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1.
Echocardiography ; 35(10): 1564-1570, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac shockwave therapy (CSWT) is a new potential option for the treatment of patients with chronic coronary disease and refractory angina (RA). We aimed to study the effects of CSWT on left ventricular myocardial perfusion and mechanics in patients with RA. METHOD: We prospectively studied 19 patients who underwent CSWT. Left ventricular mechanics were evaluated by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), and myocardial perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography, using stress/rest-Technetium-99 m Sestamibi, for determination of summed stress score (SSS). Canadian Cardiac Society (CCS), New York Heart Association (NYHA), and quality of life by Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) were assessed at baseline and 6 months after therapy. RESULTS: CSWT therapy was applied without major side effects. At baseline, 18 patients (94.7%) had CCS class III or IV, and after CSWT there was reduction to 3 (15.8%), P = .0001, associated with improvement in SAQ (38.5%; P < .001). Thirteen (68.4%) had class NYHA III or IV before treatment, with significant reduction to 7 (36.8%); P = .014. No change was observed in the global SSS from baseline to 6-month follow-up (15.33 ± 8.60 vs 16.60 ± 8.06; P = .157). However, there was a significant reduction in the average SSS of the treated ischemic segments (2.1 ± 0.87 pre vs 1.6 ± 1.19 post CSWT; P = .024). Global longitudinal strain by STE remained unaltered (-13.03 ± 8.96 pre vs -15.88 ± 3.43 6-month post CSWT; P = .256). CONCLUSION: CSWT is a safe procedure for the treatment of patients with RA that results in better quality of life, improvement in myocardial perfusion of the treated segments with preservation of left ventricular mechanics.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(20): 2281-2290, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthracycline (ANT) chemotherapy is associated with cardiotoxicity. Prevention with ß-blockers remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study sought to evaluate the role of carvedilol in preventing ANT cardiotoxicity. METHODS: The authors randomized 200 patients with HER2-negative breast cancer tumor status and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) referred for ANT (240 mg/m2) to receive carvedilol or placebo until chemotherapy completion. The primary endpoint was prevention of a ≥10% reduction in LVEF at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were effects of carvedilol on troponin I, B-type natriuretic peptide, and diastolic dysfunction. RESULTS: Primary endpoint occurred in 14 patients (14.5%) in the carvedilol group and 13 patients (13.5%) in the placebo group (p = 1.0). No differences in changes of LVEF or B-type natriuretic peptide were noted between groups. A significant difference existed between groups in troponin I levels over time, with lower levels in the carvedilol group (p = 0.003). Additionally, a lower incidence of diastolic dysfunction was noted in the carvedilol group (p = 0.039). A nonsignificant trend toward a less-pronounced increase in LV end-diastolic diameter during the follow-up was noted in the carvedilol group (44.1 ± 3.64 mm to 45.2 ± 3.2 mm vs. 44.9 ± 3.6 mm to 46.4 ± 4.0 mm; p = 0.057). CONCLUSIONS: In this largest clinical trial of ß-blockers for prevention of cardiotoxicity under contemporary ANT dosage, the authors noted a 13.5% to 14.5% incidence of cardiotoxicity. In this scenario, carvedilol had no impact on the incidence of early onset of LVEF reduction. However, the use of carvedilol resulted in a significant reduction in troponin levels and diastolic dysfunction. (Carvedilol Effect in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Cardiotoxicity [CECCY]; NCT01724450).

3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(1): 23-29, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28678927

RESUMO

Background: Estimative of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a major indication for echocardiography. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) allows analysis of LV contraction mechanics which includes global longitudinal strain (GLS) and twist/torsion, both the most widely used. Direct comparison of correlations between these novel parameters and LVEF has never been done before. Objective: This study aims to check which one has the highest correlation with LVEF. Methods: Patients with normal LVEF (> 0,55) and systolic dysfunction (LVEF <0,55) were prospectively enrolled, and underwent echocardiogram with STE analysis. Correlation of variables was performed by linear regression analysis. In addition, correlation among levels of LV systolic impairment was also tested. Results: A total of 131 patients were included (mean age, 46 ± 14y; 43%, men). LVEF and GLS showed a strong correlation (r = 0.95; r2 = 0.89; p < 0.001), more evident in groups with LV systolic dysfunction than those with preserved LVEF. Good correlation was also found with global longitudinal strain rate (r = 0.85; r2 = 0.73; p < 0.001). Comparing to GLS, correlation of LVEF and torsional mechanics was weaker: twist (r = 0.78; r2 = 0.60; p < 0.001); torsion (r = 0.75; r2 = 0.56; p < 0.001). Conclusion: GLS of the left ventricle have highly strong positive correlation with the classical parameter of ejection fraction, especially in cases with LV systolic impairment. Longitudinal strain rate also demonstrated a good correlation. GLS increments analysis of LV systolic function. On the other hand, although being a cornerstone of LV mechanics, twist and torsion have a weaker correlation with LV ejection, comparing to GLS.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Anormalidade Torcional/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(1): 23-29, July 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887891

