosis of 88% (95% CI 79-94; 66 of 75 samples) and a specificity of 99% (98-99; 717 of 726 samples); the lateral-flow test strip had a sensitivity of 89% (79-94; 63 of 71 samples) and a specificity of 99% (97-99; 626 of 635 samples). INTERPRETATION: LED-AP has high sensitivity and specificity for cryptosporidiosis and should be considered as a dual-use technology that can be easily integrated with existing laboratory infrastructures in low-resource settings. The lateral-flow test strip has similar sensitivity and specificity and provides an alternative that does not require microscopy, although purchase cost of the test strip is unknown as it is not yet available on the market. FUNDING: Norwegian Research Council GLOBVAC fund, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Norwegian Society for Medical Microbiology, University of Bergen, and Vestfold Hospital Trust.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Criança , Cryptosporidium , Bases de Dados Factuais , Etiópia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 7: 2333794X20953318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062808

RESUMO

Background: Neonatal sepsis is the third leading cause of neonatal mortality, behind prematurity and intrapartum-related complications. The main objectives of this study are to assess the proportion of sepsis in preterm newborns and identify the etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods: A longitudinal observational study was done from July 2016 to May 2018. Whenever clinical diagnosis of sepsis was made, blood cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests were done. Result: We did 690 blood cultures, 255 (36.9%) showing bacterial growth. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Klebsiella species 78 (36.6%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus 42 (19.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus 39 (18.3%). Gram-positive bacteria showed high resistance to penicillin (98.9%) and ceftriaxone (91.3%) whereas Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to gentamicin (83.2%) and ceftriaxone (83.2%). Conclusion: Resistance to the more commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin and gentamycin was very high, necessitating reconsideration of the empiric use of these antibiotics.

12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 582, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effect of antiretroviral treatment (ART) or Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) on renal function in Ethiopians. We aimed to assess factors associated with renal function changes during the first year of ART with special focus on TDF. METHODS: HIV positive persons who were ≥ 18 years of age and eligible for ART initiation were recruited. Creatinine measurement to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and spot urine analyses were performed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months of ART. Univariate and multivariate linear regression and univariate logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with eGFR as continuous and categorical variable respectively. A linear mixed model was used to assess 12 month eGFR difference in TDF and non-TDF based regimen. RESULT: Of 340 ART-naïve HIV patients with baseline renal function tests, 82.3% (279/339) were initiated on a TDF based ART regimen. All patients were on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) based ART regimen. The median (IQR) change in eGFR with 12 months of ART was 0.8 (- 11.1; 10.0) ml/min/1.73m2. About 41 and 26.9% of HIV patients had a drop of greater than 3 and 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 in eGFR at 12 month, respectively. However, none of the HIV patients declined to < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 within 12 months. Moreover, none of the HIV patients had persistent proteinuria or glycosuria. Older HIV patients especially age > 45 years and those with unsuppressed viral load at 6 month of ART had a significantly lower eGFR at 12 months of ART initiation. However, there was no difference in 12 month eGFR between HIV patients initiated on TDF based regimen and non-TDF based regimen. CONCLUSION: Renal function remained stable with no difference between HIV patients treated with TDF or non-TDF NNRTI based ART regimen over 12 months. However, older HIV patients and those with unsuppressed viral load deserve special focus on renal monitoring. Data on long-term safety of TDF (> 1 year) is still warranted in this population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 706, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second leading type of female cancer in Ethiopia. Screening for cervical cancer is primarily conducted using visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA). Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is not yet widely used in Ethiopia. METHOD: Women aged 21-65 years were tested using LBC and VIA to detect cervical dysplasia. