Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 84
Filtrar
1.
SAGE Open Med ; 9: 20503121211044379, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527245

RESUMO

Objectives: The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of empiric treatment with narrow-spectrum therapy versus broad-spectrum therapy for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods: Institutional-based retrospective chart review was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital (GURH) pediatrics ward from 1 February 2016 to 30 April 2016. The collected data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Descriptive statistics were done to present the basic features and summary of the data set. In addition, binary logistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis were conducted to test for an association between the dependent and independent variables. A P value of <0.05 was taken to declare statistical significance at a 95% confidence interval. Result: A total of 147 patients with CAP were included in the study. Seven different treatment regimens were employed for the 147 children hospitalized. About 63 (42.9%) of the study participants received a narrow-spectrum antibiotic and 84 (57.1%) received a broad-spectrum antibiotic. There was no significant difference between the broad and narrow spectrum treatment groups in main treatment outcomes. The median length of stay (LOS) for the study population was 3 days. The median LOS was shorter among those receiving narrow-spectrum therapy compared with those receiving broad-spectrum therapy. Treatment dose and duration of therapy were significantly associated with treatment outcome (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.003), respectively. Conclusion: The effectiveness of narrow-spectrum therapy is similar to that of broad-spectrum therapy for children hospitalized with CAP. Treatment regimens for children with community-acquired pneumonia should be selected based on their safety profile and their tendency for antibiotic resistance.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439057

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae poses an urgent public health threat, causing nosocomial outbreaks in different continents. It has been observed to develop resistance to antimicrobials more easily than most bacteria. These days, multidrug-resistant strains are being increasingly reported from different countries. However, studies on the surveillance of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are very rare in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and magnitude of MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from patients attending or admitted to Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2018 to February 2019 at TASH, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Identification of K. pneumoniae was done by examining the Gram stain, colony characteristics on MacConkey agar and 5% sheep blood agar, as well as using a series of biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolates for 21 antimicrobials was done by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Data were double entered using Epidata 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 25 software for analysis. Among the total K. pneumoniae isolates (n = 132), almost all 130 (98.5%) were MDR. Two (1.5%) isolates showed complete non-susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested. Moreover, a high rate of resistance was observed to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone 128 (97%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 124 (93.9%), and cefepime 111 (84.1%). High susceptibility was recorded to amikacin 123 (93.2%), imipenem 107 (81.1%), meropenem 96 (72.7%), and ertapenem 93 (70.5%). K. pneumoniae isolates showed a high rate of resistance to most of the tested antimicrobials. The magnitude of MDR K. pneumoniae was very alarming. Therefore, strengthening antimicrobial stewardship programs and antimicrobial surveillance practices is strongly recommended in TASH.

3.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 1206-1208, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) subtypes in limited-resource settings is imperative for cancer prevention strategies in these regions. The objective of our study is to compare the prevalence of cervical HPV genotypes in women across the African diaspora. METHODS: This study was approved by the African Caribbean Consortium (AC3). Six member institutions (Benin, Ethiopia, The Bahamas, Tobago, Curacao, and Jamaica) provided independently collected HPV data. Prevalence comparisons across for each nation were performed followed by an assessment of anticipated 9-valent vaccine coverage. Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used with significance at P < .05. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred fifty high-risk (HR) and 584 low-risk (LR) HPV subtypes were identified in the entire cohort. The most common HR HPV subtype was HPV 16 (17.9%) of infections. The distribution of HR and LR subtypes varied by country. The proportion of HR-HPV subtypes covered by the current 9-valent vaccine was lower in African countries compared with the Caribbean countries (47.9% v 67.9%; P < .01). No significant difference was seen for LR subtypes (8.1% African continent v 5.2% Caribbean; P = .20). Marked variation in the proportion of infections covered by the 9-valent vaccine persisted in individual countries. CONCLUSION: Significant variations in HPV prevalence were identified among African and Afro-Caribbean women. A large number of women in these regions are potentially uncovered by current vaccination formulation, particularly low-risk HPV infections.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bahamas , Benin , Curaçao , Etiópia , Feminino , Genótipo , Migração Humana , Humanos , Jamaica , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Trinidad e Tobago
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254091, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214106

