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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(5): 874-893, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887194

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.

2.
Genetics ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in datasets comprised of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence datasets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently amongst the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

3.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734315

RESUMO

LocusZoom.js is a JavaScript library for creating interactive web-based visualizations of genetic association study results. It can display one or more traits in the context of relevant biological data (such as gene models and other genomic annotation), and allows interactive refinement of analysis models (by selecting linkage disequilibrium reference panels, identifying sets of likely causal variants, or comparisons to the GWAS catalog). It can be embedded in web pages to enable data sharing and exploration. Views can be customized and extended to display other data types such as phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) results, chromatin co-accessibility, or eQTL measurements. A new web upload service harmonizes datasets, adds annotations, and makes it easy to explore user-provided result sets. Availability LocusZoom.js is open-source software under a permissive MIT license. Code and documentation are available at: https://github.com/statgen/locuszoom/. Installable packages for all versions are also distributed via NPM. Additional features are provided as standalone libraries to promote reuse. Use with your own GWAS results at https://my.locuszoom.org/. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

5.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1009077, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175840

RESUMO

Phenotypes extracted from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are increasingly prevalent in genetic studies. EHRs contain hundreds of distinct clinical laboratory test results, providing a trove of health data beyond diagnoses. Such lab data is complex and lacks a ubiquitous coding scheme, making it more challenging than diagnosis data. Here we describe the first large-scale cross-health system genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EHR-based quantitative laboratory-derived phenotypes. We meta-analyzed 70 lab traits matched between the BioVU cohort from the Vanderbilt University Health System and the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI) cohort from Michigan Medicine. We show high replication of known association for these traits, validating EHR-based measurements as high-quality phenotypes for genetic analysis. Notably, our analysis provides the first replication for 699 previous GWAS associations across 46 different traits. We discovered 31 novel associations at genome-wide significance for 22 distinct traits, including the first reported associations for two lab-based traits. We replicated 22 of these novel associations in an independent tranche of BioVU samples. The summary statistics for all association tests are freely available to benefit other researchers. Finally, we performed mirrored analyses in BioVU and MGI to assess competing analytic practices for EHR lab traits. We find that using the mean of all available lab measurements provides a robust summary value, but alternate summarizations can improve power in certain circumstances. This study provides a proof-of-principle for cross health system GWAS and is a framework for future studies of quantitative EHR lab traits.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4093, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097703

RESUMO

A major challenge in genetic association studies is that most associated variants fall in the non-coding part of the human genome. We searched for variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) after enriching the discovery cohort for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations by sequencing a subset of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, followed by imputation in the remaining sample (N = 19,705), and identified ten known BMD loci. However, one previously unreported variant, LoF mutation in MEPE, p.(Lys70IlefsTer26, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.8%), was associated with decreased ultradistal forearm BMD (P-value = 2.1 × 10-18), and increased osteoporosis (P-value = 4.2 × 10-5) and fracture risk (P-value = 1.6 × 10-5). The MEPE LoF association with BMD and fractures was further evaluated in 279,435 UK (MAF = 0.05%, heel bone estimated BMD P-value = 1.2 × 10-16, any fracture P-value = 0.05) and 375,984 Icelandic samples (MAF = 0.03%, arm BMD P-value = 0.12, forearm fracture P-value = 0.005). Screening for the MEPE LoF mutations before adulthood could potentially prevent osteoporosis and fractures due to the lifelong effect on BMD observed in the study. A key implication for precision medicine is that high-impact functional variants missing from the publicly available cosmopolitan panels could be clinically more relevant than polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/genética
7.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

