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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curative gene therapies for sickle cell disease (SCD) are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. The occurrence of myeloid malignancies in these trials has prompted safety concerns. Individuals with SCD are predisposed to myeloid malignancies, but the underlying causes remain undefined. Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is a pre-malignant condition that also confers significant predisposition to myeloid cancers. While it has been speculated that CH may play a role in SCD-associated cancer predisposition, limited data addressing this issue have been reported. METHODS: Here, we leveraged 74,190 whole genome sequences to robustly study CH in SCD. Somatic mutation calling methods were used to assess CH in all samples and comparisons between individuals with and without SCD were performed. RESULTS: While we had sufficient power to detect a greater than 2-fold increased rate of CH, we found no detectable variation in rate or clone properties between individuals affected by SCD and controls. The rate of CH in individuals with SCD was unaltered by hydroxyurea use. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an increased risk for acquiring detectable CH in SCD, at least as measured by whole genome sequencing. These results should help guide ongoing efforts and further studies that seek to better define the risk factors underlying myeloid malignancy predisposition in SCD and help ensure that curative therapies can be more safely applied. FUNDING: Funding was provided by the New York Stem Cell Foundation and National Institutes of Health. The funders had no role in study design or reporting.

2.
HGG Adv ; 3(1)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927100

RESUMO

Because transethnic analysis may facilitate prioritization of causal genetic variants, we performed a genomewide association study (GWAS) of psoriasis in South Asians (SAS), consisting of 2,590 cases and 1,720 controls. Comparison with our existing European-origin (EUR) GWAS showed that effect sizes of known psoriasis signals were highly correlated in SAS and EUR (Spearman ρ = 0.78; p < 2 × 10-14). Transethnic meta-analysis identified two non-MHC psoriasis loci (1p36.22 and 1q24.2) not previously identified in EUR, which may have regulatory roles. For these two loci, the transethnic GWAS provided higher genetic resolution and reduced the number of potential causal variants compared to using the EUR sample alone. We then explored multiple strategies to develop reference panels for accurately imputing MHC genotypes in both SAS and EUR populations and conducted a fine-mapping of MHC psoriasis associations in SAS and the largest such effort for EUR. HLA-C*06 was the top-ranking MHC locus in both populations but was even more prominent in SAS based on odds ratio, disease liability, model fit and predictive power. Transethnic modeling also substantially boosted the probability that the HLA-C*06 protein variant is causal. Secondary MHC signals included coding variants of HLA-C and HLA-B, but also potential regulatory variants of these two genes as well as HLA-A and several HLA class II genes, with effects on both chromatin accessibility and gene expression. This study highlights the shared genetic basis of psoriasis in SAS and EUR populations and the value of transethnic meta-analysis for discovery and fine-mapping of susceptibility loci.

3.
Nature ; 599(7886): 628-634, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662886

RESUMO

A major goal in human genetics is to use natural variation to understand the phenotypic consequences of altering each protein-coding gene in the genome. Here we used exome sequencing1 to explore protein-altering variants and their consequences in 454,787 participants in the UK Biobank study2. We identified 12 million coding variants, including around 1 million loss-of-function and around 1.8 million deleterious missense variants. When these were tested for association with 3,994 health-related traits, we found 564 genes with trait associations at P ≤ 2.18 × 10-11. Rare variant associations were enriched in loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but most (91%) were independent of common variant signals. We discovered several risk-increasing associations with traits related to liver disease, eye disease and cancer, among others, as well as risk-lowering associations for hypertension (SLC9A3R2), diabetes (MAP3K15, FAM234A) and asthma (SLC27A3). Six genes were associated with brain imaging phenotypes, including two involved in neural development (GBE1, PLD1). Of the signals available and powered for replication in an independent cohort, 81% were confirmed; furthermore, association signals were generally consistent across individuals of European, Asian and African ancestry. We illustrate the ability of exome sequencing to identify gene-trait associations, elucidate gene function and pinpoint effector genes that underlie GWAS signals at scale.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23471-23516, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718232

