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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1290, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782710

RESUMO

Mice enter an active hypometabolic state, called daily torpor when they experience a lowered caloric intake under cold ambient temperature. During torpor, the oxygen consumption rate in some animals drops to less than 30% of the normal rate without harming the body. This safe but severe reduction in metabolism is attractive for various clinical applications; however, the mechanism and molecules involved are unclear. Therefore, here we systematically analyzed the gene expression landscape on the level of the RNA transcription start sites in mouse skeletal muscles under various metabolic states to identify torpor-specific transcribed regulatory patterns. We analyzed the soleus muscles from 38 mice in torpid and non-torpid conditions and identified 287 torpor-specific promoters out of 12,862 detected promoters. Furthermore, we found that the transcription factor ATF3 is highly expressed during torpor deprivation and its binding motif is enriched in torpor-specific promoters. Atf3 was also highly expressed in the heart and brown adipose tissue during torpor and systemically knocking out Atf3 affected the torpor phenotype. Our results demonstrate that mouse torpor combined with powerful genetic tools is useful for studying active hypometabolism.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1258, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732852

RESUMO

Endochondral ossification is regulated by transcription factors that include SRY-box transcription factor 9, runt-related protein 2 (Runx2), and Osterix. However, the sequential and harmonious regulation of the multiple steps of endochondral ossification is unclear. This study identified zinc finger homeodomain 4 (Zfhx4) as a crucial transcriptional partner of Osterix. We found that Zfhx4 was highly expressed in cartilage and that Zfhx4 deficient mice had reduced expression of matrix metallopeptidase 13 and inhibited calcification of cartilage matrices. These phenotypes were very similar to impaired chondrogenesis in Osterix deficient mice. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence indicated a physical interaction between Zfhx4 and Osterix. Notably, Zfhx4 and Osterix double mutant mice showed more severe phenotype than Zfhx4 deficient mice. Additionally, Zfhx4 interacted with Runx2 that functions upstream of Osterix. Our findings suggest that Zfhx4 coordinates the transcriptional network of Osterix and, consequently, endochondral ossification.

3.
iScience ; 24(10): 103151, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646989

RESUMO

Control of mRNA stability and degradation is essential for appropriate gene expression, and its dysregulation causes various disorders, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and obesity. The 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN1 executes the last step of RNA decay, but its physiological impact is not well understood. To address this, forebrain-specific Xrn1 conditional knockout mice (Xrn1-cKO) were generated, as Xrn1 null mice were embryonic lethal. Xrn1-cKO mice exhibited obesity with leptin resistance, hyperglycemia, hyperphagia, and decreased energy expenditure. Obesity resulted from dysregulated communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Moreover, expression of mRNAs encoding proteins that regulate appetite and energy expenditure was dysregulated in the hypothalamus of Xrn1-cKO mice. Therefore, we propose that XRN1 function in the hypothalamus is critical for maintenance of metabolic homeostasis.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 582: 111-117, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710825

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle is known to regulate bone homeostasis through muscle-bone interaction, although factors that control this activity remain unclear. Here, we newly established Smad3-flox mice, and then generated skeletal muscle-specific Smad2/Smad3 double conditional knockout mice (DcKO) by crossing Smad3-flox with skeletal muscle-specific Ckmm Cre and Smad2-flox mice. We show that immobilization-induced gastrocnemius muscle atrophy occurring due to sciatic nerve denervation was partially but significantly inhibited in DcKO mice, suggesting that skeletal muscle cell-intrinsic Smad2/3 is required for immobilization-induced muscle atrophy. Also, tibial bone atrophy seen after sciatic nerve denervation was partially but significantly inhibited in DcKO mice. Bone formation rate in wild-type mouse tibia was significantly inhibited by immobilization, but inhibition was abrogated in DcKO mice. We propose that skeletal muscle regulates immobilization-induced bone atrophy via Smad2/3, and Smad2/3 represent potential therapeutic targets to prevent both immobilization-induced bone and muscle atrophy.

