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1.
Antiviral Res ; 174: 104704, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917237

RESUMO

AIMS: Deguelin, a natural compound derived from Mundulea sericea (Leguminosae) and some other plants exhibits an activity to inhibit autophagy, a cellular machinery required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. This study aimed to illuminate the impact of deguelin on HCV replication and mechanism(s) involved. METHODS: HCV JFH-1-Huh7 infectious system was used for the investigation. Real time RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy assay were used to measure the expression levels of viral or cellular factors. Overexpression and silencing expression techniques were used to determine the role of key cellular factors. RESULTS: Deguelin treatment of Huh7 cells significantly inhibited HCV JFH-1 replication in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Deguelin treatment suppressed autophagy in Huh7 cells, evidenced by the decrease of LC3B-II levels, the conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta as well as the increase of p62 level in deguelin-treated cells compared with control cells. HCV infection could induce autophagy which was also suppressed by deguelin treatment. Mechanism research reveals that deguelin inhibited expression of Beclin1, which is a key cellular factor for the initiation of the autophagosome formation in autophagy. Overexpression or silencing expression of Beclin1 in deguelin-treated Huh7 cells could weaken or enhance the inhibitory effect on autophagy by deguelin, respectively, and thus partially recover or further inhibit HCV replication correspondingly. CONCLUSIONS: Deguelin may serve as a novel anti-HCV compound via its inhibitory effect on autophagy, which warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for HCV infection.

2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4347281, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886216

RESUMO

The age of the population is shifting toward the elderly range, which may lead to an increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive function in elderly people using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), to identify the relationship between cognitive function and different characteristics, and to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention after six months of cognitive training. In this study, we included 2886 subjects aged ≧60 years in the baseline survey, and 140 subjects with MCI who participated in the baseline survey were randomly divided into an intervention group (N = 70) and a control group (N = 70). The control group was not provided any intervention measures, and the intervention group was administered cognitive training. The education level, monthly income, sleep time, exercise time, reading times, and time spent engaging in community activities and performing housework were positively correlated with MoCA scores, but age was negatively correlated with MoCA scores. The total MoCA score of the intervention group increased from 19.77 ± 2.24 points to 21.09 ± 2.20 points after six months of cognitive training, but the score of the control group decreased from 20.41 ± 2.10 points to 19.17 ± 2.57 points. The two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a very significant effect of the interaction between time and cognitive training on the total MoCA score. Seventeen participants in the intervention group improved to normal levels, and no participants progressed to dementia after six months of cognitive training. Thus, the efficacy of the intervention was statistically significant. Our study concludes that older age is associated with a cognitive decline. Factors that are more likely to protect against cognitive decline included a higher education level and monthly income, sufficient sleep time, regular physical exercise and reading, frequently engaging in community activities, and continuing to perform housework. Moreover, the cognitive training intervention is effective and may help to decrease the deterioration of cognitive function in patients with MCI, and the interaction between intervention time and cognitive training significantly improves cognitive function.

3.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-15, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630629

RESUMO

The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) continues to grow in Vietnam, and reducing the burden of NCDs is a national priority. This study explored perspective of community health workers (CHWs), known as Village Health Workers (VHWs) in Vietnam, and public health leaders towards potential of expanding VHWs' role to deliver NCDs prevention and control services, and determined barriers and facilitators. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with VHWs (n = 24) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with public health administrators (n = 13). The findings show that VHWs in Vietnam deliver multiple public health services, including several NCDs related services. Perceived barriers include lack of policy support, shortages of trained health personnel, lack of training, imbalanced workload and inadequate remuneration. Perceived barriers include lack of policy support, shortages of trained health personnel, lack of training, imbalanced workload and inadequate remuneration. Facilitators include government commitment to NCDs prevention and control, priority on capacity building, professional recognition and provision of incentives with availability of appropriate resources. While additional quantitative studies are needed to supplement the current qualitative findings, the current results inform the policy and intervention development in engaging VHWs in the delivery of community-based NCDs prevention and control initiatives in Vietnam.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e029562, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore healthcare providers' perspective on non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention and management services provided through the NCD corners in Bangladesh and to examine challenges and opportunities for strengthening NCD services delivery at the primary healthcare level. DESIGN: We used a grounded theory approach involving in-depth qualitative interviews with healthcare providers. We also used a health facility observation checklist to assess the NCD corners' service readiness. Furthermore, a stakeholder meeting with participants from the government, non-government organisations (NGOs), private sector, universities and news media was conducted. SETTING: Twelve subdistrict health facilities, locally known as upazila health complex (UHC), across four administrative divisions. PARTICIPANTS: Participants for the in-depth qualitative interviews were health service providers, namely upazila health and family planning officers (n=4), resident medical officers (n=6), medical doctors (n=4) and civil surgeons (n=1). Participants for the stakeholder meeting were health policy makers, health programme managers, researchers, academicians, NGO workers, private health practitioners and news media reporters. RESULTS: Participants reported that diabetes, hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were the major NCD-related problems. All participants acknowledged the governments' initiative to establish the NCD corners to support NCD service delivery. Participants thought the NCD corners have contributed substantially to increase NCD awareness, deliver NCD care and provide referral services. However, participants identified challenges including lack of specific guidelines and standard operating procedures; lack of trained human resources; inadequate laboratory facilities, logistics and medications; and poor recording and reporting systems. CONCLUSION: The initiative taken by the Government of Bangladesh to set up the NCD corners at the primary healthcare level is appreciative. However, the NCD corners are still at nascent stage to provide prevention and management services for common NCDs. These findings need to be taken into consideration while expanding the NCD corners in other UHCs throughout the country.

