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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570786

RESUMO

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a common adverse effect of paclitaxel (PTX) treatment. To analyze the contribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the development of PTX-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia, TRPV1 expression in the rat spinal cord was analyzed after intraperitoneal administration of 2 and 4 mg/kg PTX. PTX treatment increased the expression of TRPV1 protein in the spinal cord. Immunohistochemistry showed that PTX (4 mg/kg) treatment increased TRPV1 protein expression in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn 14 days after treatment. Behavioral assessment using the paw withdrawal response showed that PTX-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia after 14 days was significantly inhibited by oral or intrathecal administration of the TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810. We found that intrathecal administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down TRPV1 protein expression in the spinal cord significantly decreased PTX-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia. Together, these results demonstrate that TRPV1 receptor expression in spinal cord contributes, at least in part, to the development of PTX-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. TRPV1 receptor antagonists may be useful in the prevention and treatment of PTX-induced peripheral neuropathic pain.

2.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493881

RESUMO

AIMS: The efficacy of antiplatelet therapy may vary among different disease subtypes. Prasugrel is generally a more potent, consistent, and fast-acting platelet inhibitor than clopidogrel. This sub-analysis of the phase III comparison of PRAsugrel and clopidogrel in Japanese patients with ischemic STROke (PRASTRO-I) trial aimed to assess the differences in efficacy of these treatments for each stroke subtype. METHODS: In the PRASTRO-I trial, a total of 3,753 patients with ischemic stroke were recruited from 224 centers throughout Japan and randomized (1:1) to prasugrel (3.75 mg/day) or clopidogrel (75 mg/day) for 96 weeks. For the sub-analysis, strokes were classified as large-artery atherosclerosis, small-artery occlusion (lacunar), stroke of other etiology, and stroke of undetermined etiology. The cumulative incidence of primary events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular cause) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for each subgroup. RESULTS: For patients with large-artery atherosclerosis, the primary event incidence was 3.8% in the prasugrel group and 4.8% in the clopidogrel group (HR 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-1.40). For patients with small-artery occlusion, the incidence was 3.3% in the prasugrel group and 3.9% in the clopidogrel group (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.46-1.53). For patients with stroke of undetermined etiology, the incidence was 4.6% in the prasugrel group and 3.0% in the clopidogrel group (HR 1.56; 95% CI 0.90-2.72). The incidence of bleeding was similar across subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Although statistical significance was not reached, the efficacy of prasugrel was potentially different between stroke subtypes, warranting further studies.

3.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 49(2): 152-159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208397

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of prasugrel in elderly and/or low body weight Japanese patients with ischemic stroke who have a relatively high bleeding risk with antiplatelet therapy remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of long-term prasugrel monotherapy for stroke prevention compared with clopidogrel in elderly and/or low body weight Japanese patients with non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, comparative, phase III study, elderly (age ≥75 years) and/or low body weight (≤50 kg) Japanese patients with a previous history of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke were assigned to a prasugrel 3.75 mg (PRA3.75) group, a prasugrel 2.5 mg (PRA2.5) group, or a clopidogrel 50 mg (CLO50) group and followed up for 48 weeks. The primary safety endpoint was the combined incidence of primary safety events, defined as life-threatening, major, and other clinically relevant bleeding. The efficacy endpoint was a composite of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes. RESULTS: A total of 654 patients (age 76.4 ± 7.3 years, body weight 55.6 ± 9.3 kg, women 43.9%) from 74 medical institutions within Japan were enrolled. The combined incidence (95% CI) of primary safety events was 4.2% (1.9-7.8%), 1.9% (0.5-4.7%), and 3.6% (1.6-6.9%) in the PRA3.75 group (n = 216), PRA2.5 group (n = 215), and CLO50 group (n = 223), respectively (hazard ratios [HR] PRA3.75/CLO50, 1.13 [0.44-2.93]; PRA2.5/CLO50, 0.51 [0.15-1.69]). The incidences of bleeding leading to treatment discontinuation (95% CI) were 2.3% (0.8-5.3%), 0.9% (0.1-3.3%), and 2.2% (0.7-5.2%) in the PRA3.75, PRA2.5, and CLO50 groups, respectively (HRs PRA3.75/CLO50, 1.01 [0.29-3.48]; PRA2.5/CLO50, 0.41 [0.08-2.12]). There was no significant difference in all bleeding events between groups. The incidence of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes was lower, but not significantly so, in patients treated with prasugrel than in patients treated with clopidogrel: PRA3.75, 0.0% (0/216); PRA2.5, 3.3% (7/215); and CLO50, 3.6% (8/223; HRs PRA3.75/CLO50, 0.00 [0.00-0.00]; PRA2.5/CLO50, 0.90 [0.32-2.47]). CONCLUSIONS: Elderly and/or low body weight -Japanese patients with previous non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke who received PRA3.75 showed similar results in terms of primary safety endpoint, and a numerically lower incidence of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes, compared with those who received CLO50.

