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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(11): 1543-1552, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741163

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) results from disordered brain-gut interactions. Identifying susceptibility genes could highlight the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. We designed a digestive health questionnaire for UK Biobank and combined identified cases with IBS with independent cohorts. We conducted a genome-wide association study with 53,400 cases and 433,201 controls and replicated significant associations in a 23andMe panel (205,252 cases and 1,384,055 controls). Our study identified and confirmed six genetic susceptibility loci for IBS. Implicated genes included NCAM1, CADM2, PHF2/FAM120A, DOCK9, CKAP2/TPTE2P3 and BAG6. The first four are associated with mood and anxiety disorders, expressed in the nervous system, or both. Mirroring this, we also found strong genome-wide correlation between the risk of IBS and anxiety, neuroticism and depression (rg > 0.5). Additional analyses suggested this arises due to shared pathogenic pathways rather than, for example, anxiety causing abdominal symptoms. Implicated mechanisms require further exploration to help understand the altered brain-gut interactions underlying IBS.

2.
Nature ; 599(7886): 628-634, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662886

RESUMO

A major goal in human genetics is to use natural variation to understand the phenotypic consequences of altering each protein-coding gene in the genome. Here we used exome sequencing1 to explore protein-altering variants and their consequences in 454,787 participants in the UK Biobank study2. We identified 12 million coding variants, including around 1 million loss-of-function and around 1.8 million deleterious missense variants. When these were tested for association with 3,994 health-related traits, we found 564 genes with trait associations at P ≤ 2.18 × 10-11. Rare variant associations were enriched in loci from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but most (91%) were independent of common variant signals. We discovered several risk-increasing associations with traits related to liver disease, eye disease and cancer, among others, as well as risk-lowering associations for hypertension (SLC9A3R2), diabetes (MAP3K15, FAM234A) and asthma (SLC27A3). Six genes were associated with brain imaging phenotypes, including two involved in neural development (GBE1, PLD1). Of the signals available and powered for replication in an independent cohort, 81% were confirmed; furthermore, association signals were generally consistent across individuals of European, Asian and African ancestry. We illustrate the ability of exome sequencing to identify gene-trait associations, elucidate gene function and pinpoint effector genes that underlie GWAS signals at scale.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23471-23516, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718232

RESUMO

It is widely thought that individuals age at different rates. A method that measures "physiological age" or physiological aging rate independent of chronological age could therefore help elucidate mechanisms of aging and inform an individual's risk of morbidity and mortality. Here we present machine learning frameworks for inferring individual physiological age from a broad range of biochemical and physiological traits including blood phenotypes (e.g., high-density lipoprotein), cardiovascular functions (e.g., pulse wave velocity) and psychological traits (e.g., neuroticism) as main groups in two population cohorts SardiNIA (~6,100 participants) and InCHIANTI (~1,400 participants). The inferred physiological age was highly correlated with chronological age (R2 > 0.8). We further defined an individual's physiological aging rate (PAR) as the ratio of the predicted physiological age to the chronological age. Notably, PAR was a significant predictor of survival, indicating an effect of aging rate on mortality. Our trait-based PAR was correlated with DNA methylation-based epigenetic aging score (r = 0.6), suggesting that both scores capture a common aging process. PAR was also substantially heritable (h2~0.3), and a subsequent genome-wide association study of PAR identified significant associations with two genetic loci, one of which is implicated in telomerase activity. Our findings support PAR as a proxy for an underlying whole-body aging mechanism. PAR may thus be useful to evaluate the efficacy of treatments that target aging-related deficits and controllable epidemiological factors.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(10): 1836-1851, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582791

RESUMO

Many common and rare variants associated with hematologic traits have been discovered through imputation on large-scale reference panels. However, the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been conducted in Europeans, and determining causal variants has proved challenging. We performed a GWAS of total leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts generated from 109,563,748 variants in the autosomes and the X chromosome in the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, which included data from 61,802 individuals of diverse ancestry. We discovered and replicated 7 leukocyte trait associations, including (1) the association between a chromosome X, pseudo-autosomal region (PAR), noncoding variant located between cytokine receptor genes (CSF2RA and CLRF2) and lower eosinophil count; and (2) associations between single variants found predominantly among African Americans at the S1PR3 (9q22.1) and HBB (11p15.4) loci and monocyte and lymphocyte counts, respectively. We further provide evidence indicating that the newly discovered eosinophil-lowering chromosome X PAR variant might be associated with reduced susceptibility to common allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. Additionally, we found a burden of very rare FLT3 (13q12.2) variants associated with monocyte counts. Together, these results emphasize the utility of whole-genome sequencing in diverse samples in identifying associations missed by European-ancestry-driven GWASs.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Asma/genética , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Proteoma/análise , Proteoma/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553764