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important disease for dairy productivity, as well as having the potential for zoonotic transmission. Previous prevalence studies of bTB in the dairy sector in central Ethiopia have suggested high prevalence, however, they have been limited to relatively small scale surveys, raising concerns about their representativeness. Here we carried out a cross sectional one-stage cluster sampling survey taking the dairy herd as a cluster to estimate the prevalence of bTB in dairy farms in six areas of central Ethiopia. The survey, which to date is by far the largest in the area in terms of the number of dairy farms, study areas and risk factors explored, took place from March 2016 to May 2017. This study combined tuberculin skin testing and the collection of additional herd and animal level data by questionnaire to identify potential risk factors contributing to bTB transmission. We applied the single intradermal cervical comparative tuberculin (SICCT) test using >4mm cut-off for considering an individual animal as positive for bTB; at least one reactor animal was required for a herd to be considered bTB positive. Two hundred ninety-nine dairy herds in the six study areas were randomly selected, from which 5,675 cattle were tested. The overall prevalence of bTB after standardisation for herd-size in the population was 54.4% (95% CI 48.7-60%) at the herd level, and it was 24.5% (95% CI 23.3-25.8) at the individual animal level. A Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) with herd and area as random effect was used to explore risk factors association with bTB status. We found that herd size, age, bTB history at farm, and breed were significant risk factors for animals to be SICCT positive. Animals from large herds had 8.3 times the odds of being tuberculin reactor (OR: 8.3, p-value:0.008) as compared to animals from small herds. The effect of age was strongest for animals 8-10 years of age (the oldest category) having 8.9 times the odds of being tuberculin reactors (OR: 8.9, p-value:<0.001) compared to the youngest category. The other identified significant risk factors were bTB history at farm (OR: 5.2, p-value:0.003) and cattle breed (OR: 2.5, p-value: 0.032). Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of bTB in central Ethiopia but with a large variation in within-herd prevalence between herds, findings that lays an important foundation for the future development of control strategies.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Geografia , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculina/metabolismo
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073261

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus that infects over 90% of the world's population and is linked to development of cancer. In immune-competent individuals, EBV infection is mitigated by a highly efficient virus-specific memory T-cell response. Risk of EBV-driven cancers increases with immune suppression (IS). EBV-seronegative recipients of solid organ transplants are at high risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) due to iatrogenic IS. While reducing the level of IS may improve EBV-specific immunity and regression of PTLD, patients are at high risk for allograft rejection and need for immune-chemotherapy. Strategies to prevent PTLD in this vulnerable patient population represents an unmet need. We have previously shown that BZLF1-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) expansion following reduced IS correlated with immune-mediated PTLD regression and improved patient survival. We have developed a vaccine to bolster EBV-specific immunity to the BZLF1 protein and show that co-culture of dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with a αDEC205-BZLF1 fusion protein with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) leads to expansion and increased cytotoxic activity of central-effector memory CTLs against EBV-transformed B-cells. Human-murine chimeric Hu-PBL-SCID mice were vaccinated with DCs loaded with αDEC205-BZLF1 or control to assess prevention of fatal human EBV lymphoproliferative disease. Despite a profoundly immunosuppressive environment, vaccination with αDEC205-BZLF1 stimulated clonal expansion of antigen-specific T-cells that produced abundant IFNγ and significantly prolonged survival. These results support preclinical and clinical development of vaccine approaches using BZLF1 as an immunogen to harness adaptive cellular responses and prevent PTLD in vulnerable patient populations.

6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173214

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The hospital environment contributes to the spread of Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), which are contributing to increased morbidity and mortality rates. The present study was carried out to detect environmental contamination, antimicrobial susceptibility testing of ESBL-PE, and to explore molecular characterization of ESBL encoding genes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted within the intensive care units (ICUs) of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from June to July 2018. A total of 97 swabs were taken from high-contact inanimate surfaces near immediate patient environments. All isolates were cultured by using ESBL ChromoSelect Agar and identified with conventional bacteriological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Combination disk test was used to confirm ESBL production, while molecular characterizations of ESBL genes were performed by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Out of 97 swabbed sample, 24 (24.7%) were confirmed as ESBL-PE. The most predominant ESBL-PE was from E. coli (41.7%) and K. pneumoniae (25%). The Pediatrics and Neonatal ICU (29.2%, 7/24) exhibited highest ESBL-PE. The most contaminated materials were bed linens (33.3%). Most of ESBL-PE isolates were resistant to ampicillin (100%) and ceftriaxone (91.7%). A low resistance level was recorded for amikacin (25%). Among ESBL-producing genes, blaCTX-M (35.7%) was the most prevalent, followed by blaTEM and blaSHV gene 32.1% for each. CONCLUSIONS: Appearance of ESBL-PE in ICUs environment is posing a serious threat to control healthcare associated infections. The high level of resistance shows the need of policies for devising infection control procedures and detection of ESBL-PE.

