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1.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151808, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324994

RESUMO

The treatment of cleft lip and palate is performed over a long period, starting immediately after birth. However, esthetic problems remain after lip augmentation. Endothelial cells of new capillaries are important for wound healing. Thus, the reconstruction of vascular networks is key to postoperative wound healing during lip augmentation. However, studies describing the superior labial artery (SLA) and superior labial vein (SLV) are rare, and their mutual positional relationship thus remains unclear. We procured 29 adult cadavers and ten fetuses. Macroscopic and histological examinations were performed on adult cadavers. We extracted soft tissues and blood vessels after micro-computed tomography (CT) and 3D tissue reconstruction. We performed histological investigations of vascular networks within the cleft lip in fetal samples. In adults, the SLV was distributed throughout the cutaneous side of the orbicularis oris muscle and the SLA, throughout the mucosal side. The SLV and SLA were separated by this muscle. Micro-CT images revealed that the SLA on the mucosal side transversed the orbicularis oris muscle to the SLV (55%). Histological analysis of fetuses revealed that the SLA was on the mucosal side, similar to that in adults, and traversed the orbicularis oris muscle in continuity with the SLV of the cutaneous side (100%). In lip augmentation, the reconstruction of the vascular structure, which involves the anastomosis of SLA and SLV passing through the orbicularis oris muscle, is an important factor when considering esthetic repair.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Artérias , Células Endoteliais , Humanos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
2.
J Oral Biosci ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) causes degenerative changes in TMJ tissues. The inter-tissue crosstalk that exacerbates illness and organic changes in bone secondary to TMJ-OA potentially affects the muscles; therefore, patients with a muscular disease might also suffer from bone disease. However, knowledge gaps exist concerning muscle pathology at the onset of TMJ-OA. In this study, we documented the pathogeneses of the bone and muscle at the onset of TMJ-OA using a mouse model. METHODS: We performed a partial resection of the TMJ disk to establish a mouse model of TMJ-OA. After the onset of TMJ-OA, we performed various measurements at 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-surgery in the defined groups. RESULTS: The volume of the mandibular head in the TMJ-OA group was significantly greater than that in the control group. The temporal muscles in the TMJ-OA group were significantly deformed compared with those in the control group; however, between-group comparisons did not reveal significant differences in the mandibular head or temporal muscles after surgery. Therefore, we hypothesized that the degree of mandibular head hypertrophy would alter the temporal muscles. A subsequent analysis of the correlation between the bone and muscle confirmed that the deformity of the temporal muscle increased with increasing hypertrophy of the mandibular head. Temporal and masseter muscle contact was observed in 25% of surgical groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that TMJ-OA progressed when organic changes occurred in bones and muscles, supporting the symbiotic relationship between bones and muscles.

3.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(11): 1033-1044, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586495

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare neoplasms that occur in various organs and present with diverse clinical manifestations. Pathological classification is important in the diagnosis of NENs. Treatment strategies must be selected according to the status of differentiation and malignancy by accurately determining whether the neoplasm is functioning or nonfunctioning, degree of disease progression, and presence of metastasis. The newly revised Clinical Practice Guidelines for Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs) comprises 5 chapters-diagnosis, pathology, surgical treatment, medical and multidisciplinary treatment, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)/von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease-and includes 51 clinical questions and 19 columns. These guidelines aim to provide direction and practical clinical content for the management of GEP-NEN preferentially based on clinically useful reports. These revised guidelines also refer to the new concept of "neuroendocrine tumor" (NET) grade 3, which is based on the 2017 and 2019 WHO criteria; this includes health insurance coverage of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy for NEN, everolimus for lung and gastrointestinal NET, and lanreotide for GEP-NET. The guidelines also newly refer to the diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of NEN associated with VHL disease and MEN1. The accuracy of these guidelines has been improved by examining and adopting new evidence obtained after the first edition was published.