5.
Neurosci Lett ; 764: 136234, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508845

RESUMO

Perry disease (Perry syndrome) is a rare, rapidly progressive, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by parkinsonism, depression/apathy, weight loss, and respiratory symptoms including central hypoventilation. It is caused by missense mutations (e.g. p.G71A) in the DCTN1 gene. We previously generated transgenic mice that expressed human DCTN1G71A mutant protein under the control of Thy1 promoter. These mice exhibited apathy-like behavior and parkinsonism. However, it is possible that this phenotype was due to a gene-dosage imbalance or transgene insertion position. To circumvent these potential caveats, we have generated a knock-in mouse model carrying a p.G71A mutation in Dctn1. Heterozygous Dctn1G71A and wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral analyses. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was performed on brain sections of these mice, and TH signal intensity in substantia nigral neurons was quantified. Dctn1G71A mice were immobile for longer than wild-type mice of the same age and sex in the tail-suspension test, revealing depressive characteristics. In addition, the beam-walking test and pole test detected motor deficits in Dctn1G71A female mice. Finally, immunostaining revealed a decrease in TH immunoreactivity in neurons of the substantia nigra in the Dctn1G71A mice. Collectively, heterozygous Dctn1G71A mice showed depression-like behavior, motor deficits, and a functional reduction in substantia nigral neurons, as judged by TH immunostaining, thereby exhibiting multiple features of Perry disease. Hence, this mouse model will be useful in elucidating pathological mechanisms of Perry disease and for developing novel therapeutic strategies against it.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 161(6): 1907-1923.e26, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metaplasia and dysplasia in the corpus are reportedly derived from de-differentiation of chief cells. However, the cellular origin of metaplasia and cancer remained uncertain. Therefore, we investigated whether pepsinogen C (PGC) transcript-expressing cells represent the cellular origin of metaplasia and cancer using a novel Pgc-specific CreERT2 recombinase mouse model. METHODS: We generated a Pgc-mCherry-IRES-CreERT2 (Pgc-CreERT2) knock-in mouse model. Pgc-CreERT2/+ and Rosa-EYFP mice were crossed to generate Pgc-CreERT2/Rosa-EYFP (Pgc-CreERT2/YFP) mice. Gastric tissues were collected, followed by lineage-tracing experiments and histologic and immunofluorescence staining. We further established Pgc-CreERT2;KrasG12D/+ mice and investigated whether PGC transcript-expressing cells are responsible for the precancerous state in gastric glands. To investigate cancer development from PGC transcript-expressing cells with activated Kras, inactivated Apc, and Trp53 signaling pathways, we crossed Pgc-CreERT2/+ mice with conditional KrasG12D, Apcflox, Trp53flox mice. RESULTS: Expectedly, mCherry mainly labeled chief cells in the Pgc-CreERT2 mice. However, mCherry was also detected throughout the neck cell and isthmal stem/progenitor regions, albeit at lower levels. In the Pgc-CreERT2;KrasG12D/+ mice, PGC transcript-expressing cells with KrasG12D/+ mutation presented pseudopyloric metaplasia. The early induction of proliferation at the isthmus may reflect the ability of isthmal progenitors to react rapidly to Pgc-driven KrasG12D/+ oncogenic mutation. Furthermore, Pgc-CreERT2;KrasG12D/+;Apcflox/flox mice presented intramucosal dysplasia/carcinoma and Pgc-CreERT2;KrasG12D/+;Apcflox/flox;Trp53flox/flox mice presented invasive and metastatic gastric carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Pgc-CreERT2 knock-in mouse is an invaluable tool to study the effects of successive oncogenic activation in the mouse corpus. Time-course observations can be made regarding the responses of isthmal and chief cells to oncogenic insults. We can observe stomach-specific tumorigenesis from the beginning to metastatic development.