7.
Microb Genom ; 7(5)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945462

RESUMO

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is endemic in cattle in Ethiopia, a country that hosts the largest national cattle herd in Africa. The intensive dairy sector, most of which is peri-urban, has the highest prevalence of disease. Previous studies in Ethiopia have demonstrated that the main cause is Mycobacterium bovis, which has been investigated using conventional molecular tools including deletion typing, spoligotyping and Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR). Here we use whole-genome sequencing to examine the population structure of M. bovis in Ethiopia. A total of 134 M. bovis isolates were sequenced including 128 genomes from 85 mainly dairy cattle and six genomes isolated from humans, originating from 12 study sites across Ethiopia. These genomes provided a good representation of the previously described population structure of M. bovis, based on spoligotyping and demonstrated that the population is dominated by the clonal complexes African 2 (Af2) and European 3 (Eu3). A range of within-host diversity was observed amongst the isolates and evidence was found for both short- and long-distance transmission. Detailed analysis of available genomes from the Eu3 clonal complex combined with previously published genomes revealed two distinct introductions of this clonal complex into Ethiopia between 1950 and 1987, likely from Europe. This work is important to help better understand bTB transmission in cattle in Ethiopia and can potentially inform national strategies for bTB control in Ethiopia and beyond.

8.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 638829, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791349

RESUMO

Background: After decades of ubiquitous oxygen therapy in all patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), recent guidelines are more restrictive based on lack of efficacy in contemporary trials evaluating hard clinical outcomes in patients without hypoxemia at baseline. However, no evidence regarding treatment effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) exists. In this study, we investigated the impact of routine oxygen supplementation on HRQoL 6-8 weeks after hospitalization with acute MI. Secondary objectives included analyses of MI subtypes, further adjustment for infarct size, and oxygen saturation at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Methods: In the DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 h or ambient air. In this prespecified analysis, patients younger than 75 years of age with confirmed MI who had available HRQoL data by European Quality of Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) in the national registry were included. Primary endpoint was the EQ-5D index assessed by multivariate linear regression at 6-10 weeks after MI occurrence. Results: A total of 3,086 patients (median age 64, 22% female) were eligible, 1,518 allocated to oxygen and 1,568 to ambient air. We found no statistically significant effect of oxygen therapy on EQ-5D index (-0.01; 95% CI: -0.03-0.01; p = 0.23) or EQ-VAS score (-0.57; 95% CI: -1.88-0.75; p = 0.40) compared to ambient air after 6-10 weeks. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the treatment groups in EQ-5D dimensions. Results remained consistent across MI subtypes and at 1-year follow-up, including further adjustment for infarct size or oxygen saturation at baseline. Conclusions: Routine oxygen therapy provided to normoxemic patients with acute MI did not improve HRQoL up to 1 year after MI occurrence. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01787110.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 656-668, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770507

