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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(17)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079543

RESUMO

Geopolymers are an inorganic material in an alkaline environment that is synthesized with alumina-silica gel. The structure of geopolymers consists of an inorganic chain of material and a covalent-bound molecular system. Currently, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has caused carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions which causes greenhouse effects. This analysis investigates the impact on fly ash/dolomite-based-geopolymer with various molarities of sodium hydroxide solutions which are 6 M, 8 M, 10 M, 12 M and 14 M. The samples of fly ash/dolomite-based-geopolymer were prepared with the usage of solid to liquid of 2.0, by mass and alkaline activator ratio of 2.5, by mass. After that, the geopolymer was cast in 50 × 50 × 50 mm molds before testing after 7 days of curing. The samples were tested on compressive strength, density, water absorption, morphology, elemental distributions and phase analysis. From the results, the usage of 8 M of NaOH gave the optimum properties for the fly ash/dolomite-based geopolymer. The elemental distribution analysis exposes the Al, Si, Ca, Fe and Mg chemical distribution of the samples from the selected area. The distribution of the elements is related to the compressive strength and compared with the chemical composition of the fly ash and dolomite.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(18)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36143805

RESUMO

This paper aims to find out the effect of different weight percentages of geopolymer filler in glass-reinforced epoxy pipe, and which can achieve the best mechanical properties and adhesion between high calcium pozzolanic-based geopolymer matrices. Different weight percentages and molarities of epoxy hardener resin and high calcium pozzolanic-based geopolymer were injected into the glass fiber. By manually winding filaments, composite samples were produced, and they were then allowed to cure at room temperature. To determine how well the geopolymer matrices adhere to the fiber reinforcement, the microstructure of the composites' surfaces and perpendicular sections were examined. Maximum values of compressive strength and compressive modulus were 94.64 MPa and 2373.58 MPa, respectively, for the sample with a weight percentage of filler loading of 30 wt% for an alkali concentration of 12 M. This is a relatively wide range of geopolymer weight percentage of filler loading from 10 wt% to 40 wt%, at which we can obtain high compressive properties. By referring to microstructural analysis, adhesion, and interaction of the geopolymer matrix to glass fiber, it shows that the filler is well-dispersed and embedded at the fiber glass, and it was difficult to determine the differences within the range of optimal geopolymer filler content. By determining the optimum weight percent of 30 wt% of geopolymer filler and microstructural analysis, the maximum parameter has been achieved via analysis of high calcium pozzolanic-based geopolymer filler. Fire or elevated temperature represents one of the extreme ambient conditions that any structure may be exposed to during its service life. The heat resistance or thermal analysis between glass-reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe and glass-reinforced epoxy pipe filled with high calcium pozzolanic-based geopolymer filler was studied by investigating burning tests on the samples, which shows that the addition of high calcium pozzolanic-based geopolymer filler results in a significant reduction of the melted epoxy.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36013650

RESUMO

The depletion of aggregate-related natural resources is the primary concern of all researchers globally. Recent studies emphasize the significance of recycling and reusing various types of natural or by-product material waste from industry as a result of the building industry's rising demand for aggregate as the primary component in concrete production. It has been demonstrated that the geopolymer system has exceptional features, such as high strength, superior durability, and greater resistance to fire exposure, making it a viable alternative to ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete. This study will examine the present method utilized to generate artificial aggregate-based geopolymers, including their physical and mechanical properties, as well as their characterization. The production process of geopolymer derived from synthetic aggregates will be highlighted. In conjunction with the bonding of aggregates and the cement matrix, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is highlighted in this work as an additional important property to be researched in the future. It will be discussed how to improve the properties of geopolymers based on artificial aggregates. It has been demonstrated that cold bonding provides superior qualities for artificial aggregate while conserving energy during production. The creation of ITZ has a significant impact on the bonding strength between artificial aggregates and the cement matrix. Additionally, improvement strategies demonstrate viable methods for enhancing the quality of manufactured aggregates. In addition, other recommendations are discussed in this study for future work.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(12)2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744142