7.
Curr Biol ; 31(17): 3956-3963.e4, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293331

RESUMO

Marsupials represent one of three extant mammalian subclasses with very unique characteristics not shared by other mammals. Most notably, much of the development of neonates immaturely born after a relatively short gestation takes place in the external environment. Among marsupials, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica; hereafter "the opossum") is one of very few established laboratory models. Due to many biologically unique characteristics and experimentally advantageous features, the opossum is used as a prototype species for basic research on marsupial biology.1,2 However, in vivo studies of gene function in the opossum, and thus marsupials in general, lag far behind those of eutherian mammals due to the lack of reliable means to manipulate their genomes. In this study, we describe the successful generation of genome edited opossums by a combination of refined methodologies in reproductive biology and embryo manipulation. We took advantage of the opossum's resemblance to popular rodent models, such as the mouse and rat, in body size and breeding characteristics. First, we established a tractable pipeline of reproductive technologies, from induction of ovulation, timed copulation, and zygote collection to embryo transfer to pseudopregnant females, that warrant an essential platform to manipulate opossum zygotes. Further, we successfully demonstrated the generation of gene knockout opossums at the Tyr locus by microinjection of pronuclear stage zygotes using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, along with germline transmission of the edited alleles to the F1 generation. This study provides a critical foundation for venues to expand mammalian reverse genetics into the metatherian subclass.

8.
Dev Cell ; 56(13): 1917-1929.e9, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129836

RESUMO

During development, quiescent airway basal stem cells are derived from proliferative primordial progenitors through the cell-cycle slowdown. In contrast, basal cells contribute to adult tissue regeneration by shifting from slow cycling to proliferating and subsequently back to slow cycling. Although sustained proliferation results in tumorigenesis, the molecular mechanisms regulating these transitions remain unknown. Using temporal single-cell transcriptomics of developing murine airway progenitors and genetic validation experiments, we found that TGF-ß signaling decelerated cell cycle by inhibiting Id2 and contributed to slow-cycling basal cell specification during development. In adult tissue regeneration, reduced TGF-ß signaling restored Id2 expression and initiated regeneration. Id2 overexpression and Tgfbr2 knockout enhanced epithelial proliferation; however, persistent Id2 expression drove basal cell hyperplasia that resembled a precancerous state. Together, the TGF-ß-Id2 axis commonly regulates the proliferation transitions in basal cells during development and regeneration, and its fine-tuning is critical for normal regeneration while avoiding basal cell hyperplasia.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Proteína 2 Inibidora de Diferenciação/genética , Regeneração/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Humanos , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Sistema Respiratório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco/citologia
9.
Nature ; 594(7864): 547-552, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108685

RESUMO

Tissue stem cells are generated from a population of embryonic progenitors through organ-specific morphogenetic events1,2. Although tissue stem cells are central to organ homeostasis and regeneration, it remains unclear how they are induced during development, mainly because of the lack of markers that exclusively label prospective stem cells. Here we combine marker-independent long-term 3D live imaging and single-cell transcriptomics to capture a dynamic lineage progression and transcriptome changes in the entire epithelium of the mouse hair follicle as it develops. We found that the precursors of different epithelial lineages were aligned in a 2D concentric manner in the basal layer of the hair placode. Each concentric ring acquired unique transcriptomes and extended to form longitudinally aligned, 3D cylindrical compartments. Prospective bulge stem cells were derived from the peripheral ring of the placode basal layer, but not from suprabasal cells (as was previously suggested3). The fate of placode cells is determined by the cell position, rather than by the orientation of cell division. We also identified 13 gene clusters: the ensemble expression dynamics of these clusters drew the entire transcriptional landscape of epithelial lineage diversification, consistent with cell lineage data. Combining these findings with previous work on the development of appendages in insects4,5, we describe the 'telescope model', a generalized model for the development of ectodermal organs in which 2D concentric zones in the placode telescope out to form 3D longitudinally aligned cylindrical compartments.

10.
J Comp Neurol ; 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184265

RESUMO

The mediodorsal thalamus (MD) is a higher-order nucleus located within the central thalamus in many mammalian species. Emerging evidence from MD lesions and tracer injections suggests that the MD is reciprocally connected to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and plays an essential role in specific cognitive processes and tasks. MD subdivisions (medial, central, and lateral) are poorly segregated at the molecular level in rodents, leading to a lack of MD subdivision-specific Cre driver mice. Moreover, this lack of molecular identifiers hinders MD subdivision- and cell-type-specific circuit formation and function analysis. Therefore, using publicly available databases, we explored molecules separately expressed in MD subdivisions. In addition to MD subdivision markers, we identified several genes expressed in a subdivision-specific combination and classified them. Furthermore, after developing medial MD (MDm) or central MD (MDc) region-specific Cre mouse lines, we identified diverse region- and layer-specific PFC projection patterns. Comparison between classified MD marker genes in mice and common marmosets, a nonhuman primate model, revealed diverging gene expression patterns. These results highlight the species-specific organization of cell types and their projections in the MD thalamus.