4.
Int J Implant Dent ; 7(1): 89, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are many unclear points regarding local structural characteristics of the bone surrounding the implant reflecting the mechanical environment. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate bone quality surrounding implants placed into the femurs of mice in an unloading model, and to determine the influence of the mechanical environment on bone quality. METHODS: Twenty 12-week-old male C57BL6/NcL mice (n = 5/group) were used as experimental animals. The mice were divided into two groups: the experimental group (n = 10) which were reared by tail suspension, and the control group (n = 10) which were reared normally. An implant was placed into the femur of a tail-suspended mouse, and after the healing period, they were sacrificed and the femur was removed. After micro-CT imaging, Villanueva osteochrome bone stain was performed. It was embedded in unsaturated polyester resin. The polymerized block was sliced passing through the center of the implant body. Next, 100-µm-thick polished specimens were prepared with water-resistant abrasive paper. In addition to histological observation, morphometric evaluation of cancellous bone was performed, and the anisotropy of collagen fibers and biological apatite (BAp) crystals was analyzed. RESULTS: As a result, the femoral cortical bone thickness and new peri-implant bone mass showed low values in the tail suspension group. The uniaxial preferential orientation of BAp c-axis in the femoral long axis direction in the non-implant groups, but biaxial preferential orientation of BAp c-axis along the long axis of implant and femoral long axis direction were confirmed in new bone reconstructed by implant placement. Collagen fiber running anisotropy and orientation of BAp c-axis in the bone surrounding the implant were not significantly different due to tail suspension. CONCLUSIONS: From the above results, it was clarified that bone formation occurs surrounding the implant even under extremely low load conditions, and bone microstructure and bone quality adapted to the new mechanical environment are acquired.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Animais , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Cauda
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18332, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526555

RESUMO

Roles of interstitial tissue in morphogenesis of testicular structures remain less well understood. To analyze the roles of CD34+ cells in the reconstruction of interstitial tissue containing Leydig cells (LCs), and testicular structures, we used 3D-reaggregate culture of dissociated testicular cells from prepubertal mouse. After a week of culture, adult Leydig cells (ALCs) were preferentially incorporated within CD34+ cell-aggregates, but fetal LCs (FLCs) were not. Immunofluorescence studies showed that integrins α4, α9 and ß1, and VCAM1, one of the ligands for integrins α4ß1 and α9ß1, are expressed mainly in CD34+ cells and ALCs, but not in FLCs. Addition of function-blocking antibodies against each integrin and VCAM1 to the culture disturbed the reconstruction of testicular structures. Antibodies against α4 and ß1 integrins and VCAM1 robustly inhibited cell-to-cell adhesion between testicular cells and between CD34+ cells. Cell-adhesion assays indicated that CD34+ cells adhere to VCAM1 through the interaction with α4ß1 integrin. Live cell imaging showed that CD34+ cells adhered around ALC-aggregates. CD34+ cells on the dish moved toward the aggregates, extending filopodia, and entered into them, which was disturbed by VCAM1 antibody. These results indicate that VCAM1-α4ß1 integrin interaction plays pivotal roles in formation of testicular interstitial tissues in vitro and also in vivo.

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4847, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381031

RESUMO

Circulating phosphate levels are tightly controlled within a narrow range in mammals. By using a novel small-molecule inhibitor, we show that the enzymatic activity of inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6K) is essential for phosphate regulation in vivo. IP6K inhibition suppressed XPR1, a phosphate exporter, thereby decreasing cellular phosphate export, which resulted in increased intracellular ATP levels. The in vivo inhibition of IP6K decreased plasma phosphate levels without inhibiting gut intake or kidney reuptake of phosphate, demonstrating a pivotal role of IP6K-regulated cellular phosphate export on circulating phosphate levels. IP6K inhibition-induced decrease in intracellular inositol pyrophosphate, an enzymatic product of IP6K, was correlated with phosphate changes. Chronic IP6K inhibition alleviated hyperphosphataemia, increased kidney ATP, and improved kidney functions in chronic kidney disease rats. Our results demonstrate that the enzymatic activity of IP6K regulates circulating phosphate and intracellular ATP and suggest that IP6K inhibition is a potential novel treatment strategy against hyperphosphataemia.


Assuntos
Fosfatos/sangue , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Mamíferos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 43(11): 1813-1821, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417852