5.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 367, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information and communications technology (ICT) has been suggested as an important tool for improving global health education and building research capacity in developing countries. However, the existing curricula do not have adequate emphasis on global health research and training. This study was carried out to examine health sciences postgraduates' attitudes and practices regarding curriculum for ICT use in global health research and training in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among health sciences postgraduates from six universities in southern China, during December 2016 to March 2017. A self-administered online questionnaire was used to collect data through an online survey platform. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows 13.0. RESULTS: A total of 1065 participants successfully completed the questionnaires. More than 90% of the students have not had any training about ICT, three quarters have not taken an online course, and 31% of the students do not use ICT in their current research. More than 65% thought that, in an ICT research training curriculum, it was important to learn: ICT utilization related knowledge, ICT research methods/resources, knowledge of databases, ways of data use and acquisition, and informatics search methods (ICT users compared to non-users were more likely to agree to these learning components (all p <  0.05)). Many of the respondents used or planned to use mobile phones (80%), Internet (59%), use computer and WeChat (> 40%), and QQ (a popular chat tool in China) (30%) as ICT tools in research activities. ICT users compared to non-users were more likely to consider using ICT and/or biomedical informatics methods in decision-support or support for information seeking, healthcare delivering, academic research, data gathering, and facilitating collaboration (all p <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that ICT utilization was very important to health sciences postgraduates for their research activities in China, but they lacked ICT-related training. The results suggested the need for specialized curriculum related to ICT use in global health research for health sciences postgraduates in China.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480401

RESUMO

Background: The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is gaining popularity, so it is important to evaluate physicians' understanding of e-cigarettes. This study assessed the beliefs, attitudes, and confidence in e-cigarette counseling among Chinese physicians and explored the factors related to asking patients about e-cigarette use. Methods: Physicians from across China were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey using the platform provided by DXY (www.dxy.cn) in 2018. In total, 1023 physicians completed the online survey. Descriptive analyses were used to characterize the participants, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of physicians' asking about patients' e-cigarette use. Results: Only 46.3% of respondents agreed that e-cigarettes had adverse health effects, and 66.8% indicated that e-cigarettes can be regarded as a type of smoking cessation treatment. We found that 61.3% thought it was important to discuss e-cigarettes with patients, and 71.7% reported feeling confident about their ability in counseling about e-cigarettes. Respondents who had used e-cigarettes (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.16-2.63), had received training about e-cigarettes (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 2.17-4.52), or were confident about their ability to answer patients' question about e-cigarettes (OR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.65-3.65) were more likely to ask patients about e-cigarette use. Physicians who showed a supportive attitude toward using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63-0.99) were less likely to ask about patients' e-cigarettes use frequently. Conclusions: Chinese physicians appeared to ignore the adverse health effects of e-cigarettes, and considered e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation treatment. Comprehensive training and regulations are needed to help physicians incorporate the screening of e-cigarette use into routine practice and provide patients truthful information as new data emerge.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Médicos/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Profissional
7.
J Med Syst ; 43(7): 227, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190131

