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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371454

RESUMO

This study investigated the preventive effects of lactoferrin (LF) on subjective acute gastrointestinal symptoms during the winter in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group comparative trial. The eligible subjects were healthy adults working at kindergartens and nursery schools. We randomized the subjects to the Placebo group (0 mg/day), the Low LF group (200 mg/day), and the High LF group (600 mg/day) for 12 weeks. The prevalence of acute gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly lower in the High LF (13/112 vs. 26/116; p = 0.030) and the Low LF (13/107 vs. 26/116; p = 0.040) groups than in the Placebo group. The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of acute gastrointestinal symptoms was 2.78 (95% CI: 1.19-6.47) in the Placebo group compared with the High LF group. LF is useful to prevent acute gastrointestinal symptoms among childcare workers, who mainly consist of women.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Lactoferrina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Escolas Maternais
2.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 12: 671-677, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061724

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate preliminarily the effect of lactoferrin (LF)-fortified formula on sleep conditions in children. Study Design: A preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Healthy children between the ages of 12 and 32 months who attended nursery schools in Japan were divided into two groups and assigned a placebo or LF (48 mg/day)-fortified formula. Children's sleep conditions were investigated before and after the 13-week intervention using the Japanese Sleep Questionnaire for Preschoolers (JSQ-P). Results: Altogether, 109 participants were randomized. Eight participants were eliminated due to lost to follow-up, withdrawal of consent, and ineligibility, with 101 participants (placebo, n = 48; LF, n = 53) included in the full analysis set (FAS) and used for analysis. Wake-up time, bedtime, and nighttime sleep were comparable between the two groups before and after intervention. The change in total JSQ-P T scores tended to improve in the LF group (placebo vs LF: 0.5 ± 6.5 vs -1.9 ± 6.1, p = 0.074), in particular, morning symptoms significantly improved (grumpy in the morning, hard to wake-up, and hard to get out of bed) (placebo vs LF: 0.8 ± 6.2 vs -1.9 ± 6.2, p = 0.028). A better trend was also observed in the LF group regarding restless legs syndrome (RLS)-motor (rubs feet at night and touches feet at night) (placebo vs LF: 2.3 ± 10.7 vs -0.6 ± 13.5, p = 0.083) and insufficient sleep (stays up more than one hour later the day before a holiday and wakes up more than one hour later on a holiday) (placebo vs LF: 0.1 ± 9.8 vs -1.7 ± 8.8, p = 0.095). No adverse drug reactions were found. Conclusion: LF intake may improve sleep condition, especially morning symptoms in children above one year of age.

3.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(4): 374-381, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713812

RESUMO

With increased awareness among consumers regarding food safety and security, food allergen control has become an indispensable requirement in the food industry. Although several methods for detecting allergens in food products are available, highly sensitive techniques are required. In this study, we developed a technique named as peptide array-based inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Pep-iEIA, for evaluating antigenicity and detecting cow's milk antigen in infant formula products, using a peptide array consisting of a series of overlapping peptides found in allergenic milk proteins. Pep-iEIA was used to examine five cow's milk-based infant formulas with different degrees of hydrolyzation, and the assay offered both more sensitive detection and detailed analysis of remaining antigenic peptides in allergen compared to conventional ELISA. The antigenicity level of the allergenic peptides identified using Pep-iEIA was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance assay. We believe that Pep-iEIA will be highly useful for antigenicity evaluation of dairy products consumed by infants and patients with cow's milk allergy.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12691, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728064