RESUMO

It is widely thought that individuals age at different rates. A method that measures "physiological age" or physiological aging rate independent of chronological age could therefore help elucidate mechanisms of aging and inform an individual's risk of morbidity and mortality. Here we present machine learning frameworks for inferring individual physiological age from a broad range of biochemical and physiological traits including blood phenotypes (e.g., high-density lipoprotein), cardiovascular functions (e.g., pulse wave velocity) and psychological traits (e.g., neuroticism) as main groups in two population cohorts SardiNIA (~6,100 participants) and InCHIANTI (~1,400 participants). The inferred physiological age was highly correlated with chronological age (R2 > 0.8). We further defined an individual's physiological aging rate (PAR) as the ratio of the predicted physiological age to the chronological age. Notably, PAR was a significant predictor of survival, indicating an effect of aging rate on mortality. Our trait-based PAR was correlated with DNA methylation-based epigenetic aging score (r = 0.6), suggesting that both scores capture a common aging process. PAR was also substantially heritable (h2~0.3), and a subsequent genome-wide association study of PAR identified significant associations with two genetic loci, one of which is implicated in telomerase activity. Our findings support PAR as a proxy for an underlying whole-body aging mechanism. PAR may thus be useful to evaluate the efficacy of treatments that target aging-related deficits and controllable epidemiological factors.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1836-1851, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582791

RESUMO

Many common and rare variants associated with hematologic traits have been discovered through imputation on large-scale reference panels. However, the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in Europeans, and determining causal variants has proved challenging. We performed a GWAS of total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts generated from 109,563,748 variants in the autosomes and the X chromosome in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which included data from 61,802 individuals of diverse ancestry. We discovered and replicated 7 leukocyte trait associations, including (1) the association between a chromosome X, pseudo-autosomal region (PAR), noncoding variant located between cytokine receptor genes (CSF2RA and CLRF2) and lower eosinophil count; and (2) associations between single variants found predominantly among African Americans at the S1PR3 (9q22.1) and HBB (11p15.4) loci and monocyte and lymphocyte counts, respectively. We further provide evidence indicating that the newly discovered eosinophil-lowering chromosome X PAR variant might be associated with reduced susceptibility to common allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Additionally, we found a burden of very rare FLT3 (13q12.2) variants associated with monocyte counts. Together, these results emphasize the utility of whole-genome sequencing in diverse samples in identifying associations missed by European-ancestry-driven GWASs.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553764

RESUMO

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several GWAS identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of whole genome sequencing in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.

7.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 136, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity. The genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing remains poorly understood. Through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, we performed the first whole-genome sequence analysis of sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: The study sample was comprised of 7988 individuals of diverse ancestry. Common-variant and pathway analyses included an additional 13,257 individuals. We examined five complementary traits describing different aspects of sleep-disordered breathing: the apnea-hypopnea index, average oxyhemoglobin desaturation per event, average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation across the sleep episode, and the percentage of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%. We adjusted for age, sex, BMI, study, and family structure using MMSKAT and EMMAX mixed linear model approaches. Additional bioinformatics analyses were performed with MetaXcan, GIGSEA, and ReMap. RESULTS: We identified a multi-ethnic set-based rare-variant association (p = 3.48 × 10-8) on chromosome X with ARMCX3. Additional rare-variant associations include ARMCX3-AS1, MRPS33, and C16orf90. Novel common-variant loci were identified in the NRG1 and SLC45A2 regions, and previously associated loci in the IL18RAP and ATP2B4 regions were associated with novel phenotypes. Transcription factor binding site enrichment identified associations with genes implicated with respiratory and craniofacial traits. Additional analyses identified significantly associated pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the first gene-based rare-variant associations with objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing traits. Our results increase the understanding of the genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing and highlight associations in genes that modulate lung development, inflammation, respiratory rhythmogenesis, and HIF1A-mediated hypoxic response.