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Estimative of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a major indication for echocardiography. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) allows analysis of LV contraction mechanics which includes global longitudinal strain (GLS) and twist/torsion, both the most widely used. Direct comparison of correlations between these novel parameters and LVEF has never been done before. Objective: This study aims to check which one has the highest correlation with LVEF. Methods: Patients with normal LVEF (> 0,55) and systolic dysfunction (LVEF <0,55) were prospectively enrolled, and underwent echocardiogram with STE analysis. Correlation of variables was performed by linear regression analysis. In addition, correlation among levels of LV systolic impairment was also tested. Results: A total of 131 patients were included (mean age, 46 ± 14y; 43%, men). LVEF and GLS showed a strong correlation (r = 0.95; r2 = 0.89; p < 0.001), more evident in groups with LV systolic dysfunction than those with preserved LVEF. Good correlation was also found with global longitudinal strain rate (r = 0.85; r2 = 0.73; p < 0.001). Comparing to GLS, correlation of LVEF and torsional mechanics was weaker: twist (r = 0.78; r2 = 0.60; p < 0.001); torsion (r = 0.75; r2 = 0.56; p < 0.001). Conclusion: GLS of the left ventricle have highly strong positive correlation with the classical parameter of ejection fraction, especially in cases with LV systolic impairment. Longitudinal strain rate also demonstrated a good correlation. GLS increments analysis of LV systolic function. On the other hand, although being a cornerstone of LV mechanics, twist and torsion have a weaker correlation with LV ejection, comparing to GLS.


Resumo Fundamento: A estimativa da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE) é uma das pincipais indicações para a ecocardiografia. Speckle tracking (ST) permite a análise da mecânica de contração do VE que inclui a deformação (strain) longitudinal global (SLG) e o twist / torção, sendo ambos os mais utilizados. A comparação direta de correlações entre esses novos parâmetros e a FEVE nunca foi feita antes. Objetivo: Verificar qual delas tem a maior correlação com a FEVE. Métodos: Pacientes com FEVE normal (> 0,55) e disfunção sistólica (FEVE < 0,55) foram prospectivamente inscritos e submetidos a ecocardiograma com análise do ST. A correlação das variáveis foi realizada por análise de regressão linear. Além disso, também foi testada a correlação entre os níveis de comprometimento sistólico do VE. Resultados: Foram incluídos 131 pacientes (média de idade de 46 ± 14 anos e 43% de homens). A FEVE e SLG apresentaram forte correlação (r = 0,95; r2 = 0,89; p < 0,001), mais evidente em grupos com disfunção sistólica do VE do que naqueles com FEVE preservada. Também foi encontrada boa correlação com a taxa de deformação (strain rate) longitudinal (SRL) global (r = 0,85; r2 = 0,73; p < 0,001). Comparando-a à SLG, a correlação entre FEVE e mecânica de torção foi mais fraca: twist (r = 0,78; r2 = 0,60; p < 0,001); Torção (r = 0,75, r2 = 0,56, p < 0,001). Conclusão: A SLG do ventrículo esquerdo apresenta alta correlação positiva com o parâmetro clássico de fração de ejeção, principalmente nos casos de comprometimento sistólico do VE. O SRL também demonstrou uma boa correlação. A SLG incrementa a análise da função sistólica do VE. Por outro lado, apesar de ser a pedra angular da mecânica do VE, o twist e a torção têm uma correlação mais fraca com a ejeção do VE, quando comparados ao SLG.

5.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 14(1): 20, 2016 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27229468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) is a frequent cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (CMP) in developing countries, leading to clinical heart failure and worse prognosis. Therefore, the development and evolution of this CMP has always been a major topic in numbers of previous studies. A comprehensive echocardiographic study of left ventricular (LV) mechanics, fully assessing myocardial contraction, has never been done before. This could help characterize and improve the understanding of the evolution of this prevalent CMP. METHODS: A total of 47 chagasic and 84 control patients were included in this study and allocated in groups according to LV ejection fraction. 2D-Echocardiogram was acquired for LV mechanics analysis by speckle tracking echocardiography. RESULTS: Mean age of chagasic individuals was 55y and 16 (34 %) were men. Significant difference was found in global longitudinal velocity analysis, with lower values in indeterminate form. In the group with severe systolic dysfunction, a paradoxical increase in longitudinal and apical radial displacements were demonstrated. In parallel, segmental analyzes highlighted lower values of radial displacement, strain and strain rate into inferior and inferolateral walls, with increase of these values in septal and anterior walls. CONCLUSION: Chagasic CMP has a vicarious pattern of contraction in the course of its evolution, defined by reduced displacement and strain into inferior and posterior walls with paradoxical increase in septal and anterior segments. Also, lower longitudinal velocities were demonstrated in CD indeterminate form, which may indicate an incipient myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Chagásica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 102(4): 403-12, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24844877