RESUMO

Genetic studies in underrepresented populations identify disproportionate numbers of novel associations. However, most genetic studies use genotyping arrays and sequenced reference panels that best capture variation most common in European ancestry populations. To compare data generation strategies best suited for underrepresented populations, we sequenced the whole genomes of 91 individuals to high coverage as part of the Neuropsychiatric Genetics of African Population-Psychosis (NeuroGAP-Psychosis) study with participants from Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda. We used a downsampling approach to evaluate the quality of two cost-effective data generation strategies, GWAS arrays versus low-coverage sequencing, by calculating the concordance of imputed variants from these technologies with those from deep whole-genome sequencing data. We show that low-coverage sequencing at a depth of ≥4× captures variants of all frequencies more accurately than all commonly used GWAS arrays investigated and at a comparable cost. Lower depths of sequencing (0.5-1×) performed comparably to commonly used low-density GWAS arrays. Low-coverage sequencing is also sensitive to novel variation; 4× sequencing detects 45% of singletons and 95% of common variants identified in high-coverage African whole genomes. Low-coverage sequencing approaches surmount the problems induced by the ascertainment of common genotyping arrays, effectively identify novel variation particularly in underrepresented populations, and present opportunities to enhance variant discovery at a cost similar to traditional approaches.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/economia , Análise Mutacional de DNA/normas , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional/economia , África , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Microbiota , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/economia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
10.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 16(1): 11, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of malignancies among women in Ethiopia. Knowing the disease could empower women to make an informed decision regarding participation with cervical cancer prevention strategies. There is scarcity of compiled data in the field. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to provide an overview of knowledge about cervical cancer among Ethiopian women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles on the knowledge of cervical cancer. Articles were systematically searched using comprehensive search strings from PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, and grey literature from Google Scholar. Two reviewers assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and the risk of bias independently. Meta-analysis was performed using STATA v 14 to pool the overall knowledge of the women about cervical cancer. RESULTS: We included 26 articles published between 2013 and 2020 covering a total of 14,549 participants. All the included articles had good methodological quality. The proportion of participants who had heard of cervical cancer varied from 4.6 to 87.7% with the pooled estimate at 56% (95% CI: 47-66). Similarly, the proportion of participants who knew that HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer lied between 0 and 49.7% with the pooled result at 21% (95% CI: 13-30). Likewise, the pooled prevalence to identify at least one risk factor, one symptom of cervical cancer and ever heard of cervical cancer screening was gauged at 52% (95% CI: 39-64), 43% (95% CI: 26-60), and 39% (95% CI: 24-55), respectively. The overall pooled prevalence of good knowledge about cervical cancer was at 43% (95% CI: 33-53). On top of this, the prevalence of previous screening practice among the participants was at 14% (95% CI: 9-20). CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about cervical cancer among Ethiopian women is quite poor. Therefore, health education to provide sufficient and unbiased information about HPV and cervical cancer in general is required to the public.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is a pandemic. Experiences with SARS in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 have shown that health professionals are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19. Hence, it has been recommended that aperiodic wide-scale assessment of the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding the current COVID-19 pandemic is critical. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding COVID-19 among selected hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from the last week of March to early April, 2020. Government (n = 6) and private hospitals (n = 4) were included. The front-line participants with high exposure were proportionally recruited from their departments. The collected data from a self-administered questionnaire were entered using EpiData and analyzed in SPSS software. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (chi-square tests) are presented. RESULTS: A total of 1334 health professionals participated in the study. The majority (675, 50.7%) of the participants were female. Of the total, 532 (39.9%) subjects were nurses/midwives, followed by doctors (397, 29.8%) and pharmacists (193, 14.5%). Of these, one-third had received formal training on COVID-19. The mean knowledge score of participants was 16.45 (±4.4). Regarding knowledge about COVID-19, 783 (58.7%), 354 (26.5%), and 196 (14.7%) participants had moderate, good, and poor knowledge, respectively. Lower scores were seen in younger age groups, females, and non-physicians. Two-thirds (63.2%) of the subjects responded that they had been updated by their hospital on COVID-19. Of the total, 1020 (76.5%) participants responded that television, radio, and newspapers were their primary sources of information. Established hospital preparedness measures were confirmed by 43-57% of participants. CONCLUSION: The current study revealed that health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, already know important facts but had moderate overall knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic. There were unmet needs in younger age groups, non-physicians, and females. Half of the respondents mentioning inadequate preparedness of their hospitals point to the need for more global solidarity, especially concerning the shortage of consumables and lack of equipment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/classificação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Immunol ; 22(1): 9, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding immune mechanisms, particularly the role of innate immune markers during latent TB infection remains elusive. The main objective of this study was to evaluate mRNA gene expression patterns of toll-like receptors (TLRs) as correlates of immunity during latent TB infection and further infer their roles as potential diagnostic biomarkers. METHODS: Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were analysed in a total of 64 samples collected from apparently healthy children and adolescents latently infected with tuberculosis (n = 32) or non-infected (n = 32). Relative expression in peripheral blood of selected genes encoding TLRs (TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-6 and TLR-9) was determined with a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using specific primers and florescent labelled probes and a comparative threshold cycle method to define fold change. Data were analysed using Graph-Pad Prism 7.01 for Windows and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: An increased mean fold change in the relative expression of TLR-2 and TLR-6 mRNA was observed in LTBI groups relative to non-LTBI groups (p < 0.05), whereas a slight fold decrease was observed for TLR-1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: An increased mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-6 was observed in latently infected individuals relative to those non-infected, possibly indicating the roles these biomarkers play in sustenance of the steady state interaction between the dormant TB bacilli and host immunity.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244780, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the global community in many ways. Combating the COVID-19 pandemic requires a coordinated effort through engaging public and service providers in preventive measures. The government of Ethiopia had already announced prevention guidelines for the public. However, there is a scarcity of evidence-based data on the public knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) and response of the service providers regarding COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the public KAP and service providers' preparedness towards the pandemic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from late March to the first week of April 2020. Participants were conveniently sampled from 10 different city sites. Data collection was performed using a self-administered questionnaire and observational assessment using a checklist. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version Descriptive statistics, correlation coefficient and chi-square tests were performed. RESULT: A total of 839 public participants and 420 service providers enrolled in the study. The mean age was 30.30 (range = 18-72) years. The majority of the respondents (58.6%) had moderate knowledge about COVID-19, whereas 37.2% had good knowledge. Moreover, 60.7% and 59.8% of the participants had a positive attitude towards preventive measures and good practice to mitigate the pandemic, respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between knowledge and attitude, whereas the correlations between knowledge and practice and attitude and practice were weak. With regard to service providers' preparedness, 70% have made hand-washing facilities available. A large majority of the respondents (84.4%) were using government-owned media followed by social media (46.0%) as a main source of information. CONCLUSION: The public in Addis Ababa had moderate knowledge, an optimistic attitude and descent practice. The information flow from government and social media seemed successful seeing the majority of the respondents identifying preventive measures, signs and symptoms and transmission route of SARS-CoV-2. Knowledge and attitude was not associated with practice, thus, additional innovative strategies for practice changes are needed. Two thirds of the service provider made available hand washing facilities which seems a first positive step. However, periodic evaluation of the public KAP and assessment of service providers' preparedness is mandatory to combat the pandemic effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Distanciamento Físico
14.
Int J Cancer ; 148(3): 723-730, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875552

