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Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131913, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418662


Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) provides alternatives technique to produce a nanosize activated carbon from biomass with a high surface area. Herein, this study we prepared empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon (EFBHAC) using HTC technique. The activated carbon was then functionalized with K2CO3 and Cu(NO3)2 to produce bifunctional nano-catalyst for simultaneous esterification-transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO). The physicochemical properties were performed i.e. N2 sorptions analysis, TPD-CO2/NH3, FESEM, EDX, FTIR and XRD analysis. The results revealed that produced EFBHAC possessed a BET surface area of 4056.17 m2 g-1, with pore volume of 0.827 cm3 g-1 and 5.42 nm of pore diameter resulting from hydrolysis, dehydration decarboxylation, aromatization and re-condensation during HTC process. Impregnation of EFBHAC with K2CO3 and Cu(NO3)2 granted a high amount of basicity and acidity of 9.21 mmol g-1 and 31.41 mmol g-1, respectively, accountable to high biodiesel yield of 97.1%, produced at the optimum condition of 5 wt% of catalyst loading, 12:1 of methanol to oil molar ratio at 70 °C for 2 h. More than 80% of biodiesel was produced after the 5th cycle depicted the good reusability. The transformations from WCO to biodiesel was confirmed via 1H NMR, FTIR and TGA analysis. Fuel properties revealed kinematic viscosity of 3.3 mm2 s-1, cetane number of 51, flash point of 160.5 °C, cloud and pour point of 11 °C and -3 °C, respectively. These results show the excellent potential of waste materials to prepare bifunctional nano-catalysts to produce higher biodiesel yield which has potential to be commercialized.

Biocombustíveis , Óleos de Plantas , Biocombustíveis/análise , Catálise , Culinária , Esterificação
RSC Adv ; 10(45): 27183-27193, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35515760


The potential of bifunctional nanocatalysts obtained from waste palm kernel shell (PKS) was investigated for one-step transesterification-esterification under mild conditions. State-of-the-art characterization illustrated that the synthesized catalyst has high stability through the thermal test, high BET surface area of 438.08 m2 g-1, pore volume of 0.367 cm3 g-1 and pore width of 3.8 nm. The high amount of basicity (8.866 mmol g-1) and acidity (27.016 mmol g-1) promoted the successfulness of simultaneous transesterification-esterification. The investigation revealed that the combination of potassium and copper on activated carbon surface showed good catalytic activity by giving 95.0% FAME yield and 97.3% FFA conversion at a relatively mild condition of 5 wt% catalyst loading, 12 : 1 methanol to oil molar ratio at 80 °C for 4 hours with FAME yield > 80% after 5 reaction cycles. Characterization of the spent catalyst showed that the amount of basicity was reduced to 3.106 mmol g-1, which validated the reduction of the catalytic performance. The usage of waste material was successfully discovered in producing an effective bifunctional catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO) and has high potential for commercialization in the future.