RESUMO

Natural myocardial markers, or speckles, originated from constructive and destructive interference of ultrasound in the tissues may provide early diagnosis of myocardial changes and be used in the prediction of some cardiac events. Due to its relatively temporal stability, speckles can be tracked by dedicated software along the cardiac cycle, enabling the analysis of the systolic and diastolic function. They are identified by either conventional 2D grey scale and by 3D echo, conferring independence of the insonation angle, thus allowing assessment of cardiac mechanics in the three spatial planes: longitudinal, circumferential, and radial. The purposes of the present paper are: to discuss the role and the meaning of cardiac strain obtained by speckle tracking during the evaluation of cardiac physiology and to discuss clinical applications of this novel echocardiographic technology.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Ilustração Médica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Função Ventricular/fisiologia
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(4): 403-412, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-709315

RESUMO

Speckles, ou marcadores naturais do miocárdio, originam se da interferência construtiva e destrutiva do feixe de ultrassom que incide sobre os tecidos, podem fornecer um diagnóstico precoce das alterações miocárdicas e atuar na predição de certos eventos cardíacos. Devido à sua relativa estabilidade temporal, os speckles podem ser rastreados durante o ciclo cardíaco por software dedicados, promovendo a análise da função sistólica e diastólica. São identificados tanto pela escala de cinza da ecocardiografia 2D convencional quanto pela ecocardiografia 3D, sendo independentes do ângulo de incidência do ultrassom, permitindo assim a avaliação da mecânica cardíaca nos três planos espaciais: longitudinal, circunferencial e radial. O objetivo do presente artigo é discutir o papel e o significado da deformação cardíaca obtida por meio do speckle tracking durante a avaliação da fisiologia cardíaca, e discutir as aplicações clínicas desta tecnologia ecocardiográfica inovadora.


Natural myocardial markers, or speckles, originated from constructive and destructive interference of ultrasound in the tissues may provide early diagnosis of myocardial changes and be used in the prediction of some cardiac events. Due to its relatively temporal stability, speckles can be tracked by dedicated software along the cardiac cycle, enabling the analysis of the systolic and diastolic function. They are identified by either conventional 2D grey scale and by 3D echo, conferring independence of the insonation angle, thus allowing assessment of cardiac mechanics in the three spatial planes: longitudinal, circumferential, and radial. The purposes of the present paper are: to discuss the role and the meaning of cardiac strain obtained by speckle tracking during the evaluation of cardiac physiology and to discuss clinical applications of this novel echocardiographic technology.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias , Coração/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Ilustração Médica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Função Ventricular/fisiologia
8.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 102(1): 97-103, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24652090

RESUMO

The feasibility and potential for the morphological and hemodynamic investigation of the heart has been increasing the use of the echocardiography in the research setting. Additionally, the development of new technologies, like the real time 3D echocardiography and speckle tracking, demands validation throughout experimental studies before being instituted in the clinical setting. This paper aims to provide information concerning the particularities of the echocardiographic examination in quadruped mammals, targeting the experimental research.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/tendências , Modelos Animais , Experimentação Animal , Animais , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ilustração Médica
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(1): 97-103, 1/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-704054

RESUMO

A exequibilidade e o potencial para investigar o coração, sob o ponto de vista morfológico e hemodinâmico, vêm aumentando a aplicação da ecocardiografia na pesquisa. Além disso, o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias, tais como a ecocardiografia tridimensional em tempo real e o speckle tracking, requerem validação por meio de estudos experimentais antes de serem instituídas no cenário clínico. O presente artigo objetiva fornecer informações acerca das particularidades do estudo ecocardiográfico nos mamíferos quadrúpedes, com vistas à pesquisa experimental.


The feasibility and potential for the morphological and hemodynamic investigation of the heart has been increasing the use of the echocardiography in the research setting. Additionally, the development of new technologies, like the real time 3D echocardiography and speckle tracking, demands validation throughout experimental studies before being instituted in the clinical setting. This paper aims to provide information concerning the particularities of the echocardiographic examination in quadruped mammals, targeting the experimental research.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/tendências , Modelos Animais , Experimentação Animal , Átrios do Coração , Ventrículos do Coração , Ilustração Médica
10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 28(4): 482-490, out.-dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-703116

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: O aumento da atividade miocárdica da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase tem sido demonstrado na insuficiência cardíaca. Este estudo avalia a atividade miocárdica da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase no treinamento do ventrículo subpulmonar de cabras adultas. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 18 cabras adultas, divididas em três grupos: convencional (bandagem fixa), sham e intermitente (bandagem ajustável; 12 horas diárias de sobrecarga). A sobrecarga sistólica (70% da pressão sistêmica) foi mantida durante quatro semanas. As avaliações hemodinâmica e ecocardiográfica foram realizadas durante todo o estudo. Depois de cumprido o protocolo, os animais foram mortos para avaliação morfológica e da atividade da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase dos ventrículos. RESULTADOS: Apesar de haver sobrecarga sistólica proporcionalmente menor no ventrículo subpulmonar do grupo intermitente (P=0,001), ambos os grupos de estudo apresentaram aumento da massa muscular de magnitude similar. Os grupos intermitente e convencional apresentaram aumento da massa de 55,7% e 36,7% (P<0,05), respectivamente, em comparação ao grupo sham. O conteúdo de água do miocárdio não variou entre os grupos estudados (P=0,27). O ecocardiograma demonstrou maior aumento (37,2%) na espessura do ventrículo subpulmonar do grupo intermitente, em relação aos grupos sham e convencional (P<0,05). Foi observada maior atividade da Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase na hipertrofia miocárdica do ventrículo subpulmonar do grupo convencional, comparada aos grupos sham e intermitente (P=0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Ambos os grupos de treinamento ventricular desenvolveram hipertrofia ventricular, a despeito do menor tempo de sobrecarga sistólica no grupo intermitente. A maior atividade de Glicose 6-Fosfato Desidrogenase observada no grupo convencional pode refletir um desequilíbrio redox, com maior produção de fosfato de dinucleotídeo de nicotinamida e adenina e glutationa reduzida, um mecanismo importante da fisiopatologia da insuficiência cardíaca.