4.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-5, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899978

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy has an important impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. Vincristine-induced neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are spontaneous pain, allodynia, and hyperalgesia. To analyze the contribution of substance P to the development of vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia, substance P levels in the rat spinal dorsal horn were analyzed after vincristine treatment. Mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia was tested with the von Frey filaments 14 days after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of vincristine 0.1 mg/kg/day in rats. Vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia after day 14 was significantly inhibited by the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, aprepitant (20 mg/kg, s.c.). Immunohistochemistry showed that vincristine treatment significantly increased substance P expression (30.3% ± 2.4%) compared to saline treatment in the superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn. Moreover, vincristine treatment significantly increased the substance P level in the spinal cord. These results suggest that vincristine treatment increases substance P in the spinal dorsal horn, and that aprepitant attenuates mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia in vincristine-induced neuropathic rats.

5.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 49(1): 10-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643039

RESUMO

Prasugrel, a novel P2Y12 receptor antagonist, has been shown to be more effective than clopidogrel for preventing cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. We investigated the dose-response antiplatelet effects of prasugrel compared with clopidogrel in Japanese patients with non-cardioembolic stroke. The influence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms on the antiplatelet effects of both drugs was also compared. In this multicenter randomized active-control comparative study, patients were randomized to receive prasugrel 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 7.5 mg (double blind) or clopidogrel 75 mg (open label) once daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint was inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) in response to adenosine diphosphate 20 µM within 8 h of study drug administration on day 14. Of the 66 patients randomized, data from 63 (prasugrel 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 7.5 mg groups, n = 14, 16, and 18, respectively; clopidogrel group, n = 15) were used in the pharmacodynamic assessment. IPA (arithmetic mean ± SD) after prasugrel administration increased dose-dependently (33 ± 9%, 44 ± 11%, and 53 ± 14%, at 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 7.5 mg, respectively) and was higher in these groups than after clopidogrel (23 ± 16%). In a subgroup of CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizers, IPA was higher in the prasugrel 5 mg and 7.5 mg groups than in the clopidogrel group. No death or serious adverse events were reported. Prasugrel was well tolerated at doses up to 7.5 mg/day and had antiplatelet effects higher than those of clopidogrel 75 mg/day. CYP2C19 polymorphisms may have reduced clopidogrel-induced IPA.