11.
IJU Case Rep ; 4(3): 127-131, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977237

RESUMO

Introduction: Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma often develops in the context of the dialyzed kidney (end-stage renal disease). However, the relationship between clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma and microRNA expression in patients with end-stage renal disease remains unclear. Case presentation: A left renal tumor measuring 22 mm was detected and a radical nephrectomy was performed on a 50-year-old man who had received hemodialysis for the past 6 years. A pathological diagnosis of pT1aNxMx, clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma was made. We studied the expression of miR-155 in this case and compared it to the expression in nondialysis kidney tissue. The expression level of miR-155 was upregulated in tumor tissue compared with expression levels in the renal cortex for the present case. The expression level of miR-155 in the renal cortex was lower in the present case than in nondialysis kidney tissues. Conclusion: We demonstrated upregulation of miR-155 in a case of clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma arising from end-stage renal disease.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(587)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790026

RESUMO

The lateral ventricle (LV) is flanked by the subventricular zone (SVZ), a neural stem cell (NSC) niche rich in extrinsic growth factors regulating NSC maintenance, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation. Dysregulation of the SVZ niche causes LV expansion, a condition known as hydrocephalus; however, the underlying pathological mechanisms are unclear. We show that deficiency of the proteoglycan Tsukushi (TSK) in ependymal cells at the LV surface and in the cerebrospinal fluid results in hydrocephalus with neurodevelopmental disorder-like symptoms in mice. These symptoms are accompanied by altered differentiation and survival of the NSC lineage, disrupted ependymal structure, and dysregulated Wnt signaling. Multiple TSK variants found in patients with hydrocephalus exhibit reduced physiological activity in mice in vivo and in vitro. Administration of wild-type TSK protein or Wnt antagonists, but not of hydrocephalus-related TSK variants, in the LV of TSK knockout mice prevented hydrocephalus and preserved SVZ neurogenesis. These observations suggest that TSK plays a crucial role as a niche molecule modulating the fate of SVZ NSCs and point to TSK as a candidate for the diagnosis and therapy of hydrocephalus.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Células-Tronco Neurais , Neurogênese , Proteoglicanas , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nicho de Células-Tronco
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893234

RESUMO

The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost epidermal layer, consists of nonviable anuclear keratinocytes, called corneocytes, which function as a protective barrier. The exact modes of cell death executed by keratinocytes of the upper stratum granulosum (SG1 cells) remain largely unknown. Here, using intravital imaging combined with intracellular Ca2+- and pH-responsive fluorescent probes, we aimed to dissect the SG1 death process in vivo. We found that SG1 cell death was preceded by prolonged (∼60 min) Ca2+ elevation and rapid induction of intracellular acidification. Once such intracellular ionic changes were initiated, they became sustained, irreversibly committing the SG1 cells to corneocyte conversion. Time-lapse imaging of isolated murine SG1 cells revealed that intracellular acidification was essential for the degradation of keratohyalin granules and nuclear DNA, phenomena specific to SC corneocyte formation. Furthermore, intravital imaging showed that the number of SG1 cells exhibiting Ca2+ elevation and the timing of intracellular acidification were both tightly regulated by the transient receptor potential cation channel V3. The functional activity of this protein was confirmed in isolated SG1 cells using whole-cell patch-clamp analysis. These findings provide a theoretical framework for improved understanding of the unique molecular mechanisms underlying keratinocyte-specific death mode, namely corneoptosis.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5857, 2021 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712686

