Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 13 de 13
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578860

RESUMO

Whole grain consumption has been associated with the reduced risk of several chronic diseases with significant healthcare monetary burden, including cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally, with the highest rates reported in Australia. Three servings of whole grains provide a 15% reduction in total cancer and 17% reduction in CRC risk; however, 70% of Australians fall short of this level of intake. The aim of this study was to assess the potential savings in healthcare costs associated with reductions in the relative risk of CRC and total cancer mortality following the whole grain Daily Target Intake (DTI) of 48 g in Australia. A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted using input parameters from: (1) estimates of current and targeted whole grain intakes among proportions (5%, 15%, 50%, and 100%) of the Australian adult (≥20 years) population; (2) estimates of reductions in relative risk (with 95% confidence intervals) of CRC and total cancer mortality associated with specific whole grain intake from meta-analysis studies; and (3) estimates of annual healthcare costs of CRC and all cancers from disease expenditure national databases. A very pessimistic (5% of population) through to universal (100% of population) adoption of the recommended DTI in Australia were shown to potentially yield savings in annual healthcare costs equal to AUD 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.4) to AUD 37.2 (95% CI 24.1-48.1) million for CRC and AUD 20.3 (95% CI 12.2-27.0) to AUD 405.1 (95% CI 243.1-540.1) million for total cancers. As treatment costs for CRC and other cancers are increasing, and dietary measures exchanging whole grains for refined grains are not cost preclusive nor does the approach increase energy intake, there is an opportunity to facilitate cost-savings along with reductions in disease for Australia. These results suggest specific benefits of encouraging Australians to swap refined grains for whole grains, with greater overall adherence to suggestions in dietary guidelines.


Assuntos
Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Grãos Integrais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Redução de Custos/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/economia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072326

RESUMO

Many dietary guidelines emphasise "mostly" whole grain food choices as part of an overall healthy eating pattern based on evidence for enhancing nutritional status and reducing chronic disease. Still, countries including Australia fall short of their consumption targets. Furthermore, healthcare cost savings associated with increasing the consumption of whole grains in alignment with the Daily Target Intake (DTI) recommendation of 48 g are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the potential savings in costs of healthcare and lost productivity associated with a reduction in the incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) through meeting the 48 g DTI recommendation for whole grains among the Australian adult population (>20 years). A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted using input parameters from: 1) estimates of proportions of consumers (5%, 15%, 50%, and 100%) who would increase their current intake of whole grains to meet the recommended DTI in Australia; 2) relative reductions in risk of T2DM and CVD associated with specific whole grain consumption, as reported in meta-analysis studies; and 3) data on costs of healthcare and productivity loss based on monetary figures by national healthcare authorities. A very pessimistic (5% of the population) through to universal (100% of the population) adoption of the recommended DTI was shown to potentially yield AUD 37.5 (95% CI 22.3-49.3) to AUD 750.7 (95% CI 445.7-985.2) million, and AUD 35.9 (95% CI 8.3-60.7) to AUD 717.4 (95% CI 165.5-1214.1) million in savings on annual healthcare and lost productivity costs for T2DM and CVD, respectively. Given such economic benefits of the recommended consumption of whole grains, in exchange for refined grains, there is a real opportunity to facilitate relevant socioeconomic cost-savings for Australia and reductions in disease. These results are suggestive of a much greater opportunity to communicate the need for dietary change at all levels, but particularly through food-based dietary guidelines and front-of-pack labelling initiatives.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Dieta Saudável/economia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grãos Integrais/economia , Adulto , Austrália , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671529

RESUMO

The number of nutrigenetic studies dedicated to the identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulating blood lipid profiles in response to dietary interventions has increased considerably over the last decade. However, the robustness of the evidence-based science supporting the area remains to be evaluated. The objective of this review was to present recent findings concerning the effects of interactions between SNPs in genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport, and dietary intakes or interventions on circulating cholesterol concentrations, which are causally involved in cardiovascular diseases and established biomarkers of cardiovascular health. We identified recent studies (2014-2020) that reported significant SNP-diet interactions in 14 cholesterol-related genes (NPC1L1, ABCA1, ABCG5, ABCG8, APOA1, APOA2, APOA5, APOB, APOE, CETP, CYP7A1, DHCR7, LPL, and LIPC), and which replicated associations observed in previous studies. Some studies have also shown that combinations of SNPs could explain a higher proportion of variability in response to dietary interventions. Although some findings still need replication, including in larger and more diverse study populations, there is good evidence that some SNPs are consistently associated with differing circulating cholesterol concentrations in response to dietary interventions. These results could help clinicians provide patients with more personalized dietary recommendations, in order to lower their risk for cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/genética , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo
4.
Food Nutr Res ; 632019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565041

RESUMO

Background: By design, existing scenario-based nutrition economics studies on the financial benefits of healthy dietary behaviors generally report uncertainty in inputs and wide ranges of outcome estimates. Objectives: This modeling exercise aimed to establish precision in prediction of the potential healthcare cost savings that would follow a reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) consistent with an increase in adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet). Design: Using a Monte Carlo simulation model on a cost-of-illness analysis assessing MedDiet adherence, CVD incidence reduction, and healthcare cost savings in the United States and Canada, short- and long-term cost savings that are likely to accrue to the American and Canadian healthcare systems were estimated using 20 and 80% increases in MedDiet adherence scenarios. Results: Increasing percentage of population adhering to a MedDiet by 20% beyond the current adherence level produced annual savings in CVD-related costs of US$8.2 billion (95% confidence interval [CI], $7.5-$8.8 billion) in the United States and Can$0.32 billion (95% CI, $0.29-$0.34 billion) in Canada. An 80% increase in adherence resulted in savings equal to US$31 billion (95% CI, $28.6-$33.3 billion) and Can$1.2 billion (95% CI, $1.11-$1.30 billion) in each respective country. Conclusion: Computational techniques with stochastic parameter inputs, such as the Monte Carlo simulation, could be an effective way of incorporating variability of modeling parameters in nutrition economics studies for improved precision in estimating the monetary value of healthy eating habits.