RESUMO

In Ethiopia, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality from all cancers in women. Persistent infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) plays a key role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer. To establish baseline data on the population-based prevalence of HPV infection and genotype distribution, we investigated cervical HPV epidemiology among rural women. This population-based study was conducted among rural women aged 30-49 years in Butajira, south-central Ethiopia. A total of 893 samples were tested from 1020 screened women. A self-sampling device (Evalyn Brush, Rovers, Oss, The Netherlands) was used and HPV presence and genotype was determined using multiplexed genotyping (MPG) by BSGP5+/6+ PCR with Luminex read out. The HPV positivity rate was 23.2% (95% CI: 23.54-22.86%) and 20.5% (95% CI = 20.79-20.21) and 10.3% (95% CI = 10.52-10.08) women were high-risk (hr- and low-risk (lr-) HPV positive, respectively. Fifty five (7.2%) of the women showed multiple hr-HPV infections. Age-specific hr-HPV infection peaked in the age-group 30- to 34 years old (58.6%) and decreased in 35-39, 40-44 and 45-49 years to 20.4%, 4.5% and 3.8% respectively. The top five prevalent hr-HPV genotypes were HPV16 (57.1%), 35 (20.3%), 52 (15.8%), 31 (14.1%), and 45 (9.6%) in the Butajira district. As a first population-based study in the country, our results can serve as valuable reference to guide nationwide cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination programs in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Alphapapillomavirus/classificação , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Viral/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Saúde da População Rural , População Rural , Autoteste
15.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 4439-4448, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33364791