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors. Cohen's Kappa test was conducted to test agreement between LBC and VIA. RESULTS: Forty-two percent (n = 188) of 448 participants were 31 to 40 years of age and only two participants were above 60. Of the 448 participants, 419 (93.5%) were tested with LBC, 294 (65.6%) VIA and 272 (60.7%) with both LBC and VIA. Among women screened using LBC, 305 (72.8%) were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 97 (23.2%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 17 (4.1%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Presence of cervical lesions was generally lower in younger and older women. Majority, 39 (40%) of women with LSIL and 10 (59%) with HSIL were 41-50 years of age. Women aged 51-60 were more likely to have abnormal intraepithelial lesions compared to women aged 21-30 (AOR = 20.9, 95% CI = [7.2-60.9], p = 0.00). Out of 47 (10.8%) HIV-positive women, 14 (32.56%) had intraepithelial lesions of which 10 (23.3%) and 4 (9.3%) had LSIL and HSIL, respectively. Among women screened with VIA, 18 (6.1%) were positive; among the 272 (60.7%) women screened using both LBC and VIA, 6 (2.2%) were positive on both LBC and VIA tests. The level of agreement between the two tests was weak at a statistically significant level (kappa value = 0.155, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: LBC demonstrated high rates of cervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions in our study. VIA was a less reliable predictor of cervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions than LBC. Evaluating diagnostic accuracy of both LBC and VIA against a histological endpoint should be completed before adopting either or both screening modalities.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Ácido Acético , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore influences on adolescent diet and physical activity, from the perspectives of adolescents and their caregivers, in Jimma, Ethiopia. DESIGN: Qualitative design, using focus group discussions (FGD). SETTING: A low-income setting in Jimma, Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: Five FGD with adolescents aged 10-12 years and 15-17 years (n 41) and three FGD with parents (n 22) were conducted. RESULTS: Adolescents displayed a holistic understanding of health comprising physical, social and psychological well-being. Social and cultural factors were perceived to be the main drivers of adolescent diet and physical activity. All participants indicated that caregivers dictated adolescents' diet, as families shared food from the same plate. Meals were primarily determined by caregivers, whose choices were driven by food affordability and accessibility. Older adolescents, particularly boys, had opportunities to make independent food choices outside of the home which were driven by taste and appearance, rather than nutritional value. Many felt that adolescent physical activity was heavily influenced by gender. Girls' activities included domestic work and family responsibilities, whereas boys had more free time to participate in outdoor games. Girls' safety was reported to be a concern to caregivers, who were fearful of permitting their daughters to share overcrowded outdoor spaces with strangers. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents and caregivers spoke a range of social, economic and cultural influences on adolescent diet and physical activity. Adolescents, parents and the wider community need to be involved in the development and delivery of effective interventions that will take into consideration these social, economic and cultural factors.

15.
Malar J ; 19(1): 240, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in south-western Ethiopia is poorly documented. Regular monitoring of drug efficacy is an important tool for supporting national treatment policies and practice. This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of AL for the treatment of P. falciparum malaria in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was a one-arm, prospective, evaluation of the clinical and parasitological, responses to directly observed treatment with AL among participants 6 months and older with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR reaction methods were used to quantify and genotype P. falciparum. A modified protocol based on the World Health Organization 2009 recommendations for the surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy was used for the study with primary outcomes, clinical and parasitological cure rates at day-28. Secondary outcomes assessed included patterns of fever and parasite clearance. Cure rate on day-28 was assessed by intention to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analysis. Parasite genotyping was also performed at baseline and at the time of recurrence of parasitaemia to differentiate between recrudescence and new infection. RESULTS: Of the 80 study participants enrolled, 75 completed the follow-up at day-28 with ACPR. For per protocol (PP) analysis, PCR-uncorrected and-corrected cure rate of AL among the study participants was 94.7% (95% CI 87.1-98.5) and 96% (95% CI 88.8-99.2), respectively. For intention to treat (ITT) analysis, the cure rate was 90% (95% CI 88.8-99.2). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival estimate, the cumulative incidence of failure rate of AL was 3.8% (95% CI 1.3-11.4). Only three participants 3.8% (95% CI 0.8-10.6) of the 80 enrolled participants were found to be positive on day-3. The day three-positive participants were followed up to day 28 and did not correspond to treatment failures observed during follow-up. Only 7.5% (6/80) of the participants were gametocyte-positive on enrollment and gametocytaemia was absent on day-2 following treatment with AL. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic efficacy of AL is considerably high (above 90%). AL remained highly efficacious in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the study area resulted in rapid fever and parasite clearance as well as low gametocyte carriage rates despite the use of this combination for more than 15 years.