RESUMO

This paper uses polyoxyethylene alkyether sulphate (PAS) to form foam via pre-foaming method, which is then incorporated into geopolymer based on fly ash and ladle furnace slag. In the literature, only PAS-geopolymer foams made with single precursor were studied. Therefore, the performance of fly ash-slag blended geopolymer with and without PAS foam was investigated at 29-1000 °C. Unfoamed geopolymer (G-0) was prepared by a combination of sodium alkali, fly ash and slag. The PAS foam-to-paste ratio was set at 1.0 and 2.0 to prepare geopolymer foam (G-1 and G-2). Foamed geopolymer showed decreased compressive strength (25.1-32.0 MPa for G-1 and 21.5-36.2 MPa for G-2) compared to G-0 (36.9-43.1 MPa) at 29-1000 °C. Nevertheless, when compared to unheated samples, heated G-0 lost compressive strength by 8.7% up to 1000 °C, while the foamed geopolymer gained compressive strength by 68.5% up to 1000 °C. The thermal stability of foamed geopolymer was greatly improved due to the increased porosity, lower thermal conductivity, and incompact microstructure, which helped to reduce pressure during moisture evaporation and resulted in lessened deterioration.

5.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(12)2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35744236

RESUMO

This paper elucidates the influence of borax decahydrate addition on the flexural and thermal properties of 10 mm thin fly ash/ladle furnace slag (FAS) geopolymers. The borax decahydrate (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%) was incorporated to produce FAB geopolymers. Heat treatment was applied with temperature ranges of 300 °C, 600 °C, 900 °C, 1000 °C and 1100 °C. Unexposed FAB geopolymers experienced a drop in strength due to a looser matrix with higher porosity. However, borax decahydrate inclusion significantly enhanced the flexural performance of thin geopolymers after heating. FAB2 and FAB8 geopolymers reported higher flexural strength of 26.5 MPa and 47.8 MPa, respectively, at 1000 °C as compared to FAS geopolymers (24.1 MPa at 1100 °C). The molten B2O3 provided an adhesive medium to assemble the aluminosilicates, improving the interparticle connectivity which led to a drastic strength increment. Moreover, the borax addition reduced the glass transition temperature, forming more refractory crystalline phases at lower temperatures. This induced a significant strength increment in FAB geopolymers with a factor of 3.6 for FAB8 at 900 °C, and 4.0 factor for FAB2 at 1000 °C, respectively. Comparatively, FAS geopolymers only achieved 3.1 factor in strength increment at 1100 °C. This proved that borax decahydrate could be utilized in the high strength development of thin geopolymers.

6.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(11)2022 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683229

RESUMO

As the demand for nonrenewable natural resources, such as aggregate, is increasing worldwide, new production of artificial aggregate should be developed. Artificial lightweight aggregate can bring advantages to the construction field due to its lower density, thus reducing the dead load applied to the structural elements. In addition, application of artificial lightweight aggregate in lightweight concrete will produce lower thermal conductivity. However, the production of artificial lightweight aggregate is still limited. Production of artificial lightweight aggregate incorporating waste materials or pozzolanic materials is advantageous and beneficial in terms of being environmentally friendly, as well as lowering carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, additives, such as geopolymer, have been introduced as one of the alternative construction materials that have been proven to have excellent properties. Thus, this paper will review the production of artificial lightweight aggregate through various methods, including sintering, cold bonding, and autoclaving. The significant properties of artificial lightweight aggregate, including physical and mechanical properties, such as water absorption, crushing strength, and impact value, are reviewed. The properties of concrete, including thermal properties, that utilized artificial lightweight aggregate were also briefly reviewed to highlight the advantages of artificial lightweight aggregate.