RESUMO

The real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) to amplify a single-copy of house-keeping genes (i.e., hsp60, pheS or tuf) are used for the assay of limited microbial species. In general, with a single-copy gene, there are obviously varied DNA sequences for even the same microbial species, which could cause difficulties with design of primers and probes for PCR when targeting various single copy genes. In general, for identification by dPCR (as a representative case: Lactobacillus paracasei), accumulated DNA sequence information of 16S rDNA, which is much more frequently used, should be targeted. In contrast, next-generation sequencing revealed that there are five copies of 16S rDNA in a live L. paracasei MCC1849. Therefore, we aimed to reveal, if heat-killed L. paracasei supplemented in nutritional foods that aid the host immune system have the relevant five copies per chromosomal DNA, and if the relevant copies remain unchanged on the same chromosomal DNA or remain to be different chromosomal DNA fragments. So, we revealed the actual distribution of the potential original five copies of 16S rDNA using our innovative dPCR, in which both 16S rDNA and hsp60 genes were simultaneously elongated. The molecular ratios of 16S rDNA/hsp60 dispersed in the dPCR chip were then estimated. The 16S rDNA/hsp60 molecular ratios of the heat-killed L. paracasei in foods, resultantly ranged from 5.0 to 7.2, being the same or higher than that of the five copies determined by next-generation sequencing. The 16S rDNA copy number/ratio indicated the chromosomal DNA molecular number and the associated cell number. As significance, different nutritional foods could potentially cause the loss of chromosomal DNA of supplemented beneficial microbes to a much greater degree. Our absolute dPCR does not require standard correlative samples for the estimation of final products. The estimation principle of the ratio of 16S rDNA/a house-keeping single-copy gene by our absolute dPCR could lead to a useful and accurate assay for various nutritional foods.

5.
J Clin Med Res ; 12(7): 443-447, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655739

RESUMO

Background: The uric acid (UA) clearance test to evaluate the hyperuricemia phenotype requires a great deal of time. However, the utility of single spot urine is scarce. The study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of single spot urine for predicting renal UA underexcretion (the decreased UA excretion) in men. Methods: A total of 73 male participants aged 20 - 74 years with a UA level of 6.0 - 7.9 mg/dL were enrolled in the study. Renal UA underexcretion was defined as < 7.3 mL/min using the 60-min method. Urinary UA to creatinine ratio (UACR), fractional clearance of urate (FCU), and the Simkin index were calculated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic utility of these parameters for predicting UA underexcretion. Results: In the ROC analysis, the area under the curve values of the UACR, FCU, and the Simkin index for predicting UA underexcretion were 0.903 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.830 - 0.976), 0.841 (95% CI: 0.749 - 0.933), and 0.779 (95% CI: 0.673 - 0.885), respectively. An optimal UACR cutoff of 0.460 (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 80.6%, overall diagnostic accuracy 84.9%, positive predictive value 82.5%, and negative predictive value 87.9%) was identified. Conclusions: These results suggest that the UACR is a simple and efficient test with high sensitivity and specificity levels for predicting renal UA underexcretion in men.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509712

RESUMO

Objective: We investigated the effects of lactoferrin (LF)-fortified formula on acute gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms in children. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting and subjects: Children aged 12-32 months in Japan. Intervention: Intake of placebo or LF (48 mg/day)-fortified formula for 13 weeks. Primary endpoint: Prevalence of acute gastrointestinal and respiratory symptom. Results: One hundred nine participants were randomized. Eight participants were lost to follow-up, withdrew consent, or were deemed inappropriate for the trial, with 101 participants receiving complete analyses (placebo group, n = 48; LF group, n = 53). Outcomes: The prevalence of acute gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly less in the LF group (22/53 [41.5%]) than in the placebo group (30/48 [62.5%], p = 0.046). The total number of days having acute respiratory symptoms was significantly lower in the LF group (9.0) than in the placebo group (15.0, p = 0.030). Harms: The rate of adverse events was similar between the groups. No adverse drug reactions were found. Conclusions: LF intake decreased the prevalence of acute gastrointestinal symptoms in children aged 12-32 months.