6.
Lancet Neurol ; 18(3): 238-247, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of prasugrel in terms of the prevention of recurrence of ischaemic stroke is unknown. We investigated the non-inferiority of prasugrel to clopidogrel for prevention of ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes in Japanese patients with non-cardioembolic stroke. METHODS: In this phase 3 randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial, patients aged 20-74 years who had had a non-cardioembolic stroke in the previous 1-26 weeks were recruited from 224 hospitals in Japan. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive prasugrel (3·75 mg/day) or clopidogrel (75 mg/day) orally for 96-104 weeks. Randomisation was stratified according to stroke subtype. The randomisation schedule was generated by an independent statistician who created a computer-generated random number sequence. Patients, investigators, and the funder were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was combined incidence of ischaemic stroke (fatal and non-fatal), myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal), and death from other vascular causes in the intention-to-treat population. The safety endpoint was incidence of bleeding events, comprising life-threatening bleeding, major bleeding, and clinically relevant bleeding. The safety analysis was done in the population excluding trial patients with serious Good Clinical Practice violations, and those who had not taken the trial drug. The predefined non-inferiority margin was an upper 95% CI limit for the risk ratio (RR) of 1·35. The trial was registered with the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (JapicCTI-111582). FINDINGS: Patients were recruited between Sept 1, 2011, and June 12, 2015. 3747 patients (797 [21%] women) were enrolled, with a mean age of 62·1 (SD 8·5) years. 3753 patients were randomly assigned to treatment and, of these patients, 1885 in the prasugrel group and 1862 in the clopidogrel group were confirmed to have taken the trial drug at least once, and six patients withdrew from the trial before administration of the trial drug. Thus, a total of 3747 patients were included in the full analysis set. 73 (4%) of 1885 patients in the prasugrel group and 69 (4%) of 1862 patients in the clopidogrel group reached the primary endpoint (RR 1·05, 95% CI 0·76-1·44). The incidence of bleeding events was not significantly different between treatment groups; life-threatening bleeding was observed in 18 (1%) patients in the prasugrel group and 23 (1%) patients in the clopidogrel group (RR 0·77, 0·41-1·42). INTERPRETATION: The non-inferiority of prasugrel to clopidogrel for the prevention of ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes was not confirmed in Japanese patients with non-cardioembolic stroke. No safety concerns were identified. FUNDING: Daiichi Sankyo.

7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 46(4): 488-495, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30074128

RESUMO

This randomized double-blind crossover study aimed to investigate the influence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 polymorphisms on the antiplatelet effects of prasugrel in patients with non-cardioembolic stroke treated with clopidogrel. Patients received clopidogrel 75 mg/day for > 4 weeks. Subsequently, patients received prasugrel 3.75 mg/day (group A; n = 64) or 2.5 mg/day (group B; n = 65) for 4 weeks followed by a 4 week switched-dose regimen. To assess the influence of CYP2C19 polymorphisms, patients were classified as extensive metabolizers (EMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), and poor metabolizers (PMs). The primary endpoint was P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) at the end of each 4 week treatment. A significant reduction in PRU was noted after treatment with prasugrel 3.75 mg/day compared with the pre-dose value (after treatment with clopidogrel) (p < 0.0001). By CYP2C19 phenotypes, a significant reduction in PRU was noted in IMs and PMs after treatment with prasugrel 3.75 mg/day and in PMs after treatment with prasugrel 2.5 mg/day, as compared with the pre-dose value (p < 0.0001). The plasma concentration of the active metabolite of clopidogrel was relatively low in PMs compared to EMs and IMs; prasugrel was similar across all CYP2C19 phenotypes. No major or clinically significant hemorrhagic adverse events occurred. By CYP2C19 phenotype, the antiplatelet effects of prasugrel were greater with 3.75 mg/day in IMs and PMs, and with 2.5 mg/day in PMs compared with clopidogrel 75 mg/day, without safety concerns. CYP2C19 polymorphisms did not affect the plasma concentration of the active metabolite of prasugrel or its antiplatelet effects. (JapicCTI-101044).


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Clopidogrel , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo Genético , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Ticlopidina/metabolismo , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico
8.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 19(6): 529-535, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This comparison of PRAsugrel and clopidogrel in Japanese patients with ischemic STROke (PRASTRO)-I trial investigates the noninferiority of prasugrel to clopidogrel sulfate in the prevention of recurrence of primary events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and death from other vascular causes), and the long-term safety of prasugrel in Japanese patients with non-cardioembolic stroke. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was an active-controlled, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study conducted between July 2011 and March 2016 at multiple centers around Japan. Patients had to meet eligibility criteria before receiving 3.75 mg prasugrel or 75 mg clopidogrel orally once daily for a period of 96-104 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 3747 patients were included in this trial; 1598 in the 3.75 mg prasugrel group and 1551 in the 75 mg clopidogrel group completed the study. During the study period, 287 (15.2%) patients in the prasugrel group and 311 (16.7%) in the clopidogrel group discontinued treatment. Baseline characteristics, safety, and efficacy results are forthcoming and will be published separately. CONCLUSIONS: This article presents the study design and rationale for a trial investigating the noninferiority of prasugrel to clopidogrel sulfate with regards to the inhibitory effect on primary events in patients with non-cardioembolic stroke.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Clopidogrel , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Japão , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Ticlopidina/farmacologia , Ticlopidina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cardiovasc Interv Ther ; 33(2): 135-145, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213685