7.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(10)2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35629485

RESUMO

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a conventional material used to construct rigid pavement that emits large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) during its manufacturing process, which is bad for the environment. It is also claimed that OPC is susceptible to acid attack, which increases the maintenance cost of rigid pavement. Therefore, a fly ash based geopolymer is proposed as a material for rigid pavement application as it releases lesser amounts of CO2 during the synthesis process and has higher acid resistance compared to OPC. This current study optimizes the formulation to produce fly ash based geopolymer with the highest compressive strength. In addition, the durability of fly ash based geopolymer concrete and OPC concrete in an acidic environment is also determined and compared. The results show that the optimum value of sodium hydroxide concentration, the ratio of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide, and the ratio of solid-to-liquid for fly ash based geopolymer are 10 M, 2.0, and 2.5, respectively, with a maximum compressive strength of 47 MPa. The results also highlight that the durability of fly ash based geopolymer is higher than that of OPC concrete, indicating that fly ash based geopolymer is a better material for rigid pavement applications, with a percentage of compressive strength loss of 7.38% to 21.94% for OPC concrete. This current study contributes to the field of knowledge by providing a reference for future development of fly ash based geopolymer for rigid pavement applications.

8.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(10)2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35629751

RESUMO

Rapid tooling (RT) and additive manufacturing (AM) are currently being used in several parts of industry, particularly in the development of new products. The demand for timely deliveries of low-cost products in a variety of geometrical patterns is continuing to increase year by year. Increased demand for low-cost materials and tooling, including RT, is driving the demand for plastic and rubber products, along with engineering and product manufacturers. The development of AM and RT technologies has led to significant improvements in the technologies, especially in testing performance for newly developed products prior to the fabrication of hard tooling and low-volume production. On the other hand, the rapid heating cycle molding (RHCM) injection method can be implemented to overcome product surface defects generated by conventional injection molding (CIM), since the surface gloss of the parts is significantly improved, and surface marks such as flow marks and weld marks are eliminated. The most important RHCM technique is rapid heating and cooling of the cavity surface, which somewhat improves part quality while also maximizing production efficiencies. RT is not just about making molds quickly; it also improves molding productivity. Therefore, as RT can also be used to produce products with low-volume production, there is a good potential to explore RHCM in RT. This paper reviews the implementation of RHCM in the molding industry, which has been well established and undergone improvement on the basis of different heating technologies. Lastly, this review also introduces future research opportunities regarding the potential of RT in the RHCM technique.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(9)2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591539

RESUMO

Due to the extraordinary properties for heavy-duty applications, there has been a great deal of interest in the utilization of waste material via geopolymerization technology. There are various advantages offered by this geopolymer-based material, such as excellent stability, exceptional impermeability, self-refluxing ability, resistant thermal energy from explosive detonation, and excellent mechanical performance. An overview of the work with the details of key factors affecting the heavy-duty performance of geopolymer-based material such as type of binder, alkali agent dosage, mixing design, and curing condition are reviewed in this paper. Interestingly, the review exhibited that different types of waste material containing a large number of chemical elements had an impact on mechanical performance in military, civil engineering, and road application. Finally, this work suggests some future research directions for the the remarkable of waste material through geopolymerization to be employed in heavy-duty application.

10.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(8)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454450