8.
Nature ; 586(7831): 749-756, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087929

RESUMO

The UK Biobank is a prospective study of 502,543 individuals, combining extensive phenotypic and genotypic data with streamlined access for researchers around the world1. Here we describe the release of exome-sequence data for the first 49,960 study participants, revealing approximately 4 million coding variants (of which around 98.6% have a frequency of less than 1%). The data include 198,269 autosomal predicted loss-of-function (LOF) variants, a more than 14-fold increase compared to the imputed sequence. Nearly all genes (more than 97%) had at least one carrier with a LOF variant, and most genes (more than 69%) had at least ten carriers with a LOF variant. We illustrate the power of characterizing LOF variants in this population through association analyses across 1,730 phenotypes. In addition to replicating established associations, we found novel LOF variants with large effects on disease traits, including PIEZO1 on varicose veins, COL6A1 on corneal resistance, MEPE on bone density, and IQGAP2 and GMPR on blood cell traits. We further demonstrate the value of exome sequencing by surveying the prevalence of pathogenic variants of clinical importance, and show that 2% of this population has a medically actionable variant. Furthermore, we characterize the penetrance of cancer in carriers of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. Exome sequences from the first 49,960 participants highlight the promise of genome sequencing in large population-based studies and are now accessible to the scientific community.

9.
Nat Genet ; 52(10): 1036-1045, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929287

RESUMO

We report on the influence of ~22 million variants on 731 immune cell traits in a cohort of 3,757 Sardinians. We detected 122 significant (P < 1.28 × 10-11) independent association signals for 459 cell traits at 70 loci (53 of them novel) identifying several molecules and mechanisms involved in cell regulation. Furthermore, 53 signals at 36 loci overlapped with previously reported disease-associated signals, predominantly for autoimmune disorders, highlighting intermediate phenotypes in pathogenesis. Collectively, our findings illustrate complex genetic regulation of immune cells with highly selective effects on autoimmune disease risk at the cell-subtype level. These results identify drug-targetable pathways informing the design of more specific treatments for autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Autoimunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008725, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603359

RESUMO

Risk factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in the age-of-onset of allergic diseases are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk variants associated with the age at which symptoms of allergic disease first develop, considering information from asthma, hay fever and eczema. Self-reported age-of-onset information was available for 117,130 genotyped individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. For each individual, we identified the earliest age at which asthma, hay fever and/or eczema was first diagnosed and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this combined age-of-onset phenotype. We identified 50 variants with a significant independent association (P<3x10-8) with age-of-onset. Forty-five variants had comparable effects on the onset of the three individual diseases and 38 were also associated with allergic disease case-control status in an independent study (n = 222,484). We observed a strong negative genetic correlation between age-of-onset and case-control status of allergic disease (rg = -0.63, P = 4.5x10-61), indicating that cases with early disease onset have a greater burden of allergy risk alleles than those with late disease onset. Subsequently, a multivariate GWAS of age-of-onset and case-control status identified a further 26 associations that were missed by the univariate analyses of age-of-onset or case-control status only. Collectively, of the 76 variants identified, 18 represent novel associations for allergic disease. We identified 81 likely target genes of the 76 associated variants based on information from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and non-synonymous variants, of which we highlight ADAM15, FOSL2, TRIM8, BMPR2, CD200R1, PRKCQ, NOD2, SMAD4, ABCA7 and UBE2L3. Our results support the notion that early and late onset allergic disease have partly distinct genetic architectures, potentially explaining known differences in pathophysiology between individuals.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Asma/patologia , Criança , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia
14.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 634-639, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424355

RESUMO

With very large sample sizes, biobanks provide an exciting opportunity to identify genetic components of complex traits. To analyze rare variants, region-based multiple-variant aggregate tests are commonly used to increase power for association tests. However, because of the substantial computational cost, existing region-based tests cannot analyze hundreds of thousands of samples while accounting for confounders such as population stratification and sample relatedness. Here we propose a scalable generalized mixed-model region-based association test, SAIGE-GENE, that is applicable to exome-wide and genome-wide region-based analysis for hundreds of thousands of samples and can account for unbalanced case-control ratios for binary traits. Through extensive simulation studies and analysis of the HUNT study with 69,716 Norwegian samples and the UK Biobank data with 408,910 White British samples, we show that SAIGE-GENE can efficiently analyze large-sample data (N > 400,000) with type I error rates well controlled.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma , Modelos Lineares , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Herança Multifatorial , Noruega , Reino Unido , Relação Cintura-Quadril
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(5)2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466134