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ann Hum Biol ; 47(5): 457-464, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is increasing due to lifestyle changes. Studies have found that MS is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and antiretroviral treatment (ART), but controversies still exist on associations between HIV and MS. AIMS: To assess associations between HIV and MS among ART-naïve HIV positive individuals compared to HIV negative individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study among ART-naïve HIV positive and HIV negative individuals recruited from HIV treatment and testing facilities in Ethiopia. Information was collected on components of MS: waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Data were analysed using logistic and linear regression stratified by sex and adjusted for age, wealth and education. RESULTS: Data from 329 HIV positive and 100 HIV negative individuals were included. HIV positive status was associated with higher odds of MS in women (OR: 3.56, 95%CI: 1.25; 10.15) (n = 292), but not in men (OR: 0.98, 95%CI: 0.22; 4.30) (n = 137), interaction: p= .11. Associations between HIV and components of MS were strongest for HDL-C among women and for FPG among men. The most prevalent components of MS in HIV positive individuals were elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL-C and elevated FPG. CONCLUSIONS: HIV was associated with MS among ART-naïve women, suggesting that MS should be evaluated before initiating ART and monitored during treatment to identify those at risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD).


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Malar J ; 19(1): 203, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum poses a major threat to malaria control and elimination interventions. Characterization of the genetic diversity of P. falciparum strains can be used to assess intensity of parasite transmission and identify potential deficiencies in malaria control programmes, which provides vital information to evaluating malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated the P. falciparum genetic diversity and genotype multiplicity of infection in parasite isolates from cases with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 80 P. falciparum microscopy and qPCR positive blood samples were collected from study participants aged 6 months to 60 years, who visited the health facilities during study evaluating the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine from September-December, 2017. Polymorphic regions of the msp-1 and msp-2 were genotyped by nested polymerase chain reactions (nPCR) followed by gel electrophoresis for fragment analysis. RESULTS: Of 80 qPCR-positive samples analysed for polymorphisms on msp-1 and msp-2 genes, the efficiency of msp-1 and msp-2 gene amplification reactions with family-specific primers were 95% and 98.8%, respectively. Allelic variation of 90% (72/80) for msp-1 and 86.2% (69/80) for msp-2 were observed. K1 was the predominant msp-1 allelic family detected in 20.8% (15/72) of the samples followed by MAD20 and RO33. Within msp-2, allelic family FC27 showed a higher frequency (26.1%) compared to IC/3D7 (15.9%). Ten different alleles were observed in msp-1 with 6 alleles for K1, 3 alleles for MAD20 and 1 allele for RO33. In msp-2, 19 individual alleles were detected with 10 alleles for FC27 and 9 alleles for 3D7. Eighty percent (80%) of isolates had multiple genotypes and the overall mean multiplicity of infection was 3.2 (95% CI 2.87-3.46). The heterozygosity indices were 0.43 and 0.85 for msp-1 and msp-2, respectively. There was no significant association between multiplicity of infection and age or parasite density. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed high levels of genetic diversity and mixed-strain infections of P. falciparum populations in Chewaka district, Ethiopia, suggesting that both endemicity level and malaria transmission remain high and that strengthened control efforts are needed in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trop Med Int Health ; 25(4): 424-432, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The appetite test is used to risk stratify for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient or outpatient care. The test is recommended in guidelines despite lack of evidence. We evaluated its ability to identify children at risk of a poor treatment outcome. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of children diagnosed with SAM at three health facilities in Ethiopia. The appetite test was done independently, and the result did not affect decisions about hospitalisation and clinical care. Data were analysed using mixed linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Appetite was tested in 298 (89%) of 334 children enrolled; 56 (19%) passed. Children failing the appetite test had a 6.6% higher weight gain per day (95% CI: 2.6, 10.8) adjusted for type of treatment, oedema, duration of follow-up and age than children passing the test. We found medical complications in 179 (54%) children. Medical complications were associated with blood markers of metabolic disturbance. Children with medical complications tended to have lower weight gain than those without complications (3.5%, 95% CI: -0.25, 7.0). Neither the appetite test nor medical complications were correlated with bacteraemia or treatment failure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings question the use of the appetite test to identify children who need inpatient care. An assessment of medical complications alone could be a useful risk indicator but needs to be evaluated in other settings.