RESUMO

Epithelial cells organize an ordered array of non-centrosomal microtubules, the minus ends of which are regulated by CAMSAP3. The role of these microtubules in epithelial functions, however, is poorly understood. Here, we show that the kidneys of mice in which Camsap3 is mutated develop cysts at the proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs). PCTs were severely dilated in the mutant kidneys, and they also exhibited enhanced cell proliferation. In these PCTs, epithelial cells became flattened along with perturbation of microtubule arrays as well as of certain subcellular structures such as interdigitating basal processes. Furthermore, YAP and PIEZO1, which are known as mechanosensitive regulators for cell shaping and proliferation, were activated in these mutant PCT cells. These observations suggest that CAMSAP3-mediated microtubule networks are important for maintaining the proper mechanical properties of PCT cells, and its loss triggers cell deformation and proliferation via activation of mechanosensors, resulting in the dilation of PCTs.

15.
Ther Apher Dial ; 25(1): 44-49, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281288

RESUMO

Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is related to the development of cardiovascular disease and total mortality in dialysis patients. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the conventional measurement approach. However, the HPLC method is difficult to perform in real time. Recently, the IS Assay Kit "NIPRO", which enables the measuring of total IS by the enzyme method, was developed. This new reagent allows the easy and quick measurement of many samples using the automatic biochemical analyzer. Moreover, it was reported that it demonstrated satisfactory analytical performance. If this enzyme method is useful for measuring IS in hemodialysis, we can expect that the mechanism in which the IS effects adversely on a body as uremic toxins will be clarified. However, the enzyme method is more easily influenced by other coexisting substances. In this study, we have assessed on how the uremic toxins and anticoagulation effect on this new reagent and evaluate whether it can be put into practice effectively for hemodialysis patients. For the enzyme method, accuracy, simultaneous repeatability, linearity, limit of detection, influence of coexisting materials, and correlation with the HPLC method were examined. Accuracy and simultaneous repeatability were satisfactory, and linearity was good. The limit of detection was acceptable, and there was no influence of coexisting materials. With regard to the correlation, the regression equation was y = 0.947X + 7.987 and the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.972. This new reagent showed sufficient fundamental performance and had a good correlation with the conventional HPLC method for assessing the plasma of dialysis patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Ensaios Enzimáticos Clínicos/métodos , Indicã/sangue , Diálise Renal , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
J Immunol ; 206(2): 366-375, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310872

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family consisting of six family members, Arf1-Arf6, belongs to Ras superfamily and orchestrates vesicle trafficking under the control of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins. It is well established that brefeldin A, a potent inhibitor of ArfGEFs, blocks cytokine secretion from activated T cells, suggesting that the Arf pathway plays important roles in T cell functions. In this study, because Arf1 and Arf6 are the best-characterized members among Arf family, we established T lineage-specific Arf1-deficient, Arf6-deficient, and Arf1/6 double-deficient mice to understand physiological roles of the Arf pathway in the immune system. Contrary to our expectation, Arf deficiency had little or no impact on cytokine secretion from the activated T cells. In contrast, the lack of both Arf1 and Arf6, but neither Arf1 nor Arf6 deficiency alone, rendered naive T cells susceptible to apoptosis upon TCR stimulation because of imbalanced expression of Bcl-2 family members. We further demonstrate that Arf1/6 deficiency in T cells alleviates autoimmune diseases like colitis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas Ab response under Th2-polarizing conditions is seemingly normal. Our findings reveal an unexpected role for the Arf pathway in the survival of T cells during TCR-induced activation and its potential as a therapeutic target in the autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Colite/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Animais , Apoptose , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Imunoterapia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Nat Metab ; 2(12): 1382-1390, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288951

RESUMO

Osteoclasts are the exclusive bone-resorbing cells, playing a central role in bone metabolism, as well as the bone damage that occurs under pathological conditions1,2. In postnatal life, haematopoietic stem-cell-derived precursors give rise to osteoclasts in response to stimulation with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, both of which are produced by osteoclastogenesis-supporting cells such as osteoblasts and osteocytes1-3. However, the precise mechanisms underlying cell fate specification during osteoclast differentiation remain unclear. Here, we report the transcriptional profiling of 7,228 murine cells undergoing in vitro osteoclastogenesis, describing the stepwise events that take place during the osteoclast fate decision process. Based on our single-cell transcriptomic dataset, we find that osteoclast precursor cells transiently express CD11c, and deletion of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB specifically in CD11c-expressing cells inhibited osteoclast formation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we identify Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (Cited2) as the molecular switch triggering terminal differentiation of osteoclasts, and deletion of Cited2 in osteoclast precursors in vivo resulted in a failure to commit to osteoclast fate. Together, the results of this study provide a detailed molecular road map of the osteoclast differentiation process, refining and expanding our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying osteoclastogenesis.