OBJECTIVE: Increased glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in heart failure. This study sought to assess myocardial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in retraining of the subpulmonary ventricle of adult goats. METHODS: Eighteen adult goats were divided into three groups: traditional (fixed banding), sham, and intermittent (adjustable banding, daily 12-hour systolic overload). Systolic overload (70% of systemic pressure) was maintained during a 4-week period. Right ventricle, pulmonary artery and aortic pressures were measured throughout the study. All animals were submitted to echocardiographic and hemodynamic evaluations throughout the protocol. After the study period, the animals were killed for morphological and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity assessment. RESULTS: A 55.7% and 36.7% increase occurred in the intermittent and traditional right ventricle masses, respectively, when compared with the sham group (P<0.05), despite less exposure of intermittent group to systolic overload. No significant changes were observed in myocardial water content in the 3 groups (P=0.27). A 37.2% increase was found in right ventricle wall thickness of intermittent group, compared to sham and traditional groups (P<0.05). Right ventricle glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was elevated in the traditional group, when compared to sham and intermittent groups (P=0.05). CONCLUSION: Both study groups have developed similar right ventricle hypertrophy, regardless less systolic overload exposure of intermittent group. Traditional systolic overload for adult subpulmonary ventricle retraining causes upregulation of myocardial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It may suggest that the undesirable "pathologic systolic overload" is influenced by activation of penthose pathway and cytosolic Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate availability. This altered energy substrate metabolism can elevate levels of free radicals by Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of heart failure.


Assuntos
Animais , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Pressão Sanguínea , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Cabras , Hemodinâmica , Ventrículos do Coração/enzimologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/enzimologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
11.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 26(3): 278-87, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23290499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary and microvascular blood flow reserve have been established as important predictors of prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the value of coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) and real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography (RTMPE) for predicting events in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: One hundred ninety-five patients (mean age 54 ± 12 years; 66% men) with dilated cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction < 35% and no obstructive coronary disease on invasive angiography or multidetector computed tomography) who underwent dipyridamole stress (0.84 mg/kg over 10 min) RTMPE were prospectively studied. CFVR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline peak diastolic velocities in the distal left anterior coronary artery. The replenishment velocity (ß), plateau of acoustic intensity (A(N)), and myocardial blood flow reserve were obtained from RTMPE. RESULTS: Mean CFVR was 2.07 ± 0.52, mean A(N) reserve was 1.05 ± 0.09, mean ß reserve was 2.05 ± 0.39, and mean myocardial blood flow reserve (A(N) × ß) was 2.15 ± 0.48. During a median follow-up period of 29 months, 45 patients had events (43 deaths and two urgent transplantations). Independent predictors of events were left atrial diameter (relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.26; P < .001) and ß reserve ≤ 2.0 (relative risk, 3.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-8.79; P < .001). After adjustment for ß reserve, CFVR and myocardial blood flow reserve no longer had predictive value. Left atrial diameter added prognostic value over clinical factors and left ventricular ejection fraction (χ2 = 36.8-58.5, P < .001). Beta reserve added additional power to the model (χ2 = 70.2, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased left atrial diameter and depressed ß reserve were independent predictors of cardiac death and transplantation in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Beta reserve by RTMPE provided incremental predictive value beyond that provided by current known prognostic clinical and echocardiographic factors.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/cirurgia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Angiografia Coronária , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
12.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc ; 28(4): 482-90, 2013 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24598953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity has been demonstrated in heart failure. This study sought to assess myocardial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in retraining of the subpulmonary ventricle of adult goats. METHODS: Eighteen adult goats were divided into three groups: traditional (fixed banding), sham, and intermittent (adjustable banding, daily 12-hour systolic overload). Systolic overload (70% of systemic pressure) was maintained during a 4-week period. Right ventricle, pulmonary artery and aortic pressures were measured throughout the study. All animals were submitted to echocardiographic and hemodynamic evaluations throughout the protocol. After the study period, the animals were killed for morphological and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity assessment. RESULTS: A 55.7% and 36.7% increase occurred in the intermittent and traditional right ventricle masses, respectively, when compared with the sham group (P<0.05), despite less exposure of intermittent group to systolic overload. No significant changes were observed in myocardial water content in the 3 groups (P=0.27). A 37.2% increase was found in right ventricle wall thickness of intermittent group, compared to sham and traditional groups (P<0.05). Right ventricle glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was elevated in the traditional group, when compared to sham and intermittent groups (P=0.05). CONCLUSION: Both study groups have developed similar right ventricle hypertrophy, regardless less systolic overload exposure of intermittent group. Traditional systolic overload for adult subpulmonary ventricle retraining causes upregulation of myocardial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. It may suggest that the undesirable "pathologic systolic overload" is influenced by activation of penthose pathway and cytosolic Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate availability. This altered energy substrate metabolism can elevate levels of free radicals by Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, an important mechanism in the pathophysiology of heart failure.