5.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 43(10): 1090-1093, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920211

RESUMO

Existing evidence on the influence of genetic architecture on serum cholesterol responsiveness to dietary interventions focuses on individual single nucleotide polymorphisms and single nutrients. We associated the combination of ABCG5 rs6720173-C, CYP7A1 rs3808607-TT, and DHCR7 rs760241-GG genotypes with lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations relative to the combination of rs6720173-GG, rs3808607-G, and rs760241-A genotypes (-0.37 ± 0.12 (n = 9) vs. +0.38 ± 0.14 mmol/L (n = 7), p = 0.0016) following a blended dairy (3 servings/day for 4 weeks) intervention.


Assuntos
Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Laticínios , Lipoproteínas/genética , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Manitoba , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Quebeque , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 9(7)2017 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737688

RESUMO

Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) following a low glycemic index (GI) or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1) estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2) evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3) assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4) calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6-$9.9) to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26-$98.8) and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1-$52) to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6-$520.4) million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Redução de Custos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Canadá , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fabaceae , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Incidência , Lens (Planta) , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
8.
Nutr Rev ; 75(3): 163-174, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28158733

RESUMO

The impact of nutritional behaviors on health is beyond debate and has the potential to affect the economic outputs of societies in significant ways. Dietary fatty acids have become a central theme in nutrition research in recent years, and the popularity of dietary oils rich in healthy fatty acids, such as monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), for cooking applications and use in food products has increased. Here, the objective is to summarize the health effects of MUFA-rich diets and to systematically estimate the potential healthcare and societal cost savings that could be realized by increasing MUFA intakes compared with other dietary fat intakes in the United States. Using a scoping review approach, the literature of randomized controlled clinical trials was searched and a 4-step cost-of-illness analysis was developed, which included estimates of success rate, disease biomarker reduction, disease incidence reduction, and cost savings. Findings revealed improvements in established biomarkers and in incidence of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, along with potentially substantial annual healthcare and societal cost savings when recommendations for daily MUFA intake were followed. In summary, beyond the beneficial health effects of MUFA-rich diets, potential economic benefits suggest practical implications for consumers, food processors, and healthcare authorities alike.

9.
Food Nutr Res ; 59: 28646, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26652739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. OBJECTIVE: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. DESIGN: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. RESULTS: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. CONCLUSIONS: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 6: 167, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26321953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. METHODS: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. RESULTS: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million-$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. CONCLUSION: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers' general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

11.
Food Nutr Res ; 59: 27541, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26111965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean-style diet (MedDiet) is an established healthy-eating behavior that has consistently been shown to favorably impact cardiovascular health, thus likely improving quality of life and reducing costs associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data on the economic benefits of MedDiet intakes are, however, scarce. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the annual healthcare and societal cost savings that would accrue to the Canadian and American public, independently, as a result of a reduction in the incidence of CVD following adherence to a MedDiet. DESIGN: A variation in cost-of-illness analysis entailing three stages of estimations was developed to 1) identify the proportion of individuals who are likely to adopt a MedDiet in North America, 2) assess the impact of the MedDiet intake on CVD incidence reduction, and 3) impute the potential savings in costs associated with healthcare and productivity following the estimated CVD reduction. To account for the uncertainty factor, a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios, including ideal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very-pessimistic assumptions, was implemented within each of these stages. RESULTS: Significant improvements in CVD-related costs were evident with varying MedDiet adoption and CVD reduction rates. Specifically, CAD $41.9 million to 2.5 billion in Canada and US $1.0-62.8 billion in the United States were estimated to accrue as total annual savings in economic costs, given the 'very-pessimistic' through 'ideal' scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Closer adherence to dietary behaviors that are consistent with the principles of the MedDiet is expected to contribute to a reduction in the monetary burdens of CVD in Canada, the United States, and possibly other parts of the world.

12.
Nutr Rev ; 73(8): 523-43, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26117841

RESUMO

Cholesterol metabolism is a well-defined responder to dietary intakes and a classic biomarker of cardiovascular health. For this reason, circulating cholesterol levels have become key in shaping nutritional recommendations by health authorities worldwide for better management of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of mortality and one of the most costly health problems globally. Data from observational and dietary intervention studies, however, highlight a marked between-individual variability in the response of cholesterol metabolism to similar dietary protocols, a phenomenon linked to genetic heterogeneity. This review summarizes the postgenomic evidence of polymorphisms within cholesterol-associated genes relative to fasting circulating cholesterol levels under diverse nutritional conditions. A number of cholesterol-related gene-diet interactions are confirmed, which may have clinical importance, supporting a deeper look into the rapidly emerging field of nutrigenetics for meaningful conclusions that may eventually lead to genetically targeted dietary recommendations in the era of personalized nutrition.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Nutrigenômica , Estado Nutricional
13.
Br J Nutr ; 113(3): 435-44, 2015 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25609231

RESUMO

Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1% fat milk, 1·5% fat yogurt and 34% fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22% and 0·42 v. 0·39% of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Queijo , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Iogurte , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...