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare fetal and adult morphologies of the orbital muscle (OM) and to describe the detailed topographical anatomy in adults. METHODS: Using unilateral orbits from 15 near-term fetuses and 21 elderly cadavers, semiserial horizontal or sagittal paraffin sections were prepared at intervals of 20-100 µm. In addition to routine histology, we performed immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin. RESULTS: At near term, the OM consistently extended widely from the zygomatic bone or the greater wing of the sphenoid to the maxilla or ethmoid. Thus, it was a large sheet covering the future inferior orbital fissure. In contrast, the adult OM was a thin and small muscle bundle connecting (1) the greater wing of the sphenoid to the maxilla (11/19 cadavers), (2) the lesser wing of the sphenoid to the maxilla (5/19) or the greater wing (3/19). The small OM was likely to be restricted within the greater wing (5/19 cadavers) or the maxilla (3/19). Two of these five types of OM coexisted in eight orbits. OM attachment to the lesser wing was not seen in fetuses, whereas ethmoid attachment was absent in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The lesser wing attachment of the OM seemed to establish after birth. A growing common origin of the three recti was likely involved in "stealing" the near-term OM attachment from the ethmoid. The strong immunoreactivity of remnant-like OM in the elderly suggests that OM contraction is still likely to occur against the increased flow through a thin vein. However, the contraction might have no clinical significance.

8.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 62(3): 171-180, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393144

RESUMO

Bone marrow is the principal site of hematopoiesis in mammals. Amphibians were the first phylogenetic group in vertebrates to acquire bone marrow, but the distribution of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow of the primitive frog, Xenopus laevis (X. laevis) has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to perform a histological investigation of the distribution of hematopoietic cells in femoral bone marrow at various stages of development in X. laevis. Hematopoietic cells showed preferential distribution on the endosteal surface of cortical bone throughout all stages of development, from tadpole to aged frog. In mature frogs, hematopoietic cells appeared at the boundary between the epiphysis and the bone marrow. The distribution of hematopoietic cells around the blood vessels was limited to a small number of vessels in the bone marrow. Abundant adipose tissue was observed in the bone marrow cavity from the tadpole stage to the mature frog stage. Hematopoietic cells showed preferential distribution in a belt-like fashion on the surface of newly-formed bones in a bone regeneration model in the diaphysis of X. laevis. These results indicate that the distribution of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow in X. laevis differs from that in mammals, and that the bone marrow of X. laevis constitutes a useful model for exploring the mechanism underlying the phylogenetic differentiation of bone marrow hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Animais , Hematopoese , Filogenia , Xenopus laevis
9.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(6)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207077

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Urinary levels of dickkopf-3 (DKK-3) are associated with poor renal survival in patients with non-dialytic chronic kidney disease. However, it remains unknown whether urinary DKK-3 levels can predict residual renal function (RRF) decline in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Therefore, we investigated the correlation between urinary levels of DKK-3 and the subsequent rate of RRF decline in PD patients. Materials and Methods: This study included 36 PD patients who underwent multiple peritoneal equivalent tests during 2011-2021. The relationship between baseline clinical characteristics and the subsequent annual rate of Kt/V decline was investigated. Results: The annual rate of renal Kt/V decline was 0.29 (range: 0.05-0.48), which correlated with renal Kt/V (r = 0.55, p = 0.0005) and 24 h urinary DKK-3 excretion (r = 0.61, p < 0.0001). Similarly, 24 h urinary DKK-3 excretion (ß = 0.44, p = 0.0015) and renal Kt/V (ß = 0.38, p = 0.0059) were independently associated with the annual rate of renal Kt/V decline in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Urinary DKK-3 assessment may help identify PD patients at a high risk of RRF decline.


Assuntos
Diálise Peritoneal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Rim , Testes de Função Renal
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198655

RESUMO

A decline in the body's motor functions has been linked to decreased muscle mass and function in the oral cavity and throat; however, aging of the junctions of the muscles and bones has also been identified as an associated factor. Basic and clinical studies on the muscles, tendons and bones, each considered independently, have been published. In recent years, however, research has focused on muscle attachment as the muscle-tendon-bone complex from various perspectives, and there is a growing body of knowledge on SRY-box9 (Sox9) and Mohawk(Mkx), which has been identified as a common controlling factor and a key element. Myostatin, a factor that inhibits muscle growth, has been identified as a potential key element in the mechanisms of lifetime structural maintenance of the muscle-tendon-bone complex. Findings in recent studies have also uncovered aspects of the mechanisms of motor organ complex morphostasis in the superaged society of today and will lay the groundwork for treatments to prevent motor function decline in older adults.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo/fisiologia , Morfogênese , Desenvolvimento Muscular/fisiologia , Tendões/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Humanos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0251068, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252104