Assuntos
Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/enzimologia , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Cabras , Ventrículos do Coração/enzimologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/enzimologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
13.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 99(3): 834-43, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22948240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high and increasing prevalence of Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents a serious public health problem. New technologies are being used aiming at more accurate diagnoses in order to improve therapeutic approach. In this scenario, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) uses natural myocardial markers to analyze the systolic deformation of the left ventricle (LV). OBJECTIVE: To measure the longitudinal transmural global strain (GS) of the LV through STE in patients with severe DCM, comparing the results with normal individuals and with echocardiographic parameters established for the analysis of LV systolic function, validating the method in this population. METHODS: We studied 71 patients with severe DCM (53 ± 12 years, 72% men) and 20 controls (30 ± 8 years, 45% men). We obtained LV volumes and ejection fraction by two and three-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler parameters, tissue Doppler and GS was obtained by STE. RESULTS: Compared to controls, LV volumes were higher in the DCM group; however, LVEF and peak velocity of E wave were lower in the latter. The myocardial performance index was higher among patients. Myocardial velocities at the tissue Doppler (S', e', a') were significantly lower and E/e' ratio was higher in the DCM group. The GS was decreased in the DCM group (-5.5% ± 2.3%) when compared to controls (-14.0% ± 1.8%). CONCLUSION: In this study, GS was significantly lower in patients with severe DCM, bringing new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in this specific population.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(3): 834-843, set. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-649267

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: A alta e crescente prevalência de Cardiomiopatia Dilatada (CMD) representa sério problema de saúde pública. Novas tecnologias vêm sendo utilizadas objetivando diagnósticos mais sofisticados, que melhorem a abordagem terapêutica. Nesse cenário, o Speckle Tracking (STE) utiliza marcadores miocárdicos naturais para analisar a deformação sistólica do Ventrículo Esquerdo (VE). OBJETIVO: Mensurar o strain transmural longitudinal global (SG) do VE através do STE em pacientes com CMD grave, comparando os resultados com indivíduos normais e com parâmetros ecocardiográficos consagrados para análise da função sistólica do VE, validando o método nessa população. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 71 pacientes com CMD grave, (53 ± 12a, 72% homens) e 20 controles (30 ± 8a, 45% homens). Foram obtidos os volumes e a FEVE pela ecocardiografia bi e tridimensional, parâmetros do Doppler, Doppler tecidual e o SG pelo STE. RESULTADOS: Comparados ao grupo controle, os volumes do VE foram maiores no grupo CMD; entretanto, a FEVE e velocidade de pico da onda E foram menores neste último. O índice de performance miocárdica foi maior entre os pacientes. As velocidades do miocárdio pelo Doppler tecidual (S', e', a') foram consideravelmente menores e a relação E/e' foi maior no grupo CMD. O SG apresentou-se diminuído no grupo CMD (-5,5% ± 2,3%), em relação aos controles (-14,0% ± 1,8%). CONCLUSÃO: No presente estudo, o SG foi significativamente menor nos pacientes com CMD grave, abrindo novas perspectivas para abordagens terapêuticas nessa população específica.


BACKGROUND: The high and increasing prevalence of Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) represents a serious public health problem. New technologies are being used aiming at more accurate diagnoses in order to improve therapeutic approach. In this scenario, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) uses natural myocardial markers to analyze the systolic deformation of the left ventricle (LV). OBJECTIVE: To measure the longitudinal transmural global strain (GS) of the LV through STE in patients with severe DCM, comparing the results with normal individuals and with echocardiographic parameters established for the analysis of LV systolic function, validating the method in this population. METHODS: We studied 71 patients with severe DCM (53 ± 12 years, 72% men) and 20 controls (30 ± 8 years, 45% men). We obtained LV volumes and ejection fraction by two and three-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler parameters, tissue Doppler and GS was obtained by STE. RESULTS: Compared to controls, LV volumes were higher in the DCM group; however, LVEF and peak velocity of E wave were lower in the latter. The myocardial performance index was higher among patients. Myocardial velocities at the tissue Doppler (S', e', a') were significantly lower and E/e' ratio was higher in the DCM group. The GS was decreased in the DCM group (-5.5% ± 2.3%) when compared to controls (-14.0% ± 1.8%). CONCLUSION: In this study, GS was significantly lower in patients with severe DCM, bringing new perspectives for therapeutic approaches in this specific population.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc ; 23(1): 60-9, 2008 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18719830