Assuntos
Apetite , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia
19.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(4): 326-331, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate foot length (FL), chest circumference (CHC) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) as predictors of low birth weight (LBW) or prematurity, and to describe the agreement between the gestational age (GA) assessments ascertained by the New Ballard Score (NBS) and the Eregie model. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study with community follow-up in a subset was conducted in Jimma University Medical Center, Ethiopia. GA (NBS and Eregie model), weight, FL, CHC and MUAC were measured at birth. Anthropometrics were repeated at 5 days of age. RESULTS: The optimal cut-offs indicative of LBW were ≤7.7 cm for FL; ≤31.2 cm for CHC and ≤9.8 cm for MUAC. CHC, MUAC and FL identified LBW with sensitivities (95% CI) of 91.6 (86.9 to 95), 83.7 (77.8 to 88.5) and 84.2 (78.4 to 88.9), and specificities (95% CI) of 85.4 (83.3 to 87.4), 90.2 (88.4 to 91.9) and 73.9 (71.3 to 76.4), respectively. CHC, MUAC and FL identified prematurity with sensitivities of 83.8 (76.7 to 89.4), 83.1 (75.9 to 88.9) and 81.7 (74.3 to 87.7), and specificities of 81.1 (78.9 to 83.3), 63.4 (60.7 to 66.1) and 77.0 (74.6 to 79.3), respectively. The cut-offs identified have comparable diagnostic ability for LBW and prematurity when measurements are repeated on day 5 of age. The GA assessment by the NBS and the Eregie model gave similar results, with the mean difference of 1.2 weeks. CONCLUSION: CHC, MUAC and FL taken on day 1 and 5 after birth could be used as diagnostic tools for LBW or prematurity. The Eregie model for GA estimation gives similar results to the NBS.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Tórax/anatomia & histologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 897, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of animals sources of food as a possible reservoir for extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) - Producing E. coli, and the dissemination of such strains into the food production chain need to be assessed. This study was aimed to assess the presence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ESBLs - producing E. coli isolates from minced meat and environmental swab samples at meat retailer shops of Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from March to June, 2016. A total of 168 minced meat and swab samples were first enriched by buffered peptone water (BPW) for overnight and streaked onto MacConkey agar. Double disk synergy (DDS) method was used for detection of ESBL-producing strains. A disk of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (20/10 µg) was placed in the center of Mueller-Hinton agar plate, and cefotaxime (30 µg) and ceftazidime (30 µg) were placed at a distance of 20 mm from the central disk. Checklist was used to assess hygienic status of butcher shops and practices meat handlers. RESULTS: A total of 35 (20.80%) biochemically confirmed E. coli were obtained from 168 samples. Of these, 21 (23.9%) of them were detected from 88 minced meat and the other 14 (17.5%) from 80 swab samples taken from butcher's hand, knives, chopping board and protective clothing. From 35 E. coli isolates, 7(20%) of them were confirmed as ESBL- producers. Among ESBL- producing strains, 85.7% were resistant for cefotaxime and ceftriaxone and 71.4% for ceftazidime. Among non-ESBLs-producing strains only seven isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporin. All E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin and erythromycin, and susceptible to amikacin. Poor hygienic status of butcher shops and unhygienic practice of meat handlers were observed. CONCLUSION: The detections of ESBLs- producing strains could be contributed for the increment of multi drug resistant isolates. This study also concluded that, unhygienic meat handling and processing practice can contribute for contaminations of meat. Thus, strategies should be planned and implemented to improve the knowledge and practice of butchers about handling and processing of meat.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , beta-Lactamases/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Vestuário , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Etiópia , Mãos/microbiologia , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...