7.
J Dermatol ; 47(9): 998-1006, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515040

RESUMO

Daily oral intake of 40 µg Aloe sterol was shown in a double-blind clinical trial to significantly increase skin barrier function, moisture and elasticity. Ultrasonographic results also suggested that the intake of Aloe sterol increases collagen content in the dermis. Here, we evaluate the effects of a much smaller dose of Aloe sterol, approximately half that used previously, on skin functions in more detail. This is a monocentric, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, supplementation study of the effects of low-dose Aloe sterol on skin transepidermal water loss, hydration, collagen score, evaluation of objective or subjective symptoms, and safety after 12 weeks of daily intake. We randomly administrated either Aloe sterol or placebo to 122 healthy volunteers. Transepidermal water loss was significantly reduced and collagen score was increased in the Aloe sterol group compared with the placebo group at week 12. In the Aloe sterol group, there was significant improvement of objective skin condition (face erythema and pruritus of inner and outer arms) at week 12 compared with week 0, but not in the placebo group. Subjectively, there was significant improvement of visual analog scale of skin acne, fingernail brittleness and constipation in the Aloe sterol group. According to subgroup analysis, although not planned before the study initiation, subjects with dry skin in the Aloe sterol group had significantly increased skin hydration values at week 12 compared with the placebo group. Our results confirmed that even low-dose Aloe sterol ingestion improves skin moisture by promoting skin barrier function and dermal collagen production, which contributes to maintenance of healthy skin.

8.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 743-754, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546992

RESUMO

Background: Preventative measures have recently been taken to reduce the incidence of Alzheimer's disease worldwide. We previously showed that Met-Lys-Pro (MKP), a casein-derived angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide with the potential to cross the blood-brain barrier, attenuated cognitive decline in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. However, the effect of MKP on cognitive function improvement in humans remains unknown. This exploratory study sought to investigate whether MKP intake could improve cognitive function in adults without dementia. Methods: A total of 268 community-dwelling adults without dementia participated in this 24-week randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the MKP (n = 134) or placebo (n = 134) group. The MKP group received four tablets daily, each containing 50 µg MKP, while the placebo group received four dextrin tablets containing no detectable MKP for 24 weeks. Scores on the Japanese version of the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) were used as the primary outcome to compare cognitive function between the MKP and placebo groups. The study products were also evaluated for safety. Results: The intention-to-treat analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the ADAS-cog total score. Orientation, as measured by the respective ADAS-cog subscale, was significantly improved compared to placebo at 24 weeks post-MKP administration (P = 0.022). No serious adverse events due to MKP intake were observed. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the effects of MKP on human cognition. These preliminary results suggested the safety of daily MKP intake and its potential to improve orientation in adults without dementia. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm the present findings and the benefits of MKP on cognitive function.


Assuntos
Caseínas/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Oligopeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 66(2): 176-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350179

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe sterols. Previously, we reported that oral intake of Aloe vera components has an anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effect. This study was designed to assess the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the anti-obesity effect of AVGE. Six-week-old male mice were divided into three groups; STD (standard diet), HFD (60% high fat diet) and AVGE (60% high fat diet with AVGE treatment). During 11 wk of AVGE administration, body weight has been monitored. Tissue samples were obtained to be measured the weight and evaluated the gene expressions. Mice treated with AVGE had suppressed body weight, and liver and fat weight gain. To investigate BAT activation, we measured the expression of mRNA related to BAT thermogenesis. Mice in the AVGE group had higher expression of Ucp1, Adrb3, and Cidea in BAT compared to HFD. Next, to investigate the possibility that AVGE induced hepatic FGF21, which is an important factor for nutrient and energy homeostasis including BAT regulation, in vitro study was conducted. HepG2 cell stimulated by AVGE were highly expressed FGF21. These results suggested that BAT activation partially contributes to mechanism of anti-obesity effect of Aloe sterols in diet-induced obesity (DIO) models. However, further study is needed to determine the predominant mechanism.

10.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348689

RESUMO

Human noroviruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide but lack approved antivirals or vaccines to treat or prevent infections. The recent development of two cell culture systems in human transformed B cells (BJABs) and non-transformed human intestinal enteroids cultures overcomes a main limitation in identifying molecules with anti-norovirus activities. Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in the milk of most mammals with broad spectrum antimicrobial activities, including against the related murine norovirus in cell culture. Its ingestion also reduced the incidence of infectious gastroenteritis in Japanese clinical trial participants. Since human noroviruses were the most common cause of gastroenteritis in Japan during the clinical trial period, we sought to determine whether lactoferrin can inhibit human norovirus infection. Our study demonstrates that lactoferrin reduces human norovirus infection in the B cell culture model. The mechanism of antiviral action is likely indirect and may involve induction of innate interferon responses. Therefore, future studies are warranted to test the antiviral efficacy of lactoferrin against human norovirus infection in patients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272777