RESUMO

Data on prasugrel use in Japanese patients are limited to phase II/III clinical trials. This early postmarketing observational study evaluated the safety and efficacy of short-term prasugrel use in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in real-world clinical settings in Japan. From May 2014 to January 2015, we enrolled consecutive patients with ACS requiring percutaneous coronary intervention in each institution. Each patient started prasugrel treatment ≥1 month before the end of the study period. Safety outcomes included incidence rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and bleeding adverse events (AEs). Efficacy outcomes were incidence rates of cardiovascular events (including major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]). Case report forms were collected from 749 patients, 732 of whom were eligible for the safety and efficacy analysis sets. Approximately 95% of patients had a prasugrel loading/maintenance dose of 20 mg/3.75 mg/day. The incidences of ADRs and bleeding AEs were 8.6 and 6.4%, respectively. Twelve patients experienced major bleeding AEs; approximately 60% (seven patients) of which were gastrointestinal disorders. The incidence of bleeding AEs was significantly higher primarily in patients of female sex, aged ≥75 years, with low body weight (≤50 kg), severe cardiovascular disease, or severe renal impairment. The incidence of MACE was 1.9% during prasugrel treatment, and 3.1% at the end of the study period. This short-term study indicated that prasugrel treatment at loading/maintenance doses of 20 mg/3.75 mg/day was safe and effective in Japanese ACS patients in an acute setting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ under the identifier UMIN000014699.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária
10.
Neuropeptides ; 67: 95-101, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274843

RESUMO

Transient receptor potential (TRP) receptors are involved in the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathic pain, which is a common side effect of selected chemotherapeutic agents such as oxaliplatin. However, the precise contribution of TRPs to this condition remains unknown. Cold hypersensitivity is the hallmark of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, so we used a preclinical model of oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity in rats to determine the effects of oxaliplatin on TRP channels. To this end, immunohistochemistry was used to examine TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), TRP ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and TRP melastatin 8 (TRPM8) expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after 4days of oxaliplatin treatment. Behavioral assessment using the acetone spray test showed that oxaliplatin significantly increased acute cold hypersensitivity after 4days of treatment. Double-staining immunohistochemistry showed that 4days after oxaliplatin treatment, there was increased co-expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in isolectin B4-positive small-sized DRG neurons, as well as a significant increase in the co-localization of TRPM8 and neurofilament 200 in medium-sized DRG neurons. In addition, in situ hybridization revealed that TRPV1 protein was co-expressed with TRPA1 mRNA on day 4 after oxaliplatin administration. Thus, at an early stage following oxaliplatin treatment there is an increased expression of TRPA1 and TRPV1 in small-sized DRG neurons and of TRPM8 in medium-sized DRG neurons. Collectively, these changes may contribute to the development of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/farmacologia , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/fisiopatologia , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oxaliplatina , Ratos Wistar , Canais de Cátion TRPV/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Receptores Transientes de Potencial/metabolismo
11.
Am Heart J ; 194: 99-106, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223441

RESUMO

Edoxaban-a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC)- 60-mg and 30-mg once-daily dose regimens are noninferior versus well-managed warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events (SEE) with less major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). There are no published data from phase 3 clinical trials specifically evaluating the use of NOACs in elderly NVAF patients, especially those considered ineligible for available oral anticoagulants. The Edoxaban Low-Dose for EldeR CARE AF patients (ELDERCARE-AF) study is a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter study that will compare the safety and efficacy of once-daily edoxaban 15 mg versus placebo in Japanese patients with NVAF ≥80 years of age who are considered ineligible for standard oral anticoagulant therapy. A total of 800 patients (400 in each treatment group) are planned for randomization (1:1) to either edoxaban or placebo using a stratified randomization method with CHADS2 index score (2 points, ≥3 points) as a factor. The primary efficacy end point is the time to first onset of stroke or SEE. The net clinical outcome is the composite of stroke, SEE, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. The primary safety end point is the incidence of major bleeding. The treatment period will continue until 65 patients with the primary efficacy events (ie, stroke or SEE) have been observed (2- to 2.5-year expected mean treatment period). The results of ELDERCARE-AF may provide clarity as to the efficacy and safety of edoxaban for the prevention of stroke or SEE in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Oncol Lett ; 14(1): 776-786, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28693233