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adjustable pulmonary trunk (PT) banding device may induce a more physiologic ventricle retraining for the two-stage Jatene operation. This experimental study evaluates the acute hypertrophy (96 hours) of the right ventricle (RV) submitted to an intermittent pressure overload. METHODS: Five groups of seven young goats were distributed according to RV intermittent systolic overload duration (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours). The zero-hour group served as a control group. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic evaluations were performed daily. After completing the training program for each group, the animals were sacrificed for water content and cardiac masses evaluation. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in RV free wall thickness starting with the 48-hour group (p<0.05). However, a decreased RV ejection fraction, associated with an important RV dilation and a significant increase in the RV volume to mass ratio was observed at 24-hour training period, when compared to 96-hour period (p=0.003), with subsequent recovery throughout the protocol. A 104.7% increase in RV mass was observed in the 96-hour group, as compared to the control group, with no differences in water content between these two groups. The daily mean increase in RV mass during the study period was 21.6% +/- 26.8%. The rate of RV mass acquisition for the overall study period of intermittent systolic overload was 0.084 g/h +/- 0.035 g/h. CONCLUSION: Intermittent PT banding has allowed a significant RV mass acquisition in the 96-hour trained group. No myocardial water content changes were observed in this group, suggesting an increased myocardial protein synthesis.


Assuntos
Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cabras , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Ligadura , Tamanho do Órgão , Sístole/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia
16.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 23(1): 60-69, jan.-mar. 2008. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: lil-489701

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: A bandagem ajustável do tronco pulmonar (TP) pode proporcionar treinamento ventricular mais fisiológico para cirurgia de Jatene em dois estágios. Este estudo experimental analisa a hipertrofia aguda (96 horas) do ventrículo direito (VD) submetido à sobrecarga sistólica intermitente. MÉTODOS: Cinco grupos de sete cabritos jovens foram dispostos conforme o tempo de sobrecarga sistólica do VD (0, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas). O grupo zero hora funcionou como grupo controle. Avaliações ecocardiográficas e hemodinâmicas foram feitas diariamente. Os animais foram sacrificados para avaliação do conteúdo de água e pesagem das massas cardíacas. RESULTADOS: Houve aumento da espessura do VD a partir de 48 horas de treinamento (p<0,05) e rebaixamento da fração de ejeção do VD, com dilatação importante desta câmara nas primeiras 24 horas do protocolo, recuperando-se posteriormente. Houve aumento da relação volume/massa nas primeiras 24 horas do protocolo, em relação ao momento 96 horas (p=0,003). A massa do VD apresentou aumento de 104,7 por cento no grupo 96 horas em relação ao controle. Não houve diferença quanto ao conteúdo de água do VD. A média diária de aumento da massa do VD foi de 21,6 por cento ± 26,8 por cento. A taxa de ganho de massa muscular do VD para todo o período de estudo foi de 0,084 g/h ± 0,035 g/h. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo de bandagem intermitente do TP permitiu ganho de massa muscular do VD, significativa no grupo de 96 horas de estudo. Esta hipertrofia não foi acompanhada de aumento no conteúdo de água, o que sugere maior síntese protéica nos tecidos cardíacos.


OBJECTIVES: Adjustable pulmonary trunk (PT) banding device may induce a more physiologic ventricle retraining for the two-stage Jatene operation. This experimental study evaluates the acute hypertrophy (96 hours) of the right ventricle (RV) submitted to an intermittent pressure overload. METHODS: Five groups of seven young goats were distributed according to RV intermittent systolic overload duration (0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours). The zero-hour group served as a control group. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic evaluations were performed daily. After completing the training program for each group, the animals were sacrificed for water content and cardiac masses evaluation. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in RV free wall thickness starting with the 48-hour group (p<0.05). However, a decreased RV ejection fraction, associated with an important RV dilation and a significant increase in the RV volume to mass ratio was observed at 24-hour training period, when compared to 96-hour period (p=0.003), with subsequent recovery throughout the protocol. A 104.7 percent increase in RV mass was observed in the 96-hour group, as compared to the control group, with no differences in water content between these two groups. The daily mean increase in RV mass during the study period was 21.6 percent ± 26.8 percent. The rate of RV mass acquisition for the overall study period of intermittent systolic overload was 0.084 g/h ± 0.035 g/h. CONCLUSION: Intermittent PT banding has allowed a significant RV mass acquisition in the 96-hour trained group. No myocardial water content changes were observed in this group, suggesting an increased myocardial protein synthesis.