RESUMO

The human fetal sphenoid is reported to have a cartilaginous connecting apparatus known as the alar process (AP), which connects the ala temporalis (AT) (angle of the greater wing of the sphenoid) to the basisphenoid (anlage of the sphenoid body). However, how the AP develops in humans is unclear. In addition, although the AP is a common structure of the mammalian chondrocranium, little is known about whether it is really a fundamental feature in mammals. This study examined the histological sections of 20 human embryos and fetuses from 6 to 14 weeks of development, of 20 mouse embryos from embryonic days 12-18, and of 4 rats embryos form embryonic days 17 and 20. In addition, we reconsidered the definition of the AP by comparing humans and rats with mice. In humans, the AP was continuous with the basisphenoid but was separated from the AT by a thick perichondrium. Then, the AP-AT connection had a key-and-keyhole structure. Unlike a joint, no cavitation developed in this connection. In mice, there was no boundary between the AT and the basisphenoid, indicating the absence of the AP in the mouse chondrocranium. In rats, the AP was, however, separated from the AT by a thick perichondrium. Therefore, the AP can be defined as follows: the AP is temporally separated from the AT by a thick perichondrium or a key-and-keyhole structure during the fetal period. This is the first study that confirms the absence of the alar process in the mice skull, and its presence in other mammals skull should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/embriologia , Osso Esfenoide/embriologia , Animais , Camundongos , Ratos
12.
J Anat ; 239(6): 1300-1317, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268732

RESUMO

The developing sphenoid is regarded as a median cartilage mass (basisphenoid [BS]) with three cartilaginous processes (orbitosphenoid [OS], ala temporalis [AT], and alar process [AP]). The relationships of this initial configuration with the adult morphology are difficult to determine because of extensive membranous ossification along the cartilaginous elements. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the anatomical connections between each element of the fetal sphenoid and adult morphology. Sagittal sections from 25 embryos and fetuses of gestational age 6-34 weeks and crown-rump length 12-295 mm were therefore examined and compared with horizontal and frontal sections from the other 25 late-term fetuses (217-340 mm). The OS was identified as a set of three mutually attached cartilage bars in early fetuses. At all stages, the OS-post was continuous with the anterolateral part of the BS. The BS included the notochord and Rathke's pouch remnant in embryos and early fetuses. The dorsum sellae was absent from embryos, but it protruded from the BS in early fetuses before a fossa for the hypophysis became evident. Although not higher than the hypophysis at midterm, the dorsum sellae elongated superiorly after gestational age 25 weeks. In early fetuses, the AP was located on the side immediately anterior to the otic capsule. The AT developed on the side immediately posterior to the extraocular rectus muscles. At late term, the greater wing was formed by membranous bones from the AT and AP. The AT and AP formed a complex bridge between the BS and the greater wing. A small cartilage, future medial pterygoid process (PTmed) was located inferior to the AT in early fetuses. At midterm, one endochondral bone and multiple membranous bones formed the PTmed. The lateral pterygoid process (PTlat) was formed by a single membranous bone plate. Therefore, we connected fetal elements and the adult morphology as follows. (1) Derivative of the OS makes not only the lesser wing but also the anterior margin of the body of the sphenoid. (2) Derivatives of the BS are the body of the sphenoid including the sella turcica and the dorsum sellae. (3) Most of the greater wing including the foramen rotundum and the foramen oval originate from the AT and AP and multiple membranous bones. (4) The PTmed originate from endochondral bones and multiple membranous bones, while the PTlat derive from a single membranous bone.

13.
Anat Cell Biol ; 54(2): 259-269, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162766

RESUMO

The bony carotid canal is a tube-like bone with a rough surface in contrast to smooth surfaces of the other parts of the temporal bone petrosal portion (petrosa): it takes an impression of the additional, out-sourcing product. No study had been conducted to evaluate a contribution of the adjacent sphenoid and pharyngotympanic tube (PTT) to the carotid canal. We examined sagittal and horizontal histological sections of hemi-heads from 37 human fetuses at 10 to 37 weeks. At 10 to 18 weeks, the future carotid canal was identified as a wide loose space between the cartilaginous cochlea and the ossified or cartilaginous sphenoid elements (ala temporalis and pterygoid). A linear mesenchymal condensation extending between the cochlear wall and ala temporalis suggested the future antero-inferior margin of the carotid canal. This delineation was more clearly identified in later stages. After 25 weeks, 1) the growing pterygoid pushed the PTT upward and, in turn, the PTT pushed the internal carotid artery (ICA) upward toward the petrosa: 2) a membranous ossification occurs in the dense mesenchymal tissue, the latter of which took an appearance of an anterior process of the petrosa; 3) the bony process of the petrosa involved the ICA inside or posteriorly. The bony carotid canal was made with membranous ossification in the dense mesenchymal tissue between the petrosa and sphenoid. The mother tissue was detached from the sphenoid by the PTT. The ossification of the septum between the ICA and tympanic cavity seemed to continue after birth.