RESUMO

The use of contemporary technologies in healthcare systems to improve quality of care and to promote behavioral healthcare outcomes are prevalent in high-income countries. However, low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are not receiving the same advantages of technology, which may be due to inadequate technological infrastructure and financial resources, lack of interest among policy makers and healthcare service providers, lack of skills and capacity among healthcare professionals in using technology based interventions, and resistance of the public to the use of technologies for healthcare or health promotion activities. Technology-based interventions offer considerable promise to develop entirely new models of healthcare both within and outside of formal systems of care and offer the opportunity to have a large public health impact. Such technology-based interventions could be used to address targeted global health problems in LMICs, including the chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - a growing health system burden in LMICs. Major preventable behavioral risk factors of chronic NCDs are increasing in LMICs, and innovative interventions are essential to address these risk factors. Computer-based or mobile-based virtual coaches or Relational Agents (RAs) are increasingly being explored for counseling patients to change their health behavior in high-income countries; however, the use of RAs in LMICs has not been studied. In this paper, we summarize the growing application of RA technology in behavior change interventions in high-income countries and describe the potential of its use in LMICs. Finally, we review the potential barriers and challenges in promoting RAs in LMICs.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7816, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127157

RESUMO

Previous studies investigating HIV-infected patients suggested a direct link between underweight and the mortality rate of AIDS. However, there was a lack of evidence showing the optimal range of initial body mass index (BMI) patients maintain during antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to evaluate associations of the BMI values pre-ART and during the entire ART duration with mortality among HIV-positive individuals. In total, 5101 HIV/AIDS patients, including 1439 (28.2%) underweight, 3047 (59.7%) normal-weight, 548 (10.7%) overweight and 67 (1.3%) obese patients, were included in this cohort. The cumulative mortality of underweight, normal-weight, and overweight were 2.4/100 person-years (95% CI 1.9-2.9), 1.1/100 person-years (95% CI 0.9-1.3), and 0.5/100 person-years (95% CI 0.1-0.9), respectively. Cumulative mortality was lower in both the normal-weight and overweight populations than in the underweight population, with an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7, p < 0.001) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.1-0.6, p = 0.002), respectively. Additionally, in the 1176 patients with available viral load data, there was significant difference between the underweight and normal-weight groups after adjustment for all factors, including viral load (p = 0.031). This result suggests that HIV-infected patients in Guangxi maintaining a BMI of 19-28 kg/m2, especially 24-28 kg/m2, have a reduced risk of death.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373205

RESUMO

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a dominant disease burden in China. Although China has a prevention-centered NCD strategy, the implementation effect in the community has been subjected to manpower and financial difficulties. Engaging community health workers (CHWs) in community-based interventions may be a cost-effective approach to relieve the resource shortage and improve health. This review aimed to synthesize evidence on types of NCD-related care that was provided by CHWs in China, and to identify relevant barriers and facilitators. Methods: A literature search was conducted in Medline, PubMed, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases for English-written, peer-reviewed articles published from 1996 to 2016 that reported findings from NCD-related interventions delivered by CHWs in China. Each article was extracted independently by two researchers. Results: Twenty distinct studies met the inclusion criteria. The two most common types of CHW-led NCD-related care were diabetes and hypertension management (n = 7) and mental health care (n = 7). Thirteen studies discussed the barriers and 16 studies reported facilitators. The most common barriers included lack of support (n = 6), lack of resources (n = 4), and heavy reliance on technology (n = 4). The common facilitators included an integrated health system (n = 9), community and patient trust (n = 5), high quality training (n = 5), and CHWs' capacity (n = 5). Fourteen studies mentioned training content, while only eight described detailed procedures and duration. Conclusions: This review suggests that trained and supervised Chinese CHWs had the capacity to provide grassroots NCDs preventive interventions. In order to increase the generalizability and sustainability of such programs, studies with robust designs are needed to explore the effectiveness of CHW-led programs, and the intervention strategies to improve the practice of CHWs in various settings.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Intervenção Médica Precoce/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , China , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
10.
Nurs Open ; 5(3): 384-392, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062033

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of this study was to survey the ability of nursing students to obtain, appraise and understand health information and its influencing factors among undergraduate nursing students in a medical university in Chongqing, China. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Method: The sample was obtained using stratified sampling methods. We used the internationally validated Health Literacy Questionnaire. Six hundred and fifteen (76.88%) of 800 nursing students completed participated anonymous questionnaires that measured their ability to obtain, appraise and understand health information. Results: Mean scores of nursing students to obtain, appraise and understand health information were 17.13, 13.07 and 17.78 respectively. Academic level, parental educational level and socioeconomic status were significantly associated with scores in obtaining, appraising and understanding health information.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992191