RESUMO

Introduction: Microbial contamination of the hospital environment plays an important role in the spread of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). This study was conducted to determine bacterial contamination, bacterial profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from environmental surfaces and medical equipment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) from June to September 2018. A total of 164 inanimate surfaces located at intensive care units (ICUs) and operation theaters (OTs) were swabbed. All isolates were identified by using routine bacterial culture, Gram staining, and a panel of biochemical tests. For each identified bacteria, antibiogram profiles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Out of the 164 swabbed samples, 141 (86%) were positive for bacterial growth. The predominant bacteria identified from OTs and ICUs were Staphylococci aureus (23% vs 11.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (3.8% vs 17.5%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) (12.6% vs 2.7%) respectively. Linens were the most contaminated materials among items studied at the hospital (14.8%). Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) had significantly high resistance levels to penicillin (92.8%), cefoxitin (83.5%), and erythromycin (53.6%). On the other hand, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) revealed the highest resistance levels to ampicillin (97.5%), ceftazidime (91.3%), ceftriaxone (91.3%), and aztreonam (90%). However, a low resistance level was recorded for amikacin (25%) followed by Ciprofloxacin (37.5%). Of the 63 S. aureus isolates, 54 (85.7%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Conclusion: The inanimate surfaces and commonly touched medical equipment within OTs and ICUs are reservoirs of potentially pathogenic bacteria that could predispose critically ill patients to acquire HCAIs. The proportions of the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates are much higher from studied clean inanimate environments.

16.
J Parasitol Res ; 2020: 7371681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145101

RESUMO

Background: Africa still bears the largest burden of malaria as the majority of infections in the continent are caused by P. falciparum. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL, Coartem®) is the most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), for treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria globally. However, the development of resistance to antimalarial drugs is a major challenge for malaria control. In this review, the efficacy of AL for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Africa was evaluated. Methods: Articles published between January 2015 and July 2019 were systematically searched using comprehensive search strings from PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, and grey literature from Google Scholar. Interventional studies that followed patients for at least 28 days were included. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. All the included articles were measured to be good quality. While computing the efficacy of AL, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-corrected cure rate (adequate clinical and parasitological response, ACPR) at day 28 was considered as the main endpoint. Meta-analysis was computed using STATA v 15 to calculate the pooled ACPR. Results: In this review, 39 articles that reported the treatment outcome of 8,320 patients were included. After 28 days of follow-up, the pooled PCR uncorrected and corrected APCR was at 87% (95% CI: 85-90%) and 97.0% (95% CI: 96-98%), respectively. Moreover, the proportion of early treatment failure (ETF) was almost 0%, while most of the included articles reported <8% late treatment failures. The reinfection and recrudescence rate was less than 10% and 2.6%, respectively, within 28 days. We noted rapid fever and parasite clearance in which greater than 93% and 94% patients were parasite and fever free at day three following AL treatment. Conclusions: This review discovered that despite more than a decade since its introduction, Coartem® remains effective and thus could continue to be the drug of choice for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria for all age groups in Africa. However, the risk of new emerging resistance for this combination warrants regular monitoring of its efficacy across the continent.

17.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 7: 2333794X20953318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062808

RESUMO

Background: Neonatal sepsis is the third leading cause of neonatal mortality, behind prematurity and intrapartum-related complications. The main objectives of this study are to assess the proportion of sepsis in preterm newborns and identify the etiologic agents and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Methods: A longitudinal observational study was done from July 2016 to May 2018. Whenever clinical diagnosis of sepsis was made, blood cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests were done. Result: We did 690 blood cultures, 255 (36.9%) showing bacterial growth. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Klebsiella species 78 (36.6%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus 42 (19.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus 39 (18.3%). Gram-positive bacteria showed high resistance to penicillin (98.9%) and ceftriaxone (91.3%) whereas Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to gentamicin (83.2%) and ceftriaxone (83.2%). Conclusion: Resistance to the more commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin and gentamycin was very high, necessitating reconsideration of the empiric use of these antibiotics.