RESUMO

To evaluate the effects of bovine lactoferrin (LF)-containing yogurt on gastroenteritis in nursery school children during the winter season, we conducted a randomized prospective study. A total of 1296 children were randomized into a group in which LF was provided in yogurt (LF group, n = 661) and a non-LF consumption group (control group, n = 635). The LF group was given LF-containing yogurt (100 mg/day) on all 5 weekdays for approximately 15 weeks, and the control group consumed fruit jelly instead of the yogurt. The final totals of 578 children as the LF group and 584 as the control group were analyzed. The total number of children who were absent from school due to vomiting was significantly lower in the LF group compared to the control, accounting for ≥3 days in any week: 10/234 (4.3%) vs. 49/584 (8.4%), respectively; p = 0.04. Regarding the relationship between absences due to vomiting and the consumption of the LF-containing yogurt, the adjusted odds ratio for absence due to vomiting was 2.48 (95% CI: 1.19-5.14) in the LF children who consumed LF-containing yogurt ≤2 days/week compared to the LF children who consumed the yogurt ≥ 3 days/week. The consumption of LF-containing yogurt (100 mg/day) for ≥3 days/week might help alleviate the symptom of vomiting in nursery school children during the winter.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Iogurte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escolas Maternais , Estações do Ano
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151562

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of lactoferrin (LF) on infectious diseases in Japanese summer. METHODS: An intake of placebo, 200 mg, or 600 mg of LF were administered to healthy adults in Kyushu University of Health and Welfare for 12 weeks in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group comparative trial. The primary endpoints were the prevalence and duration of infectious diseases and changes in immune parameters. RESULTS: Three hundred and ten subjects were randomized (placebo, n = 104; 200 mg, n = 103; 600 mg, n = 103). Twenty subjects were lost to the follow-up, leaving 290 for a full analysis set (n = 99; n = 95; n = 96). The duration (day) of total infectious diseases was shorter in the 200 mg group (2.0, p = 0.045) and 600 mg group (2.0, p = 0.010) than in the placebo group (3.0). The duration of summer colds was shorter in the 600 mg group (2.0, p = 0.036) than in the placebo group (3.0). No significant differences were observed in the prevalence of infectious diseases or changes in immune parameters. In exploratory investigations, changes in the neutrophil phagocytic capacity, cortisol concentrations, and T score of "Vigor/Activity" in the Profile of Mood States 2 were greater in the 600 mg group than in the placebo group, when analysis was done on the lower half groups at the baseline. Adverse events were similar in each group and none had a causal relationship with the intake of the test foods. CONCLUSIONS: In summer, the intake of LF attenuates infectious diseases, including summer colds.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 74(1): 245-259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985470

RESUMO

Lactoferrin (LF) is present in senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and amyloid-ß protein precursor transgenic (AßPP-Tg) mice. LF has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions, which exert neuroprotective effects against AD. However, its effects on memory impairment and AD pathogenesis have not been fully examined. In this study, we examined the effects of LF on memory impairment and AD pathogenesis in AßPP-Tg mice (J20 mice). Nine-month-old J20 mice were fed with control, 2% lactoferrin-containing (LF), and 0.5% pepsin-hydrolyzed lactoferrin-containing (LF-hyd) diets for 3 months. We found that both the LF and LF-hyd diets attenuated memory impairment in J20 mice and decreased brain Aß40 and Aß42 levels through the inhibition of amyloidogenic processing of AßPP, as it decreased ß-site amyloid protein precursor cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) levels. Furthermore, we found for the first time that LF and LF-hyd treatments increased both ApoE secretion and ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) protein levels in the brains of J20 mice and in primary astrocyte cultures. Moreover, LF and LF-hyd promoted extracellular degradation of Aß in primary astrocyte cultures. These findings indicate that the reduction in Aß levels in the brains of mice fed with both the LF and LF-hyd diets may also be mediated by increased ApoE secretion and ABCA1 protein levels, which in turn leads to the enhanced degradation of Aß in the brains of J20 mice. Our findings suggest that LF and LF-hyd can be used for the treatment and/or prevention of the development of AD.