RESUMO

Solder interconnection in three-dimensional (3D) electronic packaging is required to undergo multiple reflow cycles of the soldering process. This paper elucidates the effects of multiple reflow cycles on the solder joints of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) lead (Pb)-free solder with the addition of 1.0 wt.% kaolin geopolymer ceramics (KGC). The samples were fabricated using powder metallurgy with the hybrid microwave sintering method. Apart from using conventional cross-sectioned microstructure imaging, advanced synchrotron real-time in situ imaging was used to observe primary IMC formation in SAC305-KGC solder joints subjected to multiple reflow soldering. The addition of KGC particles in SAC305 suppressed the Cu6Sn5 IMC's growth as primary and interfacial layers, improving the shear strength after multiple reflow soldering. The growth rate constant for the interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMC was also calculated in this study. The average growth rate of the primary Cu6Sn5 IMCs decreased from 49 µm/s in SAC305 to 38 µm/s with the addition of KGC particles. As a result, the average solidified length in the SAC305-KGC is shorter than SAC305 for multiple reflow soldering. It was also observed that with KGC additions, the growth direction of the primary Cu6Sn5 IMC in SAC305 changed from one growth to two growth directions. The observed results can be attributed to the presence of KGC particles both at grains of interfacial Cu6Sn5 IMCs and at the surface of primary Cu6Sn5 IMC.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(7)2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408007

RESUMO

Geopolymer materials are used as construction materials due to their lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions compared with conventional cementitious materials. An example of a geopolymer material is alkali-activated kaolin, which is a viable alternative for producing high-strength ceramics. Producing high-performing kaolin ceramics using the conventional method requires a high processing temperature (over 1200 °C). However, properties such as pore size and distribution are affected at high sintering temperatures. Therefore, knowledge regarding the sintering process and related pore structures on alkali-activated kaolin geopolymer ceramic is crucial for optimizing the properties of the aforementioned materials. Pore size was analyzed using neutron tomography, while pore distribution was observed using synchrotron micro-XRF. This study elucidated the pore structure of alkali-activated kaolin at various sintering temperatures. The experiments showed the presence of open pores and closed pores in alkali-activated kaolin geopolymer ceramic samples. The distributions of the main elements within the geopolymer ceramic edifice were found with Si and Al maps, allowing for the identification of the kaolin geopolymer. The results also confirmed that increasing the sintering temperature to 1100 °C resulted in the alkali-activated kaolin geopolymer ceramic samples having large pores, with an average size of ~80 µm3 and a layered porosity distribution.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(5)2022 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269179

RESUMO

The steel industry is responsible for one-third of all global industrial CO2 emissions, putting pressure on the industry to shift forward towards more environmentally friendly production methods. The metallurgical industry is under enormous pressure to reduce CO2 emissions as a result of growing environmental concerns about global warming. The reduction in CO2 emissions is normally fulfilled by recycling steel waste into alkali-activated cement. Numerous types of steel waste have been produced via three main production routes, including blast furnace, electric arc furnace, and basic oxygen furnace. To date, all of the steel waste has been incorporated into alkali activation system to enhance the properties. This review focuses on the current developments over the last ten years in the steelmaking industry. This work also summarizes the utilization of steel waste for improving cement properties through an alkali activation system. Finally, this work presents some future research opportunities with regard to the potential of steel waste to be utilized as an alkali-activated material.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(4)2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35207990

RESUMO

Recently, research into the factors that influence the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer in lead-free solders has piqued interest, as IMCs play an important role in solder joints. The reliability of solder joints is critical to the long-term performance of electronic products. One of the most important factors which are known to influence solder joint reliability is the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer formed between the solder and the substrate. Although the formation of an IMC layer signifies good bonding between the solder and substrate, its main disadvantage is due to its brittle nature. This paper reviews the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints detailing the effect of alloying additions, surface finishes, aging time, aging temperature and solder volume. The formation and growth of the brittle IMCs were significantly affected by these factors and could be possibly controlled. This review may be used as a basis in understanding the major factors effecting the IMC formation and growth and relating it to the reliability of solder joints.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(4)2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35208036

RESUMO

There is a burgeoning interest in the development of geopolymers as sustainable construction materials and incombustible inorganic polymers. However, geopolymers show quasi-brittle behavior. To overcome this weakness, hundreds of researchers have focused on the development, characterization, and implementation of geopolymer-reinforced fibers for a wide range of applications for light geopolymers concrete. This paper discusses the rapidly developing geopolymer-reinforced fibers, focusing on material and geometrical properties, numerical simulation, and the effect of fibers on the geopolymers. In the section on the effect of fibers on the geopolymers, a comparison between single and hybrid fibers will show the compressive strength and toughness of each type of fiber. It is proposed that interfacial bonding between matrix and fibers is important to obtain better results, and interfacial bonding between matrix and fiber depends on the type of material surface contact area, such as being hydrophobic or hydrophilic, as well as the softness or roughness of the surface.