RESUMO

Background: Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been widely used in response to the shortage of skilled health workers especially in resource limited areas. China has a long history of involving CHWs in public health intervention project. CHWs in China called village doctors who have both treatment and public health responsibilities. This systematic review aimed to identify the types of public health services provided by CHWs and summarized potential barriers and facilitating factors in the delivery of these services. Methods: We searched studies published in Chinese or English, on Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and CNKI for public health services delivered by CHWs in China, during 1996-2016. The role of CHWs, training for CHWs, challenges, and facilitating factors were extracted from reviewed studies. Results: Guided by National Basic Public Health Service Standards, services provided by CHW covered five major areas of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including diabetes and/or hypertension, cancer, mental health, cardiovascular diseases, and common NCD risk factors, as well as general services including reproductive health, tuberculosis, child health, vaccination, and other services. Not many studies investigated the barriers and facilitating factors of their programs, and none reported cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Barriers challenging the sustainability of the CHWs led projects were transportation, nature of official support, quantity and quality of CHWs, training of CHWs, incentives for CHWs, and maintaining a good rapport between CHWs and target population. Facilitating factors included positive official support, integration with the existing health system, financial support, considering CHW's perspectives, and technology support. Conclusion: CHWs appear to frequently engage in implementing diverse public health intervention programs in China. Facilitators and barriers identified are comparable to those identified in high income countries. Future CHWs-led programs should consider incorporating the common barriers and facilitators identified in the current study to maximize the benefits of these programs.

12.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 785, 2018 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in China has rapidly increased in recent years. Family history and physical inactivity are known risk factors for developing diabetes. As automated telephone-based communication is recognized as a cost-effective health promoting device, the present study aims at evaluating the efficacy of an automated telephone counselor (TLC-PA-China) for promoting physical activity to the WHO-recommended level among physically inactive family members of diabetes patients. METHODS: This study employed a parallel, two-group, non-blinded, randomized controlled trial design with equal allocation to the intervention group (TLC-PA-China), and a control group. Voluntary participants with at least one first-degree relative diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were recruited through eight Community Health Centers in Shenzhen, China. The intervention group was requested to use the system once per week during a six-month period. The control group received an information pamphlet about the benefits of regular physical activity. RESULTS: Two hundred ten eligible participants were randomized to TLC-PA-China (n = 109) or Control (n = 101) groups. Using intention-to-treat analysis, the TLC-PA-China group was significantly more likely to meet the WHO physical activity recommendation than the control (GEE: OR = 6.37, p < 0.001). The number of physically inactive people to intervene upon for one to become active was 2.84 at 3 months and 3.31 at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: TLC-PA-China increased physical activity levels among physically inactive adults in China who were at high risk of developing diabetes. This study lays the groundwork for application of behavioral informatics intervention in China. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-PRC-13003361 . Registered 15 May 2013 (Retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Conselheiros , Competência Cultural , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Telefone , Adulto , Automação , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário
13.
Pediatrics ; 141(Suppl 1): S51-S62, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based tobacco control strategies delivered through pediatric settings could encourage parental smoking cessation and reduce children's exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) in the United States. The extent to which these tobacco control strategies could be routinely implemented in the pediatric setting of a developing country is not known. We tested the feasibility and efficacy of implementing an evidence-based intervention, the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE), in a Chinese hospital to address the second hand smoke exposure of children in the home and car and to address parental smoking. METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental trial of CEASE implementation in the pediatric inpatient departments of 2 Chinese hospitals, 1 assigned as the intervention hospital and another assigned as the control hospital. Data were collected through pre- and postsurveys of parents and clinicians, implementation process surveys, and chart review. RESULTS: In the intervention hospital, pediatricians' rates of delivering different types of tobacco control assistance to smoking parents were all significantly (P < .0001) higher during the post-CEASE implementation period than in the pre-CEASE implementation period. During the post-CEASE implementation period, pediatricians' rates of delivery for all aspects of tobacco control assistance were significantly higher (all P < .0001) in the intervention hospital than in the control hospital, whereas there was no difference during the pre-CEASE period. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that it is feasible to implement a system-level intervention of CEASE in the pediatric inpatient department of a major hospital in southern China. A large-scale trial incorporating measures to increase quit rates and including a long-term follow-up is needed to examine the effectiveness of CEASE implementation in China.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Departamentos Hospitalares/organização & administração , Política Organizacional , Pais/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , China , Aconselhamento , Cultura , Estudos de Viabilidade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pediatria , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Fumar Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 8(3-4): 225-230, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864768

