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1.
Circulation ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707832

RESUMO

Background: Alirocumab, an antibody that blocks proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), was associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and death in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial. In this study, higher baseline LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels predicted greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. Recent studies indicate high polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify individuals at higher risk who derive increased benefit from statins. Herein we perform post hoc analyses to determine whether high PRS for CAD identifies higher-risk individuals, independently from baseline LDLC and other known risk factors, who might derive greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. Methods: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing alirocumab or placebo in 18,924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin treatment. The primary endpoint (MACE) comprised death from CAD, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. A genome-wide PRS for CAD comprising 6,579,025 genetic variants was evaluated in 11,953 patients with available DNA samples. Analysis of MACE risk was performed in placebo treated patients while treatment benefit analysis was performed in all patients. Results: The incidence of MACE in the placebo group was related to PRS for CAD: 17.0% for high PRS patients (>90th percentile) and 11.4% for lower PRS patients (≤90th percentile) (p<0.001); this PRS relationship was not explained by baseline LDL-C or other established risk factors. Both the absolute and relative reduction of MACE by alirocumab compared to placebo was greater in high versus low PRS patients. There was an absolute reduction by alirocumab in high versus low PRS groups of 6.0% and 1.5%, respectively, and relative risk reduction by alirocumab of 37% in the high PRS group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.86; p = 0.004) versus 13% reduction in the low PRS group (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.78-0.98; p=0.022; interaction p = 0.04). Conclusions: A high PRS for CAD is associated with elevated risk for recurrent MACE after ACS, and larger absolute and relative risk reduction with alirocumab treatment, providing an independent tool for risk stratification and precision medicine.

2.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In cystic fibrosis (CF), the spectrum and frequency of CFTR variants differ by geography and race/ethnicity. CFTR variants in White patients are well-described compared with Latino patients. No studies of CFTR variants have been done in patients with CF in the Dominican Republic or Puerto Rico. METHODS: CFTR was sequenced in 61 Dominican Republican patients and 21 Puerto Rican patients with CF and greater than ​​​​60 mmol/L sweat chloride. The spectrum of CFTR variants was identified and the proportion of patients with 0, 1, or 2 CFTR variants identified was determined. The functional effects of identified CFTR variants were investigated using clinical annotation databases and computational prediction tools. RESULTS: Our study found 10% of Dominican patients had two CFTR variants identified compared with 81% of Puerto Rican patients. No CFTR variants were identified in 69% of Dominican patients and 10% of Puerto Rican patients. In Dominican patients, there were 19 identified CFTR variants, accounting for 25 out of 122 disease alleles (20%). In Puerto Rican patients, there were 16 identified CFTR variants, accounting for 36 out of 42 disease alleles (86%) in Puerto Rican patients. Thirty CFTR variants were identified overall. The most frequent variants for Dominican patients were p.Phe508del and p.Ala559Thr and for Puerto Rican patients were p.Phe508del, p.Arg1066Cys, p.Arg334Trp, and p.I507del. CONCLUSIONS: In this first description of the CFTR variants in patients with CF from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, there was a low detection rate of two CFTR variants after full sequencing with the majority of patients from the Dominican Republic without identified variants.

3.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(8): 980-995, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452258

RESUMO

Array genotyping is a cost-effective and widely used tool that enables assessment of up to millions of genetic markers in hundreds of thousands of individuals. Genotyping array data are typically highly accurate but sensitive to mixing of DNA samples from multiple individuals before or during genotyping. Contaminated samples can lead to genotyping errors and consequently cause false positive signals or reduce power of association analyses. Here, we propose a new method to identify contaminated samples and the sources of contamination within a genotyping batch. Through analysis of array intensity and genotype data from intentionally mixed samples and 22,366 samples of the Michigan Genomics Initiative, an ongoing biobank-based study, we show that our method can reliably estimate contamination. We also show that identifying sources of contamination can implicate problematic sample processing steps and guide process improvements. Compared to existing methods, our approach can estimate the proportion of contaminating DNA more accurately, eliminate the need for external databases of allele frequencies, and provide contamination estimates that are more robust to the ancestral origin of the contaminating sample.