14.
Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol ; 12: 875-880, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819585

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of lactoferrin (LF) on subjective skin conditions in winter. Design: A preliminary, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Setting and subjects: Healthy adults in Japan. Interventions: Intake of placebo, 200 mg, or 600 mg of LF for 12 weeks in winter. Endpoints: Changes in the scores of subjective skin conditions. Results: Three hundred and forty-six subjects were randomized. Nine subjects (placebo, n=0; 200 mg, n=5; 600 mg, n=4) withdrew consent, and 7 subjects (placebo, n=4; 200 mg, n=2; 600 mg, n=1) were lost to follow-up, resulting in 330 for a full analysis set. Outcomes: Changes in the scores of moisture were greater in the 600 mg group than in the placebo group. Changes in the scores of moisture were greater in the 200 mg and 600 mg groups, and of texture were greater in the 600 mg group than in the placebo group in female subjects. Conclusion: Intake of LF may improve moisture or texture of skin in winter.

15.
J Periodontal Res ; 54(6): 702-708, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of tablets containing lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) on gingival health and oral health-related quality of life in healthy adults. BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin and LPO are host defense factors found in saliva that may contribute to oral health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty adults were randomly assigned to the administration of high-dose tablets (LF 60 mg/d, LPO 7.8 mg/d), low-dose tablets (LF 20 mg/d, LPO 2.6 mg/d), or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PlI) were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Oral health-related quality of life was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. RESULTS: One hundred and nine healthy subjects were included in the efficacy analysis. In the high-dose group, the GI was significantly reduced after 12 weeks of treatment, and the reduction in GI in the high-dose group was significant compared with the placebo group. In both the high-dose group and the low-dose group, PlI showed a significant decrease at 12 weeks compared with baseline. The total OHIP score was significantly reduced at 12 weeks in the high-dose group. In addition, the OHIP functional limitation subscale displayed significant improvement in the high-dose groups compared with the placebo group at 12 weeks. No adverse reactions or serious adverse events related to the test tablets were observed in any of participants during the study, and the incidence of adverse events unrelated to the tablets did not differ significantly among the groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that intake of tablets containing LF (60 mg/d) and LPO (7.8 mg/d) can potentially improve gingival inflammation and oral health-related quality of life in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactoferrina/uso terapêutico , Lactoperoxidase/uso terapêutico , Saúde Bucal , Adulto , Índice de Placa Dentária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Qualidade de Vida , Comprimidos
16.
Biosci Microbiota Food Health ; 38(2): 69-72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106110

RESUMO

To investigate the prebiotic effect of lactulose at low dosages, we assessed changes in defaecation frequency following ingestion of 1, 2, or 3 g/day of lactulose for 2 weeks. Each test was carried out after a 2-week washout period. This was an open-label, before-after trial that enrolled 26 healthy Japanese women. The defaecation frequency, number of defaecation days, and number of faecal bifidobacteria increased significantly compared with before ingestion of 1, 2, and 3 g/day of lactulose. These results suggest that even 1 g/day of lactulose could have a prebiotic effect.

17.
Drug Discov Ther ; 13(1): 28-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880319

RESUMO

Candida albicans is a commensal fungus in human mucosal surfaces, including the oral cavity. Lactoferrin (LF) and the lactoperoxidase (LPO) system, which are host protection components in exocrine secretions, each exhibit weak anti-candida activity. We herein examined the effects of the combination of LF and the LPO system on C. albicans. Morphological observations indicated that the combination of LF and the LPO system reduced the mycelial volume of C. albicans and changed the size and shape of cells more than each agent alone. The combination of LF and the LPO system also exerted strong inhibitory effects on the cellular metabolic activity and adhesive hyphal form of C. albicans. A checkerboard analysis revealed that the anti-candida activity of LF and the LPO system was synergistic. These results suggest that the combination of LF and the LPO system is useful for preventing candidiasis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactoferrina/administração & dosagem , Lactoperoxidase/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/metabolismo , Bovinos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Lactoperoxidase/metabolismo
18.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(2): 156-161, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862433