RESUMO

Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) offer a new means to support smokers as a virtual coach and motivate them to quit smoking. In this study we assess the feasibility and acceptability of an ECA to support quit smoking ("aka ECA-Q"). ECA-Q, a 14-days program, delivered through Tablet computers, interacts with participants with supporting messages for quit smoking and motivates them to set a quit date. Study participants (n = 6) were Veterans receiving medical care at Boston VA Healthcare System who responded to an open advertisement. Participants completed a survey at baseline and after 14 days follow-up. All participants were satisfied with the ECA program and liked the features of the agent; three out of six participants had set a quit date by the end of the 14 days. Participants reported several positive and less important features of the agent and made suggestions to improve the agent. This study shows that a conversation agent is acceptable to smoking veterans to help them in setting a quit date with an ultimate goal of quit smoking. Insights gained from this study would be useful to redesign the current version of ECA-Q program for a future randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy.


Assuntos
Computadores de Mão , Motivação , Sistemas de Alerta/instrumentação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Saúde dos Veteranos
15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14931, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097659

RESUMO

To compare different intervention models for promoting male circumcision (MC) to prevent HIV transmission in Western China. A total of 1690 male participants from multiple study sites were cluster randomly allocated to three-stage (Model A), two-stage (Model B), and one-stage (Model C) educational interventions. In all three interventions models, knowledge about MC significantly increased and the reported willingness to accept MC increased to 52.6% (255/485), 67.0% (353/527), and 45.5% (219/481) after intervention, respectively (P < 0.05). Rate of MC surgery uptake was highest (23.7%; 115/485) among those who received Model A intervention, compared to those who received Model B (17.1%; 90/527) or Model C (9.4%; 45/481) interventions (P < 0.05). Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified that Model A or Model B had twice the effect of Model C on MC uptake, with relative risks of 2.4 (95%CI, 1.5-3.8) and 2.2 (95%CI, 1.3-3.6), respectively. Model B was the most effective model for improving participants' willingness to accept MC, while Model A was most successful at increasing uptake of MC surgery. Self-reported attitude towards MC uptake was not strongly correlated with actual behavior in this study focusing on the general male population in Western China.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Circuncisão Masculina/educação , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 537, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was first reported in China in 2011. Human-to-human transmission of the virus occurred occasionally in family clusters. However, pneumonia as an onset syndrome was not common in most SFTS cases. Our aim is to report a family cluster of SFTS with clinical manifestation of pneumonia in Shanghai. METHODS: Epidemiologic investigations were conducted when a family cluster of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection was identified in Shanghai in June 2016. Samples were collected from two secondary cases and two close contacts with fever. SFTSV was detected by Real-Time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: There were two confirmed STFS cases and one potential index case. The potential index case became ill on 21 May and died on 31 May. Case A had onset from 4 to 23 June and case B from 8 June to 25 June. All the three cases experienced pneumonia at the early stage of SFTSV infection. Three (3) out of thirty two (32) close contacts had symptoms of fever or cough but were detected STFSV negative by real-time RT-PCR. According to epidemiologic investigations, the potential index case had outdoor activities on a nearby hill. A tick bite could have been the reason for the SFTSV infection in the potential index case as ticks were found both in grassland or shrubs on the hill and also found on mice caught in her house. Both cases A and B had provided bedside care for the potential index case without any protection and had contacted with blood and other body fluids. CONCLUSION: It was a family cluster of SFTSV infection imported from Jiangsu province located in the east of China. We suggested to become alert to atypical SFTSV infected cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Animais , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Phlebovirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Trombocitopenia/virologia , Carrapatos/virologia
17.
JMIR Med Educ ; 3(1): e11, 2017 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) during the last decade has transformed biomedical and population-based research and has become an essential part of many types of research and educational programs. However, access to these ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research are often lacking in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) institutions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the practical issues (ie, perceptions and learning needs) of ICT use among health sciences graduate students at 6 major medical universities of southern China. METHODS: Ten focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted from December 2015 to March 2016, involving 74 health sciences graduate students studying at 6 major medical universities in southern China. The sampling method was opportunistic, accounting for the graduate program enrolled and the academic year. All FGDs were audio recorded and thematic content analysis was performed. RESULTS: Researchers had different views and arguments about the use of ICT which are summarized under six themes: (1) ICT use in routine research, (2) ICT-related training experiences, (3) understanding about the pros and cons of Web-based training, (4) attitudes toward the design of ICT training curriculum, (5) potential challenges to promoting ICT courses, and (6) related marketing strategies for ICT training curriculum. Many graduate students used ICT on a daily basis in their research to stay up-to-date on current development in their area of research or study or practice. The participants were very willing to participate in ICT courses that were relevant to their academic majors and would count credits. Suggestion for an ICT curriculum included (1) both organized training course or short lecture series, depending on the background and specialty of the students, (2) a mixture of lecture and Web-based activities, and (3) inclusion of topics that are career focused. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that a need exists for a specialized curriculum related to ICT use in health research for health sciences graduate students in China. The results have important implications for the design and implementation of ICT-related educational program in China or other developing countries.