Assuntos
Osteoclastos/fisiologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea , Antígeno CD11c/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteogênese/genética , Gravidez , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP
18.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067358

RESUMO

Thoracic great vessels such as the aorta and subclavian arteries are formed through dynamic remodeling of embryonic pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs). Previous work has shown that loss of a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hey1 in mice causes abnormal 4th PAA development and lethal great vessel anomalies resembling congenital malformations in humans. However, how Hey1 mediates vascular formation remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that Hey1 in vascular endothelial cells, but not in smooth muscle cells, played essential roles for PAA development and great vessel morphogenesis in mouse embryos. Tek-Cre-mediated Hey1 deletion in endothelial cells affected endothelial tube formation and smooth muscle differentiation in embryonic 4th PAAs and resulted in interruption of the aortic arch and other great vessel malformations. Cell specificity and signal responsiveness of Hey1 expression were controlled through multiple cis-regulatory regions. We found two distal genomic regions that had enhancer activity in endothelial cells and in the pharyngeal epithelium and somites, respectively. The novel endothelial enhancer was conserved across species and was specific to large caliber arteries. Its transcriptional activity was regulated by Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, but not by ALK1 signaling and other transcription factors implicated in endothelial cell specificity. The distal endothelial enhancer was not essential for basal Hey1 expression in mouse embryos but may likely serve for Notch-dependent transcriptional control in endothelial cells together with the proximal regulatory region. These findings help understand significance and regulation of endothelial Hey1 as a mediator of multiple signaling pathways in embryonic vascular formation.

19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15421, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963267

RESUMO

GaN and the heterostructures are attractive in condensed matter science and applications for electronic devices. We measure the electron transport in GaN/AlGaN field-effect transistors (FETs) at cryogenic temperature. We observe formation of quantum dots in the conduction channel near the depletion of the 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Multiple quantum dots are formed in the disordered potential induced by impurities in the FET conduction channel. We also measure the gate insulator dependence of the transport properties. These results can be utilized for the development of quantum dot devices utilizing GaN/AlGaN heterostructures and evaluation of the impurities in GaN/AlGaN FET channels.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 295(28): 9650-9662, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467230

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a very common neurodegenerative disorder, chiefly caused by increased production of neurotoxic ß-amyloid (Aß) peptide generated from proteolytic cleavage of ß-amyloid protein precursor (APP). Except for familial AD arising from mutations in the APP and presenilin (PSEN) genes, the molecular mechanisms regulating the amyloidogenic processing of APP are largely unclear. Alcadein α/calsyntenin1 (ALCα/CLSTN1) is a neuronal type I transmembrane protein that forms a complex with APP, mediated by the neuronal adaptor protein X11-like (X11L or MINT2). Formation of the ALCα-X11L-APP tripartite complex suppresses Aß generation in vitro, and X11L-deficient mice exhibit enhanced amyloidogenic processing of endogenous APP. However, the role of ALCα in APP metabolism in vivo remains unclear. Here, by generating ALCα-deficient mice and using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and co-immunoprecipitation analyses, we verified the role of ALCα in the suppression of amyloidogenic processing of endogenous APP in vivo We observed that ALCα deficiency attenuates the association of X11L with APP, significantly enhances amyloidogenic ß-site cleavage of APP, especially in endosomes, and increases the generation of endogenous Aß in the brain. Furthermore, we noted amyloid plaque formation in the brains of human APP-transgenic mice in an ALCα-deficient background. These results unveil a potential role of ALCα in protecting cerebral neurons from Aß-dependent pathogenicity in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/deficiência , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Presenilina-1/genética , Presenilina-1/metabolismo
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