8.
Science ; 373(6550)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210852

RESUMO

Large-scale human exome sequencing can identify rare protein-coding variants with a large impact on complex traits such as body adiposity. We sequenced the exomes of 645,626 individuals from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Mexico and estimated associations of rare coding variants with body mass index (BMI). We identified 16 genes with an exome-wide significant association with BMI, including those encoding five brain-expressed G protein-coupled receptors (CALCR, MC4R, GIPR, GPR151, and GPR75). Protein-truncating variants in GPR75 were observed in ~4/10,000 sequenced individuals and were associated with 1.8 kilograms per square meter lower BMI and 54% lower odds of obesity in the heterozygous state. Knock out of Gpr75 in mice resulted in resistance to weight gain and improved glycemic control in a high-fat diet model. Inhibition of GPR75 may provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exoma/genética , Obesidade/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ganho de Peso/genética
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(5): 874-893, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887194

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/organização & administração , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Variação Genética/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
11.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734315

RESUMO

LocusZoom.js is a JavaScript library for creating interactive web-based visualizations of genetic association study results. It can display one or more traits in the context of relevant biological data (such as gene models and other genomic annotation), and allows interactive refinement of analysis models (by selecting linkage disequilibrium reference panels, identifying sets of likely causal variants, or comparisons to the GWAS catalog). It can be embedded in web pages to enable data sharing and exploration. Views can be customized and extended to display other data types such as phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) results, chromatin co-accessibility, or eQTL measurements. A new web upload service harmonizes datasets, adds annotations, and makes it easy to explore user-provided result sets. Availability LocusZoom.js is open-source software under a permissive MIT license. Code and documentation are available at: https://github.com/statgen/locuszoom/. Installable packages for all versions are also distributed via NPM. Additional features are provided as standalone libraries to promote reuse. Use with your own GWAS results at https://my.locuszoom.org/. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

12.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

13.
Mult Scler ; 27(9): 1332-1340, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defective alleles within the PRF1 gene, encoding the pore-forming protein perforin, in combination with environmental factors, cause familial type 2 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL2), a rare, severe autosomal recessive childhood disorder characterized by massive release of cytokines-cytokine storm. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the function of hypomorph PRF1:p.A91V g.72360387 G > A on multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: We cross-compare the association data for PRF1:p.A91V mutation derived from GWAS on adult MS and pediatric T1D in Sardinians. The novel association with T1D was replicated in metanalysis in 12,584 cases and 17,692 controls from Sardinia, the United Kingdom, and Scotland. To dissect this mutation function, we searched through the coincident association immunophenotypes in additional set of general population Sardinians. RESULTS: We report that PRF1:p.A91V, is associated with increase of lymphocyte levels, especially within the cytotoxic memory T-cells, at general population level with reduced interleukin 7 receptor expression on these cells. The minor allele increased risk of MS, in 2903 cases and 2880 controls from Sardinia p = 2.06 × 10-4, odds ratio OR = 1.29, replicating a previous finding, whereas it protects from T1D p = 1.04 × 10-5, OR = 0.82. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate opposing contributions of the cytotoxic T-cell compartment to MS and T1D pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Sistema Imunitário , Autoimunidade/genética , Criança , Humanos , Inflamação , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM , Proteínas Musculares , Mutação , Perforina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
14.
Gastroenterology ; 160(4): 1164-1178.e6, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Modelos Genéticos , Alelos , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1009077, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175840

RESUMO

Phenotypes extracted from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are increasingly prevalent in genetic studies. EHRs contain hundreds of distinct clinical laboratory test results, providing a trove of health data beyond diagnoses. Such lab data is complex and lacks a ubiquitous coding scheme, making it more challenging than diagnosis data. Here we describe the first large-scale cross-health system genome-wide association study (GWAS) of EHR-based quantitative laboratory-derived phenotypes. We meta-analyzed 70 lab traits matched between the BioVU cohort from the Vanderbilt University Health System and the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI) cohort from Michigan Medicine. We show high replication of known association for these traits, validating EHR-based measurements as high-quality phenotypes for genetic analysis. Notably, our analysis provides the first replication for 699 previous GWAS associations across 46 different traits. We discovered 31 novel associations at genome-wide significance for 22 distinct traits, including the first reported associations for two lab-based traits. We replicated 22 of these novel associations in an independent tranche of BioVU samples. The summary statistics for all association tests are freely available to benefit other researchers. Finally, we performed mirrored analyses in BioVU and MGI to assess competing analytic practices for EHR lab traits. We find that using the mean of all available lab measurements provides a robust summary value, but alternate summarizations can improve power in certain circumstances. This study provides a proof-of-principle for cross health system GWAS and is a framework for future studies of quantitative EHR lab traits.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Genômica , Humanos , Michigan , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
17.
Nature ; 586(7831): 749-756, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087929