18.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 15(1): 59, 2017 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28659155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The demand to use information and communications technology (ICT) in education and research has grown fast among researchers and educators working in global health. However, access to ICT resources and the capacity to use them in global health research remains limited among developing country faculty members. In order to address the global health needs and to design an ICT-related training course, we herein explored the Chinese health science faculty members' perceptions and learning needs for ICT use. METHODS: Nine focus groups discussions (FGDs) were conducted during December 2015 to March 2016, involving 63 faculty members working in areas of health sciences from six universities in China. All FGDs were audio recorded and analysed thematically. RESULTS: The findings suggest that the understandings of ICT were not clear among many researchers; some thought that the concept of ICT was too wide and ambiguous. Most participants were able to cite examples of ICT application in their research and teaching activities. Positive attitudes and high needs of ICT use and training were common among most participants. Recommendations for ICT training included customised training programmes focusing on a specific specialty, maintaining a balance between theories and practical applications, more emphasis on the application of ICT, and skills in finding the required information from the bulk information available in the internet. Suggestions regarding the format and offering of training included short training programmes, flexible timing, lectures with practicum opportunities, and free of charge or with very minimal cost to the participants. Two participants suggested the linking of ICT-related training courses with faculty members' year-end assessment and promotion. CONCLUSIONS: This study among health sciences faculty members in China demonstrated a high level of need and interest in learning about ICT use in research and training. The results have important implications for the design and implementation of ICT-related educational programmes in China and other developing countries.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Comunicação , Saúde Global , Invenções , China , Docentes , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pesquisadores
20.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 2021, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27994998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most smokers have their first experience of cigarette use when they are teenagers (i.e. at schools). Aiming tobacco control initiatives at secondary school students offers preventive measures to eliminate or reduce tobacco use initiation by students. This study assessed smoking-related attitudes, motives and behavior as well as other factors associated with smoking among male secondary school students in an urban setting in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in urban areas of Chongqing using a structured questionnaire administered to 1297 male secondary school students. Logistic regression analysis was employed to investigate the factors that affect smoking. RESULTS: Of the participants (n = 1297), 27.7% were secondary and 72.3% were middle school students. Overall, 30.5% of the participants were smokers. The majority of the students procured their first cigarette from friends. The motivations of middle school students to smoke their first cigarette were curiosity (70.5%) and imitation (13.1%). The motivations of high school students for smoking their first cigarette were to satisfy their curiosity (51.8%), relief of stress and social pressures (17.1%), and imitation of smoker friends (15.9%). Respondents from poor family financial conditions were more likely to smoke than those from rich family financial conditions [odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.00, 2.52]. Respondents whose fathers were smokers were more likely to smoke than those whose fathers were non-smokers (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.25, 2.17). Respondents who had one or two smoker friends (OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.93, 4.60) and three or more smoker friends (OR 5.92, 95% CI 4.35, 8.05) were more likely to smoke than those who did not have any. Respondents who were neutral (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20, 0.91) and disagreed about the item "friends smoking" (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.08, 0.39) were less likely to smoke than those who agreed with the item. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that male students who have negative attitudes toward smoking, who do not have a father or friends who smoke, and are from affluent backgrounds exhibit low tendency to start smoking at a young age. This study provides some implications for tobacco control policies among male secondary school students in urban settings.

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