RESUMO

Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), a mucinous sialylated sugar chain on human mucin-1 glycoprotein (MUC1), is a diagnostic marker for interstitial lung diseases. Furthermore, elevated serum KL-6 levels have been observed in certain malignant tumor types of epithelial origin. The expression of MUC1 has been observed in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and is considered a potential therapeutic target. In the present study, KL-6 serum levels were investigated in patients clinically suspected of having malignant ovarian tumors. A total of 219 patients were enrolled in the study, which analyzed their serum KL-6 levels in addition to tumor expression of MUC1 using immunohistochemistry. High serum KL-6 levels were predominantly observed in patients with EOC, and did not occur in patients with benign or borderline tumors. The level of serum KL-6 was highly correlated with tumor stage, grade and histological type, and demonstrated superior sensitivity for the detection of ovarian cancer compared with that of serum cancer antigen 125. High serum KL-6 was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival. In addition, tumor MUC1 expression status was significantly correlated with serum KL-6 levels. These data suggest that serum KL-6 may be a useful, non-invasive biomarker surrogate for tumor MUC1 expression in future clinical trials of MUC1-targeted therapy.

14.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 133(4): 254-260, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410966

RESUMO

The clinical anti-cancer efficacy of vincristine is limited by the development of dose-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Up-regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is correlated with peripheral neuropathy following anti-cancer drug treatment. To analyze the contribution of TRPV1 to the development of vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia, TRPV1 expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was analyzed after vincristine treatment. Mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia was tested with von Frey filaments 14 days after intraperitoneal administration of 0.1 mg/kg vincristine in rats. TRPV1 expression in DRGs following vincristine treatment was assessed with western blot analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry. Vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia/hyperalgesia after day 14 was significantly inhibited by the TRP antagonist ruthenium red (3 mg/kg, s.c.) and the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine (30 mg/kg, s.c.). Vincristine treatment increased the expression of TRPV1 protein in DRG neurons. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that most of the TRPV1 mRNA-labeled neurons in the DRG were small in size. Immunohistochemistry showed that isolectin B4-positive small DRG neurons co-expressed TRPV1 protein 14 days after treatment. These results suggest that vincristine treatment increases TRPV1 expression in small DRG neurons. TRPV1 expression may contribute to the development of vincristine-induced painful peripheral neuropathy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Vincristina/toxicidade , Animais , Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Capsaicina/farmacologia , Capsaicina/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Rutênio Vermelho/farmacologia , Rutênio Vermelho/uso terapêutico , Canais de Cátion TRPV/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44748, 2017 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28317852

RESUMO

There is a growing demand to develop biocontainment strategies that prevent unintended proliferation of genetically modified organisms in the open environment. We found that the hypophosphite (H3PO2, HPt) transporter HtxBCDE from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88 was also capable of transporting phosphite (H3PO3, Pt) but not phosphate (H3PO4, Pi), suggesting the potential for engineering a Pt/HPt-dependent bacterial strain as a biocontainment strategy. We disrupted all Pi and organic Pi transporters in an Escherichia coli strain expressing HtxABCDE and a Pt dehydrogenase, leaving Pt/HPt uptake and oxidation as the only means to obtain Pi. Challenge on non-permissive growth medium revealed that no escape mutants appeared for at least 21 days with a detection limit of 1.94 × 10-13 per colony forming unit. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest escape frequency among reported strategies. Since Pt/HPt are ecologically rare and not available in amounts sufficient for the growth of the Pt/HPt-dependent bacteria, this strategy offers a reliable and practical method for biocontainment.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Viabilidade Microbiana , Fosfitos/toxicidade , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Engenharia Metabólica , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação/genética , Fosfatos/metabolismo
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 101(5): 2057-2066, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27933453