14.
Bone ; 150: 116010, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020080

RESUMO

Severe dental tissue damage induces odontoblast death, after which dental pulp stem and progenitor cells (DPSCs) differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, contributing to reparative dentin. However, the damage-induced mechanism that triggers this regeneration process is still not clear. We aimed to understand the effect of odontoblast death without hard tissue damage on dental regeneration. Herein, using a Cre/LoxP-based strategy, we demonstrated that cell-rich zone (CZ)-localizing Nestin-GFP-positive and Nestin-GFP-negative cells proliferate and differentiate into odontoblast-like cells in response to odontoblast depletion. The regenerated odontoblast-like cells played a role in reparative dentin formation. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that the expression of odontoblast differentiation- and activation-related genes was upregulated in the pulp in response to odontoblast depletion even without damage to dental tissue. In this regenerative process, the expression of type I parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) increased in the odontoblast-depleted pulp, thereby boosting dentin formation. The levels of PTH1R and its downstream mediator, i.e., phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (Ser133) increased in the physically damaged pulp. Collectively, odontoblast death triggered the PTH1R cascade, which may represent a therapeutic target for inducing CZ-mediated dental regeneration.


Assuntos
Dentina , Odontoblastos , Diferenciação Celular , Polpa Dentária , Células-Tronco , Cicatrização
15.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 41: 116208, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010766

RESUMO

We undertook an optimization effort involving propan-2-yl 4-({6-[5-(methanesulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-1-yl]pyrimidin-4-yl}oxy)piperidine-1-carboxylate 1, which we had previously discovered as a novel G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonist. To occupy a presumed hydrophobic space between the pyrimidine and piperidine rings in interaction with GPR119, we replaced the linker oxygen with nitrogen. Subsequently, the introduction of a substituent at the bridging nitrogen atom was explored. We found that the installation of N-trifluoromethyl group 10 not only enhanced GPR119 agonist activity but also considerably improved the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) inhibition profile. These improvements were not observed for non-fluorinated substituents, such as ethyl analog 8b. The next optimization effort focused on the exploration of a new surrogate structure for the indoline ring and the isosteric replacements of the piperidine N-Boc group to improve solubility, metabolic stability, and oral bioavailability. As a result, N-{1-[3-(2-fluoropropan-2-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]piperidin-4-yl}-6-{[1-(methanesulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]oxy}-N-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-4-amine (27) was identified as a potent and orally bioavailable GPR119 agonist. This compound augmented insulin secretion and effectively lowered plasma glucose excursion in a diabetic animal model after oral administration. In this study, we discuss the designs, syntheses, and biological activities of a novel series of N-(piperidin-4-yl)-N-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-4-amine derivatives as GPR119 agonists, and to determine the distinctive effect of the N-trifluoromethyl group on hERG inhibition, we also discuss the conformational preference of representative compounds.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Aminas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Insulina/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética
16.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 62(2): 63-70, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994422

RESUMO

While a digital arteriovenous anastomosis (Hoyer-Grosser's organ, Masson's glomus) is a well-known structure, photographic evidence of communication between arterial and venous lumens might not be demonstrated in routine histological or immunohistochemical analysis. Abundant clusters of so-called glomera were found in semi-serial sections of the distal aspect of 14 fingers obtained from 7 donated elderly cadavers. Two to six round or oval clusters were observed in each longitudinal section (over 0.3-0.6 mm in maximum diameter) in subcutaneous tissue 0.5-1.5 mm below the basal layer of the skin, whereas none were often observed in transverse sections. Lumen-to-lumen communication between arteriole and venule at 8 sites in 2 cadavers was identified in these clusters of glomera. The opening in the arteriole was large (50 µm in diameter) at 3 sites in specimens from an 80-year-old man, whereas it was small (10-30 µm) at 5 sites in those from a 91-year-old man. The arterial aspect was tightly surrounded by abundant nerve fibers expressing tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, whereas the venous part was not. No or little expression of S100 protein immunoreactivity suggested that these nerve fibers were unmyelinated. The morphology at the lumen-to-lumen communication was simple - possibly an end-to-end anastomosis - rather than a sinuous curve of arteriole opening on to a short funnel-shaped venule as seen in the standard textbooks.