RESUMO

There is great interest in understanding the impact of rare variants in human diseases using large sequence datasets. In deep sequence datasets of >10,000 samples, ~10% of the variant sites are observed to be multi-allelic. Many of the multi-allelic variants have been shown to be functional and disease-relevant. Proper analysis of multi-allelic variants is critical to the success of a sequencing study, but existing methods do not properly handle multi-allelic variants and can produce highly misleading association results. We discuss practical issues and methods to encode multi-allelic sites, conduct single-variant and gene-level association analyses, and perform meta-analysis for multi-allelic variants. We evaluated these methods through extensive simulations and the study of a large meta-analysis of ~18,000 samples on the cigarettes-per-day phenotype. We showed that our joint modeling approach provided an unbiased estimate of genetic effects, greatly improved the power of single-variant association tests among methods that can properly estimate allele effects, and enhanced gene-level tests over existing approaches. Software packages implementing these methods are available online.

16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(12): 2022-2034, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246154

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 52 independent variants at 34 genetic loci that are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of incurable vision loss in the elderly worldwide. However, causal genes at the majority of these loci remain unknown. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing of 264 individuals from 63 multiplex families with AMD and analyzed the data for rare protein-altering variants in candidate target genes at AMD-associated loci. Rare coding variants were identified in the CFH, PUS7, RXFP2, PHF12 and TACC2 genes in three or more families. In addition, we detected rare coding variants in the C9, SPEF2 and BCAR1 genes, which were previously suggested as likely causative genes at respective AMD susceptibility loci. Identification of rare variants in the CFH and C9 genes in our study validated previous reports of rare variants in complement pathway genes in AMD. We then extended our exome-wide analysis and identified rare protein-altering variants in 13 genes outside the AMD-GWAS loci in three or more families. Two of these genes, SCN10A and KIR2DL4, are of interest because variants in these genes also showed association with AMD in case-control cohorts, albeit not at the level of genome-wide significance. Our study presents the first large-scale, exome-wide analysis of rare variants in AMD. Further independent replications and molecular investigation of candidate target genes, reported here, would assist in gaining novel insights into mechanisms underlying AMD pathogenesis.

17.
Genome Res ; 30(2): 185-194, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980570

RESUMO

Detecting and estimating DNA sample contamination are important steps to ensure high-quality genotype calls and reliable downstream analysis. Existing methods rely on population allele frequency information for accurate estimation of contamination rates. Correctly specifying population allele frequencies for each individual in early stage of sequence analysis is impractical or even impossible for large-scale sequencing centers that simultaneously process samples from multiple studies across diverse populations. On the other hand, incorrectly specified allele frequencies may result in substantial bias in estimated contamination rates. For example, we observed that existing methods often fail to identify 10% contaminated samples at a typical 3% contamination exclusion threshold when genetic ancestry is misspecified. Such an incomplete screening of contaminated samples substantially inflates the estimated rate of genotyping errors even in deeply sequenced genomes and exomes. We propose a robust statistical method that accurately estimates DNA contamination and is agnostic to genetic ancestry of the intended or contaminating sample. Our method integrates the estimation of genetic ancestry and DNA contamination in a unified likelihood framework by leveraging individual-specific allele frequencies projected from reference genotypes onto principal component coordinates. Our method can also be used for estimating genetic ancestries, similar to LASER or TRACE, but simultaneously accounting for potential contamination. We demonstrate that our method robustly estimates contamination rates and genetic ancestries across populations and contamination scenarios. We further demonstrate that, in the presence of contamination, genetic ancestry inference can be substantially biased with existing methods that ignore contamination, while our method corrects for such biases.