15.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(1)2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35009521

RESUMO

Geopolymers, or also known as alkali-activated binders, have recently emerged as a viable alternative to conventional binders (cement) for soil stabilization. Geopolymers employ alkaline activation of industrial waste to create cementitious products inside treated soils, increasing the clayey soils' mechanical and physical qualities. This paper aims to review the utilization of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)-based geopolymers for soil stabilization by enhancing strength. Previous research only used one type of precursor: fly ash or GGBFS, but the strength value obtained did not meet the ASTM D 4609 (<0.8 Mpa) standard required for soil-stabilizing criteria of road construction applications. This current research focused on the combination of two types of precursors, which are fly ash and GGBFS. The findings of an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test on stabilized soil samples were discussed. Finally, the paper concludes that GGBFS and fly-ash-based geo-polymers for soil stabilization techniques can be successfully used as a binder for soil stabilization. However, additional research is required to meet the requirement of ASTM D 4609 standard in road construction applications, particularly in subgrade layers.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(23)2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34885611

RESUMO

There is nothing more fundamental than clean potable water for living beings next to air. On the other hand, wastewater management is cropping up as a challenging task day-by-day due to lots of new additions of novel pollutants as well as the development of infrastructures and regulations that could not maintain its pace with the burgeoning escalation of populace and urbanizations. Therefore, momentous approaches must be sought-after to reclaim fresh water from wastewaters in order to address this great societal challenge. One of the routes is to clean wastewater through treatment processes using diverse adsorbents. However, most of them are unsustainable and quite costly e.g. activated carbon adsorbents, etc. Quite recently, innovative, sustainable, durable, affordable, user and eco-benevolent Geopolymer composites have been brought into play to serve the purpose as a pretty novel subject matter since they can be manufactured by a simple process of Geopolymerization at low temperature, lower energy with mitigated carbon footprints and marvellously, exhibit outstanding properties of physical and chemical stability, ion-exchange, dielectric characteristics, etc., with a porous structure and of course lucrative too because of the incorporation of wastes with them, which is in harmony with the goal to transit from linear to circular economy, i.e., "one's waste is the treasure for another". For these reasons, nowadays, this ground-breaking inorganic class of amorphous alumina-silicate materials are drawing the attention of the world researchers for designing them as adsorbents for water and wastewater treatment where the chemical nature and structure of the materials have a great impact on their adsorption competence. The aim of the current most recent state-of-the-art and scientometric review is to comprehend and assess thoroughly the advancements in geo-synthesis, properties and applications of geopolymer composites designed for the elimination of hazardous contaminants viz., heavy metal ions, dyes, etc. The adsorption mechanisms and effects of various environmental conditions on adsorption efficiency are also taken into account for review of the importance of Geopolymers as most recent adsorbents to get rid of the death-defying and toxic pollutants from wastewater with a view to obtaining reclaimed potable and sparkling water for reuse offering to trim down the massive crisis of scarcity of water promoting sustainable water and wastewater treatment for greener environments. The appraisal is made on the performance estimation of Geopolymers for water and wastewater treatment along with the three-dimensional printed components are characterized for mechanical, physical and chemical attributes, permeability and Ammonium (NH4+) ion removal competence of Geopolymer composites as alternative adsorbents for sequestration of an assortment of contaminants during wastewater treatment.