Assuntos
Animais , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cabras , Hemodinâmica , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Ligadura , Tamanho do Órgão , Sístole/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia
17.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 21(4): 418-428, out.-dez. 2006. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-442533

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Este estudo compara a sobrecarga contínua versus intermitente do ventrículo direito (VD) de cabritos, para induzir a hipertrofia ventricular. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados três grupos de sete cabritos jovens (controle, contínuo, intermitente). A sobrecarga sistólica foi imposta por 96 horas, no contínuo e por quatro períodos de 12 horas, alternados com 12 horas de descanso, no intermitente. Avaliações ecocardiográficas e hemodinâmicas foram feitas diariamente. Os animais foram, então, mortos para avaliar o conteúdo de água e peso das massas cardíacas. RESULTADOS: O Intermitente mostrou aumento dos pesos de VD e de septo, em relação ao controle (p<0,05), enquanto o contínuo aumentou apenas a massa do VD (p<0,05). Houve maior aumento da espessura do VD no Intermitente (p<0,05). O volume diastólico final do VD mostrou diferença significativa entre os grupos (p=0,01), com maior dilatação do VD do grupo contínuo, no momento 24 horas de sobrecarga sistólica (p<0,03). A fração de ejeção do VD se manteve dentro da normalidade nos dois grupos ao longo do protocolo. Foi observado menor perímetro do VD no intermitente, após 96 horas de treinamento (p<0,05). Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos de estudo e o controle quanto ao conteúdo de água do miocárdio do VD. CONCLUSÃO: A bandagem ajustável do tronco pulmonar permitiu um rápido processo hipertrófico do VD em ambos os grupos, sendo, porém, mais eficiente no intermitente. Nosso estudo sugere que a preparação do ventrículo subpulmonar de forma intermitente poderá proporcionar melhor resultado para a operação de Jatene em dois estágios.


OBJECTIVE: This study compares ventricular hypertrophy induced by continuous versus intermittent systolic overload of the pulmonary ventricle (RV) of young goats. METHODS: Three groups of seven goats were used (control, continuous, and intermittent). Systolic overload was maintained for 96 hours in the continuous group, while the intermittent group suffered four 12-hour periods of systolic overload, alternating with 12-hour resting periods. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic evaluations were performed every day. The animals were then killed for myocardial water content and weight evaluation. RESULTS: Both study groups achieved significant increases in RV mass (p<0.05). However, significant increases of the septum mass were observed only in the Intermittent Group (p<0.05). A greater increase in the RV wall thickness was observed in the Intermittent Group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in RV diastolic volume between the two groups (p= 0.01), with a greater RV dilation in the Continuous Group after 24 hours of continuous overload (p< 0.03). In both groups, the RV ejection fraction was maintained within the normal range throughout the protocol. A smaller RV perimeter was observed in the Intermittent Group after 96 hours of systolic overload (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in RV myocardial water content between the study groups and the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: Adjustable pulmonary artery bandages permit rapid RV hypertrophy in both groups. Nevertheless, it is more efficient in the Intermittent Group. This study suggests that preparation of the pulmonary ventricle with intermittent systolic overload might provide better results for the 2-stage arterial switch operation.

18.
São Paulo; s.n; 2006. 141 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-587088

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: Para os pacientes portadores de transposição das grandes artérias que perderam a chance da cirurgia de Jatene nas primeiras semanas de vida, indica-se realizar o preparo ventricular através da bandagem do tronco pulmonar (BTP), objetivando causar aumento na massa miocárdica. Entretanto, com o tempo, a câmara hipertrofiada pode apresentar disfunção contrátil; portanto, é importante conhecer a qualidade do tecido preparado, uma vez que já se sabe que tanto os miocardiócitos (MCD) quanto as células do interstício e vasos (I/V) são capazes de proliferar após o período neonatal. Baseando-se no condicionamento físico de atletas e considerando-se que os músculos cardíaco e esquelético são ambos estriados, postula-se a hipótese de que o tipo de preparo ventricular possa influenciar nas características do miocárdio treinado. OBJETIVOS: Identificar o tipo de mecanismo adaptativo (hipertrofia/hiperplasia) envolvido no preparo rápido do ventrículo pulmonar submetido à sobrecarga de pressão por meio de BTP, através da análise dos MCD e células do I/V, verificando se existem diferenças em relação ao tipo de treinamento (contínuo x intermitente) em comparação com os controles. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados experimentalmente 21 cabritos após o período neonatal, divididos em três grupos (C = grupo controle, n = 7, sem procedimento cirúrgico; EC = grupo de estimulação contínua, n = 7, com bandagem progressiva e permanente do tronco pulmonar durante 96 horas; EI = grupo de estimulação intermitente, n = 7, com bandagem progressiva, 12 horas ao dia, totalizando 48 horas). Todos foram submetidos a estudo ecocardiográfico basal e aqueles dos grupos EC e EI a ecocardiogramas diários para verificar a aquisição de massa muscular do ventrículo direito (VD). Após o estudo, os animais foram sacrificados, os corações retirados e cortes histológicos do VD, ventrículo esquerdo (VE) e septo interventricular (S) fixados em formalina e processados para análise...