RESUMO

Food processing technology such as protein hydrolysis using proteases has been receiving a lot of attention, and it is important to accurately understand the cleavage specificity of each protease for selecting a protease suited to aims. Although numerous methods have been reported to reveal the substrate specificity of proteases, there is no method to evaluate simply, quickly, reasonably, and accurately. This study set out to devise Pep-MS assay, a novel assay system that can be used to comprehensively clarify positions at which proteases cleave, by combining a mass spectrometer and a photo-cleavable peptide array. First, we evaluated peptide array corresponding to the primary sequences of αS1-casein, αS2-casein and ß-casein with trypsin to verify the accuracy of the Pep-MS assay. The evaluation of cleavage positions by the trypsin protease reagent using the Pep-MS assay resulted in a matching rate of about 96.8% to rational cleavage positions. Next, we confirmed the cleavage positions in αS2-casein or ß-lactoglobulin by an industrial bacterial protease from Bacillus subtilis at some protease reaction temperatures or reaction times. The Pep-MS assay clarified the differences in the cleavage patterns due to the reaction temperature, and the change in the cleavage strength with the reaction time. Pep-MS assay is a promising method for evaluating the substrate specificity of proteases, which will be useful to find effective production conditions for functional peptide from foods and effective hydrolysis conditions for decreasing allergen of food proteins.


Assuntos
Caseínas/metabolismo , Lactoglobulinas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Processos Fotoquímicos , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Tripsina/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/enzimologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hidrólise , Cinética , Proteólise , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
19.
Int J Health Sci (Qassim) ; 12(5): 44-50, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202407

RESUMO

Objectives: Lactoferrin (LF) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are present in human saliva. LF has been demonstrated to show antibacterial and antiviral activities. In saliva, LPO catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation of thiocyanate to hypothiocyanite that exhibits antimicrobial and antiviral properties. A randomized, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted to examine the effectiveness of sucking tablets containing LF and LPO (LF+LPO) in alleviating symptoms of the common cold and/or influenza infection. Methods: A total of 407 subjects were randomized into two groups, treatment and non-treatment groups, and each group was further classified into subgroups habitually wearing a face mask, washing their hands, or gargling. The common cold, influenza, and gastrointestinal symptoms were used to evaluate the effectiveness, and the incidence and duration of symptoms were statistically analyzed. Results: The incidence and duration of common cold, gastrointestinal symptoms, and influenza infection were not statistically different between treatment and non-treatment groups. LF+LPO tablets were moderately effective in reducing the incidence and duration of common cold symptoms in the subgroup that did not gargle and especially to shorten significantly the duration of fever higher than 38°C in the subgroup that did not wear a face mask. Conclusion: The results suggested that the effect of ingestion of the tablet is not obvious in alleviating common cold symptoms but may be helpful when the subjects do not follow precautionary measures such as gargling and the use of a protective face mask.

20.
Biosci Microbiota Food Health ; 37(3): 67-75, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094122

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between the gut microbiota and the development of obesity, indicating the potential of probiotics as a therapeutic approach. Bifidobacterium breve B-3 has been shown to exert anti-obesity effects in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. In the present study, the anti-obesity effects of the consumption of B. breve B-3 by healthy pre-obese (25 ≤ BMI < 30) adults were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (trial registration: UMIN-CTR No. 000023919; preregistered on September 2, 2016). Eighty participants were randomized to receive placebo or B. breve B-3 capsules (2 × 1010 CFU/day) daily for 12 weeks. The visceral fat area significantly increased at weeks 4 and 8 in the placebo group only; no significant change was observed in the B-3 group. Body fat mass and percent body fat were significantly lower in the B-3 group than in the placebo group at weeks 8 and 12 (p<0.05, ANCOVA adjusted with baseline values). Although no significant differences were observed in blood parameters between the groups, the intake of B. breve B-3 slightly decreased triglyceride levels and improved HDL cholesterol from the baseline. No serious adverse effects were noted in either group. These results suggest that the probiotic strain B. breve B-3 has potential as a functional food ingredient to reduce body fat in healthy pre-obese individuals.

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