5.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 800-814, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433078

RESUMO

The power of genetic association analyses can be increased by jointly meta-analyzing multiple correlated phenotypes. Here, we develop a meta-analysis framework, Meta-MultiSKAT, that uses summary statistics to test for association between multiple continuous phenotypes and variants in a region of interest. Our approach models the heterogeneity of effects between studies through a kernel matrix and performs a variance component test for association. Using a genotype kernel, our approach can test for rare-variants and the combined effects of both common and rare-variants. To achieve robust power, within Meta-MultiSKAT, we developed fast and accurate omnibus tests combining different models of genetic effects, functional genomic annotations, multiple correlated phenotypes, and heterogeneity across studies. In addition, Meta-MultiSKAT accommodates situations where studies do not share exactly the same set of phenotypes or have differing correlation patterns among the phenotypes. Simulation studies confirm that Meta-MultiSKAT can maintain the type-I error rate at the exome-wide level of 2.5 × 10-6 . Further simulations under different models of association show that Meta-MultiSKAT can improve the power of detection from 23% to 38% on average over single phenotype-based meta-analysis approaches. We demonstrate the utility and improved power of Meta-MultiSKAT in the meta-analyses of four white blood cell subtype traits from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI) and SardiNIA studies.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Metanálise como Assunto , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Itália , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo
7.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008202, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194742

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are designed to serve as single summary measures that are easy to construct, condensing information from a large number of genetic variants associated with a disease. They have been used for stratification and prediction of disease risk. The primary focus of this paper is to demonstrate how we can combine PRS and electronic health records data to better understand the shared and unique genetic architecture and etiology of disease subtypes that may be both related and heterogeneous. PRS construction strategies often depend on the purpose of the study, the available data/summary estimates, and the underlying genetic architecture of a disease. We consider several choices for constructing a PRS using data obtained from various publicly-available sources including the UK Biobank and evaluate their abilities to predict not just the primary phenotype but also secondary phenotypes derived from electronic health records (EHR). This study was conducted using data from 30,702 unrelated, genotyped patients of recent European descent from the Michigan Genomics Initiative (MGI), a longitudinal biorepository effort within Michigan Medicine. We examine the three most common skin cancer subtypes in the USA: basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Using these PRS for various skin cancer subtypes, we conduct a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) within the MGI data to evaluate PRS associations with secondary traits. PheWAS results are then replicated using population-based UK Biobank data and compared across various PRS construction methods. We develop an accompanying visual catalog called PRSweb that provides detailed PheWAS results and allows users to directly compare different PRS construction methods.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Michigan/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 65-77, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204010

RESUMO

The Genes for Good study uses social media to engage a large, diverse participant pool in genetics research and education. Health history and daily tracking surveys are administered through a Facebook application, and participants who complete a minimum number of surveys are mailed a saliva sample kit ("spit kit") to collect DNA for genotyping. As of March 2019, we engaged >80,000 individuals, sent spit kits to >32,000 individuals who met minimum participation requirements, and collected >27,000 spit kits. Participants come from all 50 states and include a diversity of ancestral backgrounds. Rates of important chronic health indicators are consistent with those estimated for the general U.S. population using more traditional study designs. However, our sample is younger and contains a greater percentage of females than the general population. As one means of verifying data quality, we have replicated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for exemplar traits, such as asthma, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and pigmentation. The flexible framework of the web application makes it relatively simple to add new questionnaires and for other researchers to collaborate. We anticipate that the study sample will continue to grow and that future analyses may further capitalize on the strengths of the longitudinal data in combination with genetic information.