INTRODUCTION: Rapid ventricular conditioning induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) has been indicated to those patients with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) who have lost the chance for arterial switch operation ? Jatene?s procedure ? aiming at induce myocardial mass increase. However, with time, hypertrophied chamber may exhibit contractile dysfunction, so that, it is important to assess quality of the prepared tissue, once it is of knowledge that both cardiomyocytes (CMC) and interstitial/vessel (I/V) cells are capable of proliferating after neonatal period. Based on fitness of athletes and considering that cardiac and skeletal muscles are both striated, there is the hypothesis that the type of ventricular prepare may influence the characteristics of the training myocardium. OBJECTIVES: Through CMC and I/V cells analysis, identifies the type of adaptive mechanism (hypertrophy/ hyperplasia) involved in rapid prepare of subpulmonary ventricle submitted to pressure overload by PAB, and verifies if there are differences in relation to the kind of training (continuous x intermittent), comparing them to the controls. METHODS: Twenty-one goats, beyond neonatal period, were experimentally studied. They were divided in three groups: C (control group, n = 7, with no surgical procedure); CS (continuous stimulation group, n = 7, with progressive and permanent PAB, during 96 hours); IS (intermittent stimulation group, n = 7, with progressive PAB, 12 hours/day, totalizing 48 hours). All the animals were submitted to basal echocardiograms and those from CS and IS groups to diary echocardiograms to verify right ventricular (RV) muscular mass acquisition. After the study, goats were killed, hearts excised and histological sections from RV, left ventricle (LV) and ventricular septum (VS) were formalin fixed and histologically processed. Collagen area fraction (through Picro-sirius red staining), CMC and respective nuclei diameter, and number of CMC and I/V...


Assuntos
Animais , Cobaias , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita , Proliferação de Células , Cirurgia Torácica , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos
19.
Shock ; 24(4): 388-95, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16205326

RESUMO

Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) has been proposed to avoid the risks of allogenic transfusion. In reference to its cellular effects, ANH reports in the literature are scarce. Using electron microscopy (EM), we evaluated the effects of ANH on cardiac function and myocardial structure. Twenty-five dogs were prospectively randomized to a control group (n = 5) or to undergo ANH with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES; n = 10) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR; n = 10) administered, respectively, at a ratio of 1:1 or 1:3 to the volume of blood removed. Animals were gradually hemodiluted to a hematocrit of 10%, which was accomplished in 80 min. Pulmonary artery catheter and echocardiography were used to evaluate cardiac function. Myocardial samples were taken after the last time point for electron microscopy analysis. Data were obtained during five different stages of ANH, with a mean 20-min interval between each time point. Cardiac index increased significantly in both groups during ANH. A significant decrease in oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, as well as an increase in oxygen extraction was verified in the LR group. Echocardiography demonstrated a decline in systolic function in the LR group at the end of the experiment. Electron microscopy analysis of the myocardium revealed slight lesions in cardiac cells in the HES group, and moderate-to-significant lesions in the LR group. In this animal species, ANH with HES resulted in better preservation of cardiac function, which was demonstrated by maintenance of systolic function and oxygenation parameters. Minor loss of cellular integrity with HES, in the presence of very low levels of hemoglobin, reinforces these findings.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/farmacologia , Soluções Isotônicas/farmacologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cães , Ecocardiografia , Hemodiluição , Hemodinâmica , Microscopia Eletrônica , Células Musculares/patologia , Células Musculares/ultraestrutura , Oxigênio/química , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Substitutos do Plasma/química , Lactato de Ringer , Baço/patologia , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo/métodos
20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 124(5): 999-1006, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12407385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An experimental model with a reversible pulmonary trunk banding device was developed with the aim of inducing rapid ventricular hypertrophy. The device consists of an insufflatable cuff connected to a self-sealing button. METHODS: The right ventricles of 7 young goats (average weight, 8.7 kg) were submitted to systolic overload and evaluated according to the hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and morphologic aspects. Baseline biopsy specimens were taken from the myocardium for microscopic analysis. The device was implanted on the pulmonary trunk and inflated so that a 0.7 right ventricular/left ventricular pressure ratio was achieved. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic evaluations were performed every 24 hours. Systolic overload was maintained for 96 hours. The animals were then killed for morphologic study. Another 9 goats (average weight, 7.7 kg) were used for control right ventricular weight. RESULTS: The systolic right ventricular/pulmonary trunk pressure gradient varied from 10.1 +/- 4.3 mm Hg (baseline) to 60.0 +/- 11.0 mm Hg (final). Consequently, the right ventricular/left ventricular pressure ratio increased from 0.29 +/- 0.06 to 1.04 +/- 0.14. The protocol group showed a 74% increase in right ventricular mass when compared with the control group. Serial 2-dimensional echocardiography showed a 66% increase in right ventricular wall thickness. There was a 24% increase in the mean myocyte perimeter, and the myocyte area increased 61%. CONCLUSIONS: The device is easily adjustable percutaneously, enabling right ventricular hypertrophy in 96 hours of gradual systolic overload. This study suggests that the adjustable pulmonary trunk banding might provide better results for the 2-stage Jatene operation and for the failed atrial switch operations to convert to the double-switch operation.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Valva Pulmonar/patologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Desenho de Equipamento/efeitos adversos , Cabras , Ventrículos do Coração/citologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Microscopia , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Valva Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sístole/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Pressão Ventricular/fisiologia
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