RESUMO

Industrial glucose feedstock prepared by enzymatic digestion of starch typically contains significant amounts of disaccharides such as maltose and isomaltose and trisaccharides such as maltotriose and panose. Maltose and maltosaccharides can be utilized in Escherichia coli fermentation using industrial glucose feedstock because there is an intrinsic assimilation pathway for these sugars. However, saccharides that contain α-1,6 bonds, such as isomaltose and panose, are still present after fermentation because there is no metabolic pathway for these sugars. To facilitate more efficient utilization of glucose feedstock, we introduced glvA, which encodes phospho-α-glucosidase, and glvC, which encodes a subunit of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent maltose phosphotransferase system (PTS) of Bacillus subtilis, into E. coli. The heterologous expression of glvA and glvC conferred upon the recombinant the ability to assimilate isomaltose and panose. The recombinant E. coli assimilated not only other disaccharides but also trisaccharides, including alcohol forms of these saccharides, such as isomaltitol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the involvement of the microbial PTS in the assimilation of trisaccharides. Furthermore, we demonstrated that an L-lysine-producing E. coli harboring glvA and glvC converted isomaltose and panose to L-lysine efficiently. These findings are expected to be beneficial for industrial fermentation.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Isomaltose/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/genética , Ração Animal , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Maltose/metabolismo , Álcoois Açúcares/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
17.
Thromb J ; 14: 48, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this analysis was to assess the effects of edoxaban compared with enoxaparin on key coagulation biomarkers and present pooled primary efficacy and safety results from phase 3 STARS E-3 and STARS J-V trials for prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: In the randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, STARS E-3 and STARS J-V trials, patients received edoxaban 30 mg or enoxaparin 2000 IU (20 mg) twice daily for 11 to 14 days. The studies were conducted in Japan and Taiwan; enoxaparin dosing was based on Japanese label recommendations. The primary efficacy endpoint was incidence of VTE; the safety endpoint was major or clinically relevant nonmajor (CRNM) bleeding. Blood samples were taken at presurgical evaluation, pretreatment (postsurgery), predose on day 7, predose on completion of treatment, and at a follow-up examination 25 to 35 days after the last dose of study drug for D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1+2), and soluble fibrin monomer complex (SFMC) measurement. RESULTS: A total of 716 patients enrolled in STARS E-3 and 610 patients enrolled in STARS J-V; 1326 patients overall. This analysis included 657 patients who received edoxaban 30 mg QD and 650 patients who received enoxaparin 20 mg BID. Incidence of VTE was 5.1 and 10.7% for edoxaban and enoxaparin, respectively (P <0.001). Incidence of combined major and CRNM bleeding was 4.6 and 3.7% for edoxaban and enoxaparin, respectively (P = 0.427). On day 7, mean D-dimer (4.4 vs 5.5 µg/mL), F1+2 (363 vs 463 pmol/L), and SFMC (5.7 vs 6.8 µg/mL) were lower in edoxaban-treated patients relative to enoxaparin-treated patients, respectively (P <0.0001 for all). At end of treatment, mean D-dimer (5.4 vs 6.2 µg/mL), F1+2 (292 vs 380 pmol/L), and SFMC (6.2 vs 7.2 µg/mL) were lower in edoxaban-treated patients relative to enoxaparin-treated patients (P <0.0001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Edoxaban was superior to enoxaparin in prevention of VTE following TKA and THA, with comparable rates of bleeding events. Relative to enoxaparin, edoxaban significantly reduced D-dimer, F1+2, and SFMC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clintrials.gov NCT01181102 and NCT01181167. Both registered 8/12/2010.