9.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 1067, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068672

RESUMO

In the version of this article initially published, in Supplementary Data 5, the logFC, FC, P value and adjusted P value for advanced AMD versus control (DE 4/1) without age correction did not correspond to the correct gene IDs. The errors have been corrected in the HTML version of the article.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1847, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015462

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing health burden currently affecting 10-15% of adults worldwide. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as a marker of kidney function is commonly used to diagnose CKD. We analyze eGFR data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and Michigan Genomics Initiative and perform a GWAS meta-analysis with public summary statistics, more than doubling the sample size of previous meta-analyses. We identify 147 loci (53 novel) associated with eGFR, including genes involved in transcriptional regulation, kidney development, cellular signaling, metabolism, and solute transport. Additionally, sex-stratified analysis identifies one locus with more significant effects in women than men. Using genetic risk scores constructed from these eGFR meta-analysis results, we show that associated variants are generally predictive of CKD with only modest improvements in detection compared with other known clinical risk factors. Collectively, these results yield additional insight into the genetic factors underlying kidney function and progression to CKD.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
12.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 606-610, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742112

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants at 34 loci contributing to age-related macular degeneration (AMD)1-3. We generated transcriptional profiles of postmortem retinas from 453 controls and cases at distinct stages of AMD and integrated retinal transcriptomes, covering 13,662 protein-coding and 1,462 noncoding genes, with genotypes at more than 9 million common SNPs for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis of a tissue not included in Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) and other large datasets4,5. Cis-eQTL analysis identified 10,474 genes under genetic regulation, including 4,541 eQTLs detected only in the retina. Integrated analysis of AMD-GWAS with eQTLs ascertained likely target genes at six reported loci. Using transcriptome-wide association analysis (TWAS), we identified three additional genes, RLBP1, HIC1 and PARP12, after Bonferroni correction. Our studies expand the genetic landscape of AMD and establish the Eye Genotype Expression (EyeGEx) database as a resource for post-GWAS interpretation of multifactorial ocular traits.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Retina/fisiopatologia
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(3): 503, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622366

RESUMO

The author list was in the wrong order in the HTML version of the original article and in the HTML version of the original correction notice. This has been corrected to show the 23andMe Research Team as the fourth author and Abraham A. Palmer as the last author in both places.

14.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(1): 112-117, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565766

RESUMO

It is unclear whether insertions and deletions (indels) are more likely to influence complex traits than abundant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We sought to understand which category of variation is more likely to impact health. Using the SardiNIA study as an exemplar, we characterized 478,876 common indels and 8,246,244 common SNPs in up to 5,949 well-phenotyped individuals from an isolated valley in Sardinia. We assessed association between 120 traits, resulting in 89 nonoverlapping-associated loci.We evaluated whether indels were enriched among credible sets of potential causal variants. These credible sets included 1,319 SNPs and 88 indels. We did not find indels to be significantly enriched. Indels were the most likely causal variant in seven loci, including one locus associated with monocyte count where an indel with causality and mechanism previously demonstrated (rs200748895:TGCTG/T) had a 0.999 posterior probability. Overall, our results show a very modest and nonsignificant enrichment for common indels in associated loci.


Assuntos
Mutação INDEL/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Itália , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
16.
JAMA ; 320(22): 2354-2364, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535219

RESUMO

Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia affecting 1% of the population. Young individuals with AF have a strong genetic association with the disease, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Objective: To perform large-scale whole-genome sequencing to identify genetic variants related to AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program includes longitudinal and cohort studies that underwent high-depth whole-genome sequencing between 2014 and 2017 in 18 526 individuals from the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Barbados, and Samoa. This case-control study included 2781 patients with early-onset AF from 9 studies and identified 4959 controls of European ancestry from the remaining participants. Results were replicated in the UK Biobank (346 546 participants) and the MyCode Study (42 782 participants). Exposures: Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in genes at AF loci and common genetic variation across the whole genome. Main Outcomes and Measures: Early-onset AF (defined as AF onset in persons <66 years of age). Due to multiple testing, the significance threshold for the rare variant analysis was P = 4.55 × 10-3. Results: Among 2781 participants with early-onset AF (the case group), 72.1% were men, and the mean (SD) age of AF onset was 48.7 (10.2) years. Participants underwent whole-genome sequencing at a mean depth of 37.8 fold and mean genome coverage of 99.1%. At least 1 LOF variant in TTN, the gene encoding the sarcomeric protein titin, was present in 2.1% of case participants compared with 1.1% in control participants (odds ratio [OR], 1.76 [95% CI, 1.04-2.97]). The proportion of individuals with early-onset AF who carried a LOF variant in TTN increased with an earlier age of AF onset (P value for trend, 4.92 × 10-4), and 6.5% of individuals with AF onset prior to age 30 carried a TTN LOF variant (OR, 5.94 [95% CI, 2.64-13.35]; P = 1.65 × 10-5). The association between TTN LOF variants and AF was replicated in an independent study of 1582 patients with early-onset AF (cases) and 41 200 control participants (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.19-3.92]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In a case-control study, there was a statistically significant association between an LOF variant in the TTN gene and early-onset AF, with the variant present in a small percentage of participants with early-onset AF (the case group). Further research is necessary to understand whether this is a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Conectina/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade
17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4178, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301895