RESUMO

The UK Biobank is a prospective study of 502,543 individuals, combining extensive phenotypic and genotypic data with streamlined access for researchers around the world1. Here we describe the release of exome-sequence data for the first 49,960 study participants, revealing approximately 4 million coding variants (of which around 98.6% have a frequency of less than 1%). The data include 198,269 autosomal predicted loss-of-function (LOF) variants, a more than 14-fold increase compared to the imputed sequence. Nearly all genes (more than 97%) had at least one carrier with a LOF variant, and most genes (more than 69%) had at least ten carriers with a LOF variant. We illustrate the power of characterizing LOF variants in this population through association analyses across 1,730 phenotypes. In addition to replicating established associations, we found novel LOF variants with large effects on disease traits, including PIEZO1 on varicose veins, COL6A1 on corneal resistance, MEPE on bone density, and IQGAP2 and GMPR on blood cell traits. We further demonstrate the value of exome sequencing by surveying the prevalence of pathogenic variants of clinical importance, and show that 2% of this population has a medically actionable variant. Furthermore, we characterize the penetrance of cancer in carriers of pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. Exome sequences from the first 49,960 participants highlight the promise of genome sequencing in large population-based studies and are now accessible to the scientific community.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/genética , Colágeno Tipo VI/genética , Demografia , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Genótipo , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/genética , Penetrância , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Reino Unido , Varizes/genética , Proteínas Ativadoras de ras GTPase/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4093, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097703

RESUMO

A major challenge in genetic association studies is that most associated variants fall in the non-coding part of the human genome. We searched for variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD) after enriching the discovery cohort for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations by sequencing a subset of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, followed by imputation in the remaining sample (N = 19,705), and identified ten known BMD loci. However, one previously unreported variant, LoF mutation in MEPE, p.(Lys70IlefsTer26, minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.8%), was associated with decreased ultradistal forearm BMD (P-value = 2.1 × 10-18), and increased osteoporosis (P-value = 4.2 × 10-5) and fracture risk (P-value = 1.6 × 10-5). The MEPE LoF association with BMD and fractures was further evaluated in 279,435 UK (MAF = 0.05%, heel bone estimated BMD P-value = 1.2 × 10-16, any fracture P-value = 0.05) and 375,984 Icelandic samples (MAF = 0.03%, arm BMD P-value = 0.12, forearm fracture P-value = 0.005). Screening for the MEPE LoF mutations before adulthood could potentially prevent osteoporosis and fractures due to the lifelong effect on BMD observed in the study. A key implication for precision medicine is that high-impact functional variants missing from the publicly available cosmopolitan panels could be clinically more relevant than polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glicoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/genética
20.
Nat Genet ; 52(10): 1036-1045, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929287

RESUMO

We report on the influence of ~22 million variants on 731 immune cell traits in a cohort of 3,757 Sardinians. We detected 122 significant (P < 1.28 × 10-11) independent association signals for 459 cell traits at 70 loci (53 of them novel) identifying several molecules and mechanisms involved in cell regulation. Furthermore, 53 signals at 36 loci overlapped with previously reported disease-associated signals, predominantly for autoimmune disorders, highlighting intermediate phenotypes in pathogenesis. Collectively, our findings illustrate complex genetic regulation of immune cells with highly selective effects on autoimmune disease risk at the cell-subtype level. These results identify drug-targetable pathways informing the design of more specific treatments for autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Autoimunidade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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