18.
Thromb J ; 14: 13, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27284271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines from the Japanese Circulation Society recommend prophylaxis with anticoagulation plus intermittent pneumatic compression or graduated compression stockings (GCS) among patients at the highest risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the benefits of concomitant GCS use for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and receiving anticoagulation remain unknown. In this study, the efficacy of GCS plus anticoagulation compared with anticoagulation alone was evaluated among patients undergoing TKA. METHODS: This study is a post hoc analysis of a previously reported phase 3 trial involving patients undergoing TKA. In the primary study, which permitted the use of GCS for mechanical prophylaxis, patients were randomized to receive edoxaban 30 mg once daily or enoxaparin 20 mg twice daily for 11 to 14 days following TKA. The primary endpoint was the incidence of VTE, a composite of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis (DVT), symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE), and asymptomatic DVT. Treatment comparisons were performed using the chi-square test, and the 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: Among patients receiving edoxaban, the incidence of VTE was 3.8 and 5.8 % for patients with and without GCS, respectively. For patients receiving enoxaparin, VTE incidence was 8.4 and 20.8 % among those with and without GCS, respectively. Overall, VTE incidence was 6.0 and 13.0 % for anticoagulated patients with and without GCS mechanical prophylaxis, respectively. No deaths or symptomatic PE were reported during this study. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of VTE was >2-fold lower among patients receiving anticoagulation plus GCS compared with those receiving anticoagulation alone, statistical significance was not achieved. Further studies are required to confirm the findings of this preliminary analysis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01181102.

19.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 130(2): 117-22, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883453

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is effective against various types of cancer including colorectal cancer. Acute cold hyperalgesia is a serious side effect of oxaliplatin treatment. Although the therapeutic drug pregabalin is beneficial for preventing peripheral neuropathic pain by targeting the voltage-dependent calcium channel α2δ-1 (Cavα2δ-1) subunit, the effect of oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity is uncertain. To analyze the contribution of the Cavα2δ-1 subunit to the development of oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity, Cavα2δ-1 subunit expression in the rat spinal cord was analyzed after oxaliplatin treatment. Behavioral assessment using the acetone spray test showed that 6 mg/kg oxaliplatin-induced cold hypersensitivity 2 and 4 days later. Oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity 4 days after treatment was significantly inhibited by pregabalin (50 mg/kg, p.o.). Oxaliplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment increased the expression level of Cavα2δ-1 subunit mRNA and protein in the spinal cord 2 and 4 days after treatment. Immunohistochemistry showed that oxaliplatin increased Cavα2δ-1 subunit protein expression in superficial layers of the spinal dorsal horn 2 and 4 days after treatment. These results suggest that oxaliplatin treatment increases Cavα2δ-1 subunit expression in the superficial layers of the spinal cord and may contribute to functional peripheral acute cold hypersensitivity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organoplatínicos/toxicidade , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/induzido quimicamente , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/genética , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oxaliplatina , Pregabalina/administração & dosagem , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar
20.
Brain Res Bull ; 121: 201-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26876935

RESUMO

1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ) and some of its derivatives, such as 1-benzyl-TIQ and 1-methyl-TIQ, are endogenously present in human brain and are thought to contribute to induction or prevention of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we estimated the effects of the artificially synthesized TIQ derivatives 1-cyclohexyl-TIQ (1-cHex-TIQ) and 1-cyclohexyl-N-propargyl-TIQ (1-cHex-N-proTIQ) on spontaneous nigral dopaminergic discharge in rats. Low to middle doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced a transient and significant, but not relatively potent, increase in the firing rate, followed by a sustained decrease with higher doses. 1-cHex-TIQ increased the firing frequency at low and high doses. In contrast, 1-cHex-N-proTIQ had no effects on spontaneous firing. Although intraperitoneal pretreatment with 1-cHex-TIQ did not inhibit this MPTP-induced decrease in firing, pretreatment with 1-cHex-N-proTIQ significantly depressed this decreased firing in a dose-dependent and long-lasting manner. Selegiline, a monoamine oxidase type B inhibitor that is used as a therapeutic drug for Parkinson's disease, also significantly inhibited the decrease in dopaminergic spontaneous firing induced by MPTP, but the effect was transient. These results suggest that although the decrease in firing induced by 1-cHex-TIQ is clearly more potent compared to that induced by MPTP, its effect is eliminated by adding an N-propargyl functional group. The antagonizing effect of 1-cHex-N-proTIQ on MPTP-induced firing loss may be exerted by a different mechanism than that of selegiline.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Negra/citologia , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina/farmacologia , Animais , Dopaminérgicos/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Masculino , Neurotoxinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/química , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
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