18.
Circulation ; 141(8): 624-636, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alirocumab, an antibody that blocks PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9), was associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and death in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). In this study, higher baseline levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) predicted greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. Recent studies indicate high polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify individuals at higher risk who derive increased benefit from statins. We performed post hoc analyses to determine whether high PRS for CAD identifies higher-risk individuals, independent of baseline LDL-C and other known risk factors, who might derive greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. METHODS: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin treatment. The primary endpoint (MACE) comprised death of CAD, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. A genome-wide PRS for CAD comprising 6 579 025 genetic variants was evaluated in 11 953 patients with available DNA samples. Analysis of MACE risk was performed in placebo-treated patients, whereas treatment benefit analysis was performed in all patients. RESULTS: The incidence of MACE in the placebo group was related to PRS for CAD: 17.0% for high PRS patients (>90th percentile) and 11.4% for lower PRS patients (≤90th percentile; P<0.001); this PRS relationship was not explained by baseline LDL-C or other established risk factors. Both the absolute and relative reduction of MACE by alirocumab compared with placebo was greater in high versus low PRS patients. There was an absolute reduction by alirocumab in high versus low PRS groups of 6.0% and 1.5%, respectively, and a relative risk reduction by alirocumab of 37% in the high PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.46-0.86]; P=0.004) versus a 13% reduction in the low PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.98]; P=0.022; interaction P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A high PRS for CAD is associated with elevated risk for recurrent MACE after acute coronary syndrome and a larger absolute and relative risk reduction with alirocumab treatment, providing an independent tool for risk stratification and precision medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
19.
Assessment ; 27(1): 136-148, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182012

RESUMO

Genetic association studies routinely require many thousands of participants to achieve sufficient power, yet accumulation of large well-assessed samples is costly. We describe here an effort to efficiently measure cognitive ability and personality in an online genetic study, Genes for Good. We report on the first 21,550 participants with relevant phenotypic data, 7,458 of whom have been genotyped genome-wide. Measures of crystallized and fluid intelligence reflected a two-dimensional latent ability space, with items demonstrating adequate item-level characteristics. The Big Five Inventory questionnaire revealed the expected five-factor model of personality. Cognitive measures predicted educational attainment over and above personality characteristics, as expected. We found that a genome-wide polygenic score of educational attainment predicted educational level, accounting for 4%, 4%, and 2.7% of the variance in educational attainment, verbal reasoning, and spatial reasoning, respectively. In summary, the online cognitive measures in Genes for Good appear to perform adequately and demonstrate expected associations with personality, education, and an education-based polygenic score. Results indicate that online cognitive assessment is one avenue to accumulate large samples of individuals for genetic research of cognitive ability.

20.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458520963937, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defective alleles within the PRF1 gene, encoding the pore-forming protein perforin, in combination with environmental factors, cause familial type 2 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL2), a rare, severe autosomal recessive childhood disorder characterized by massive release of cytokines-cytokine storm. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the function of hypomorph PRF1:p.A91V g.72360387 G > A on multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: We cross-compare the association data for PRF1:p.A91V mutation derived from GWAS on adult MS and pediatric T1D in Sardinians. The novel association with T1D was replicated in metanalysis in 12,584 cases and 17,692 controls from Sardinia, the United Kingdom, and Scotland. To dissect this mutation function, we searched through the coincident association immunophenotypes in additional set of general population Sardinians. RESULTS: We report that PRF1:p.A91V, is associated with increase of lymphocyte levels, especially within the cytotoxic memory T-cells, at general population level with reduced interleukin 7 receptor expression on these cells. The minor allele increased risk of MS, in 2903 cases and 2880 controls from Sardinia p = 2.06 × 10-4, odds ratio OR = 1.29, replicating a previous finding, whereas it protects from T1D p = 1.04 × 10-5, OR = 0.82. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate opposing contributions of the cytotoxic T-cell compartment to MS and T1D pathogenesis.

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