17.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832267

RESUMO

Underwater concrete is a cohesive self-consolidated concrete used for concreting underwater structures such as bridge piers. Conventional concrete used anti-washout admixture (AWA) to form a high-viscosity underwater concrete to minimise the dispersion of concrete material into the surrounding water. The reduction of quality for conventional concrete is mainly due to the washing out of cement and fine particles upon casting in the water. This research focused on the detailed investigations into the setting time, washout effect, compressive strength, and chemical composition analysis of alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) paste through underwater placement in seawater and freshwater. Class C fly ash as source materials, sodium silicate, and sodium hydroxide solution as alkaline activator were used for this study. Specimens produced through underwater placement in seawater showed impressive performance with strength 71.10 MPa on 28 days. According to the Standard of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers (JSCE), the strength of specimens for underwater placement must not be lower than 80% of the specimen's strength prepared in dry conditions. As result, the AAFA specimens only showed 12.11% reduction in strength compared to the specimen prepared in dry conditions, thus proving that AAFA paste has high potential to be applied in seawater and freshwater applications.

18.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576358

RESUMO

This manuscript reports the isothermal annealing effect on the mechanical and microstructure characteristics of Sn-0.7Cu-1.5Bi solder joints. A detailed microstructure observation was carried out, including measuring the activation energy of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer of the solder joints. Additionally, the synchrotron µX-ray fluorescence (XRF) method was adopted to precisely explore the elemental distribution in the joints. Results indicated that the Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic layers thickness at the solder/Cu interface rises with annealing time at a rate of 0.042 µm/h for Sn-0.7Cu and 0.037 µm/h for Sn-0.7Cu-1.5Bi. The IMC growth's activation energy during annealing is 48.96 kJ mol-1 for Sn-0.7Cu, while adding Bi into Sn-0.7Cu solder increased the activation energy to 55.76 kJ mol-1. The µ-XRF shows a lower Cu concentration level in Sn-0.7Cu-1.5Bi, where the Bi element was well dispersed in the ß-Sn area as a result of the solid solution mechanism. The shape of the IMC layer also reconstructs from a scallop shape to a planar shape after the annealing process. The Sn-0.7Cu hardness and shear strength increased significantly with 1.5 wt.% Bi addition in reflowed and after isothermal annealing conditions.

19.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443086

RESUMO

Modification has been made to TiO2 thin film to improve the wettability and the absorption of light. The sol-gel spin coating method was successfully used to synthesize GO/TiO2 thin films using a titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor. Different amounts of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (20 to 100 mg) were added into the parent sol solution to improve the optical properties and wettability of the GO/TiO2 thin film. The effect of different amounts of PEG was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the phase composition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for microstructure observation, atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the surface topography, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-VIS) for the optical properties and wettability of the thin films by measuring the water contact angle. The XRD analysis showed the amorphous phase. The SEM and AFM images revealed that the particles were less agglomerated and surface roughness increases from 1.21 × 102 to 2.63 × 102 nm when the amount of PEG increased. The wettability analysis results show that the water contact angle of the thin film decreased to 27.52° with the increase of PEG to 80 mg which indicated that the thin film has hydrophilic properties. The optical properties also improved significantly, where the light absorbance wavelength became wider and the band gap was reduced from 3.31 to 2.82 eV with the presence of PEG.

20.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198532

RESUMO

Currently, novel inorganic alumino-silicate materials, known as geopolymer composites, have emerged swiftly as an ecobenevolent alternative to contemporary ordinary Portland cement (OPC) building materials since they display superior physical and chemical attributes with a diverse range of possible potential applications. The said innovative geopolymer technology necessitates less energy and low carbon footprints as compared to OPC-based materials because of the incorporation of wastes and/or industrial byproducts as binders replacing OPC. The key constituents of ceramic are silica and alumina and, hence, have the potential to be employed as an aggregate to manufacture ceramic geopolymer concrete. The present manuscript presents a review of the performance of geopolymer composites incorporated with ceramic waste, concerning workability, strength, durability, and elevated resistance evaluation.

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