Assuntos
Anastomose Arteriovenosa , Dedos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Bull Tokyo Dent Coll ; 62(2): 99-106, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994425

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution and morphology of the valves in the human retromandibular vein. The retromandibular, internal thoracic, azygos, femoral, and brachial veins were harvested from 46 cadavers donated to the Department of Anatomy at Tokyo Dental College for dissection. The frequency of the valves in each vein, the length of the cusps, and the thickness of the vein itself were measured. Valves were present at high frequency (92.1%) in the veins of the limbs and had cusps at least twice as long as the internal diameter of the vein. Veins in the trunk contained a lower frequency of valves, with cusps that tended to be shorter (1.60±0.77) than those of the venous valves in the limbs (2.12±0.60). The valves of the retromandibular vein tended to resemble venous valves in the trunk in terms of both frequency and morphology. The main function of venous valves in the limbs is to prevent retrograde flow. Conversely, valves in the veins of the trunk and retromandibular vein play a role in retaining blood in the veins, and their relationship to other veins means that they can cause major hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Veias , Cadáver , Humanos , Tóquio
18.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(5): 2187-2194, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33936998

RESUMO

In the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, many institutions have recently begun using three-dimensional printers to create three-dimensional models and mixed reality in a variety of diseases. Here, we report the actual situation model which we made using three-dimensional printer from virtual operation data and the resection that was performed while grasping a maxillary benign tumor and neighboring three-dimensional structure by designing an application for Microsoft® HoloLens, and using Mixed Reality surgery support during the procedure.

19.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 39(5): 737-747, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphosphonate and denosumab are widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastasis of cancer to prevent excessive bone resorption. Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a serious adverse effect of bisphosphonate or denosumab referred to as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) or denosumab-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (DRONJ), respectively. Since bisphosphonate and denosumab inhibit bone resorption by different mechanism, we evaluated whether these drug types result in different histopathological characteristics related to bone resorption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We histopathologically investigated 10 cases of BRONJ, DRONJ, and suppurative osteomyelitis. Paraffin sections prepared from decalcified dissected jaw bones were used for histopathological observation, second harmonic generation imaging, and bone histomorphometry. The samples were also observed by a scanning electron microscope. RESULTS: Numerous bone resorption lacunae were observed on the necrotic bone surface in almost all cases of BRONJ; however, such resorption lacunae were limited in DRONJ and suppurative osteomyelitis. Prominent bone resorption lacunae were also confirmed by second harmonic generation imaging and scanning electron microscopy in BRONJ, but not in DRONJ or suppurative osteomyelitis. As determined by bone histomorphometry, the number of bone resorption lacunae and the length of the erosion surface of resorption lacunae were significantly higher in BRONJ group than in the DRONJ and suppurative osteomyelitis groups. These parameters were correlated between the necrotic bones and the vital bones in BRONJ. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent bone resorption lacunae on the necrotic bone surface are unique to BRONJ, providing a basis for distinguishing BRONJ from DRONJ and OM in histopathological diagnosis.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea , Neoplasias Ósseas , Reabsorção Óssea , Osteonecrose , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/diagnóstico por imagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Difosfonatos , Humanos , Osteonecrose/induzido quimicamente , Osteonecrose/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923650

RESUMO

Percutaneous renal biopsy is an essential tool for diagnosing various renal diseases; however, little is known about whether renal biopsy performed by physicians with short nephrology experience is safe in Japan. This study included 238 patients who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy between April 2017 and September 2020. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of post-renal biopsy complications (hemoglobin decrease of ≥10%, hypotension, blood transfusion, renal artery embolization, nephrectomy and death) and compared their incidence among physicians with varied experience in nephrology. After renal biopsy, a hemoglobin decrease of ≥10%, hypotension and transfusion occurred in 13.1%, 3.8% and 0.8% of patients, respectively. There were no cases of post-biopsy renal artery embolism, nephrectomy, or death. The composite complication rate was 16.0%. The incidence of post-biopsy complications was similar between physicians with ≥3 years and <3 years of clinical nephrology experience (12.5% vs. 16.8%, p = 0.64). Furthermore, the post-biopsy composite complication rates were similar between physicians with ≥6 months and <6 months of clinical nephrology experience (16.3% vs. 15.6%, p > 0.99). Under attending nephrologist supervision, a physician with short clinical nephrology experience can safely perform renal biopsy.

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