18.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102204

RESUMO

Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) can directly cause lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), including AIDS-defining lymphomas such as Burkitt's lymphoma and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The prevalence of EBV in HL and NHL is elevated in HIV-positive individuals compared with the general population. Rates of incidence of AIDS-defining cancers have been declining in HIV-infected individuals since initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) use in 1996. However, HIV-infected persons remain at an increased risk of cancers related to infections with oncogenic viruses. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-related cancers include decreased immune surveillance, decreased ability to suppress infection-related oncogenic processes and a state of chronic inflammation marked by alteration of the cytokine profile and expanded numbers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes with down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules and increased expression of markers of senescence in the setting of treated HIV infection. Here we discuss the cooperation of EBV-infected B cell- and environment-associated factors that may contribute to EBV-related lymphomagenesis in HIV-infected individuals. Environment-derived lymphomagenic factors include impaired host adaptive and innate immune surveillance, cytokine dysregulation and a pro-inflammatory state observed in the setting of chronic, cART-treated HIV infection. B cell factors include distinctive EBV latency patterns and host protein expression in HIV-associated LPD, as well as B cell-stimulating factors derived from HIV infection. We review the future directions for expanding therapeutic approaches in targeting the viral and immune components of EBV LPD pathogenesis.

19.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 138, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection (STI) next to Chlamydia. Untreated cases could results in major complications like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, miscarriage, fetal death and congenital infections. Gonorrhea has been treated with antibiotics for more than eight decades. However, the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in gonococcus seriously compromises the management of the disease. The aim of this review was to describe the current developments in the field of azithromycin resistant gonococci. METHODS: Literatures published in English in the last 10 years were retrieved from PubMed, SCOPUS, Google scholar, Cochrane library and the Google databases using relevant searching terms. RESULTS: Gonococcus is capable of using a number of strategies to confer resistance as the bacterium has an extraordinary capacity to alter its genome. So far the accumulated data on the field showed that the world is heading towards a pandemic of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) gonococcus which is now seems to be evolving into a true "superbug". Hence, in the near future gonorrhea may become untreatable on the international basis unless new drugs become available. An antibiotic resistance in gonococcus has been noted beginning in 1940s against sulfonamides. Since then, resistance has rapidly emerged to penicillins, tetracyclines, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins. Currently, in most nations, the injectable extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), i.e. ceftriaxone based therapy is the only remaining option for gonorrhea. Based on the WHO and the US-CDC recommendations, countries are increasingly using a combination of cephalosporin and azithromycin for the treatment of gonorrhoea. Azithromycin revolutionized gonoccocal therapy as it shortened treatment time by more than half from 7 to 14 days and improved patient compliance due to high tissue levels and long half-life. However, constantly emerging reports from different parts of the globe showed that N. gonorrhoeae is developing significant level of resistance against azithromycin, and so far more than 33% level of resistance was reported. Two strategies have been commonly implicated in gonococcal resistance against azithromycin: over expression of an efflux pump (due to mutations at mtrR coding region) and decreased antimicrobial affinity (due to mutations in genes encoding the 23S ribosomal subunit). CONCLUSIONS: With no alternative antimicrobial treatment options for gonorrhoea and only a few new drugs in the development pipeline, it is necessary to monitor drug resistance and optimize treatment regimens regularly. Moreover, investigations for novel drugs should be wired.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 407, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that primarily affects people with advanced HIV/AIDS and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. By far the most common presentation of the disease is cryptococcal meningitis (CM), which leads to an estimated 15-20% of all HIV related deaths worldwide, 75% of which are in sub-Saharan Africa. However, to the best of our knowledge there is quite limited reviewed data on the epidemiology of cryptococcal antigenemia in a large HIV-infected population in resource limited settings. METHODS: Articles published in English irrespective of the time of publication were systematically searched using comprehensive search strings from PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS. In addition, Google Scholar and Google databases were searched manually for grey literature. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. The pooled prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia was determined with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Among 2941 potential citations, we have included 22 studies with a total of 8338 HIV positive individuals. The studies were reported in ten different countries during the year (2007-2018). Most of the articles reported the mean CD4 count of the participants below 100 cells/µl. The pooled prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia at different CD4 count and ART status was at 8% (95%CI: 6-10%) (ranged between 1.7 and 33%). Body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 kg/m2, CD4 count < 100 cells, patients presenting with headache and male gender were reported by two or more articles as an important predictors of cryptococcal antigenemia. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a targeted screening of HIV patients with low BMI, CD4 count < 100 cells, having headache and males; and treatment for asymptomatic cryptococcal disease should be considered. Additional data is needed to better define the epidemiology of cryptococcal antigenemia and its predictors in resource limited settings in order to optimize the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...