RESUMO

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a complex chronic musculoskeletal condition that occurs in ~30% of psoriasis patients. Currently, no systematic strategy is available that utilizes the differences in genetic architecture between PsA and cutaneous-only psoriasis (PsC) to assess PsA risk before symptoms appear. Here, we introduce a computational pipeline for predicting PsA among psoriasis patients using data from six cohorts with >7000 genotyped PsA and PsC patients. We identify 9 new loci for psoriasis or its subtypes and achieve 0.82 area under the receiver operator curve in distinguishing PsA vs. PsC when using 200 genetic markers. Among the top 5% of our PsA prediction we achieve >90% precision with 100% specificity and 16% recall for predicting PsA among psoriatic patients, using conditional inference forest or shrinkage discriminant analysis. Combining statistical and machine-learning techniques, we show that the underlying genetic differences between psoriasis subtypes can be used for individualized subtype risk assessment.

18.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1514-1523, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275531

RESUMO

The Million Veteran Program (MVP) was established in 2011 as a national research initiative to determine how genetic variation influences the health of US military veterans. Here we genotyped 312,571 MVP participants using a custom biobank array and linked the genetic data to laboratory and clinical phenotypes extracted from electronic health records covering a median of 10.0 years of follow-up. Among 297,626 veterans with at least one blood lipid measurement, including 57,332 black and 24,743 Hispanic participants, we tested up to around 32 million variants for association with lipid levels and identified 118 novel genome-wide significant loci after meta-analysis with data from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium (total n > 600,000). Through a focus on mutations predicted to result in a loss of gene function and a phenome-wide association study, we propose novel indications for pharmaceutical inhibitors targeting PCSK9 (abdominal aortic aneurysm), ANGPTL4 (type 2 diabetes) and PDE3B (triglycerides and coronary disease).

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4038, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30279509

RESUMO

Hundreds of thousands of human whole genome sequencing (WGS) datasets will be generated over the next few years. These data are more valuable in aggregate: joint analysis of genomes from many sources increases sample size and statistical power. A central challenge for joint analysis is that different WGS data processing pipelines cause substantial differences in variant calling in combined datasets, necessitating computationally expensive reprocessing. This approach is no longer tenable given the scale of current studies and data volumes. Here, we define WGS data processing standards that allow different groups to produce functionally equivalent (FE) results, yet still innovate on data processing pipelines. We present initial FE pipelines developed at five genome centers and show that they yield similar variant calling results and produce significantly less variability than sequencing replicates. This work alleviates a key technical bottleneck for genome aggregation and helps lay the foundation for community-wide human genetics studies.

20.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1426-1434, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224645

RESUMO

The population of the Mediterranean island of Sardinia has made important contributions to genome-wide association studies of complex disease traits and, based on ancient DNA studies of mainland Europe, Sardinia is hypothesized to be a unique refuge for early Neolithic ancestry. To provide new insights on the genetic history of this flagship population, we analyzed 3,514 whole-genome sequenced individuals from Sardinia. Sardinian samples show elevated levels of shared ancestry with Basque individuals, especially samples from the more historically isolated regions of Sardinia. Our analysis also uniquely illuminates how levels of genetic similarity with mainland ancient DNA samples varies subtly across the island. Together, our results indicate that within-island substructure and sex-biased processes have substantially impacted the genetic history of Sardinia. These results give new insight into the demography of ancestral Sardinians and help further the understanding of sharing of disease risk alleles between Sardinia and mainland populations.

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