RESUMO

Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV) are highly heritable quantitative traits, with hundreds of genetic signals previously identified, mostly in European ancestry populations. We here utilize whole genome sequencing from NHLBI's Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Initiative (TOPMed) in a large multi-ethnic sample to further explore common and rare variation contributing to PLT (n = 61 200) and MPV (n = 23 485). We identified and replicated secondary signals at MPL (rs532784633) and PECAM1 (rs73345162), both more common in African ancestry populations. We also observed rare variation in Mendelian platelet related disorder genes influencing variation in platelet traits in TOPMed cohorts (not enriched for blood disorders). For example, association of GP9 with lower PLT and higher MPV was partly driven by a pathogenic Bernard-Soulier syndrome variant (rs5030764, p.Asn61Ser), and the signals at TUBB1 and CD36 were partly driven by loss of function variants not annotated as pathogenic in ClinVar (rs199948010 and rs571975065). However, residual signal remained for these gene-based signals after adjusting for lead variants, suggesting that additional variants in Mendelian genes with impacts in general population cohorts remain to be identified. Gene-based signals were also identified at several GWAS identified loci for genes not annotated for Mendelian platelet disorders (PTPRH, TET2, CHEK2), with somatic variation driving the result at TET2. These results highlight the value of whole genome sequencing in populations of diverse genetic ancestry to identify novel regulatory and coding signals, even for well-studied traits like platelet traits.

6.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 136, 2021 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder associated with significant morbidity. The genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing remains poorly understood. Through the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, we performed the first whole-genome sequence analysis of sleep-disordered breathing. METHODS: The study sample was comprised of 7988 individuals of diverse ancestry. Common-variant and pathway analyses included an additional 13,257 individuals. We examined five complementary traits describing different aspects of sleep-disordered breathing: the apnea-hypopnea index, average oxyhemoglobin desaturation per event, average and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation across the sleep episode, and the percentage of sleep with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%. We adjusted for age, sex, BMI, study, and family structure using MMSKAT and EMMAX mixed linear model approaches. Additional bioinformatics analyses were performed with MetaXcan, GIGSEA, and ReMap. RESULTS: We identified a multi-ethnic set-based rare-variant association (p = 3.48 × 10-8) on chromosome X with ARMCX3. Additional rare-variant associations include ARMCX3-AS1, MRPS33, and C16orf90. Novel common-variant loci were identified in the NRG1 and SLC45A2 regions, and previously associated loci in the IL18RAP and ATP2B4 regions were associated with novel phenotypes. Transcription factor binding site enrichment identified associations with genes implicated with respiratory and craniofacial traits. Additional analyses identified significantly associated pathways. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the first gene-based rare-variant associations with objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing traits. Our results increase the understanding of the genetic architecture of sleep-disordered breathing and highlight associations in genes that modulate lung development, inflammation, respiratory rhythmogenesis, and HIF1A-mediated hypoxic response.

7.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459872

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) characterize the associations between genetic variation and gene expression to provide insights into tissue-specific gene regulation. Interactive visualization of tissue-specific eQTLs or splice QTLs (sQTLs) can facilitate our understanding of functional variants relevant to disease-related traits. However, combining the multi-dimensional nature of eQTLs/sQTLs into a concise and informative visualization is challenging. Existing QTL visualization tools provide useful ways to summarize the unprecedented scale of transcriptomic data but are not necessarily tailored to answer questions about the functional interpretations of trait-associated variants or other variants of interest. We developed FIVEx, an interactive eQTL/sQTL browser with an intuitive interface tailored to the functional interpretation of associated variants. It features the ability to navigate seamlessly between different data views while providing relevant tissue- and locus-specific information to offer users a better understanding of population-scale multi-tissue transcriptomic profiles. Our implementation of the FIVEx browser on the EBI eQTL catalogue, encompassing 16 publicly available RNA-seq studies, provides important insights for understanding potential tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying trait-associated signals. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A FIVEx instance visualizing EBI eQTL catalogue data can be found at https://fivex.sph.umich.edu. Its source code is open source under an MIT license at https://github.com/statgen/fivex. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

8.
Science ; 373(6550)2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210852

RESUMO

Large-scale human exome sequencing can identify rare protein-coding variants with a large impact on complex traits such as body adiposity. We sequenced the exomes of 645,626 individuals from the United Kingdom, the United States, and Mexico and estimated associations of rare coding variants with body mass index (BMI). We identified 16 genes with an exome-wide significant association with BMI, including those encoding five brain-expressed G protein-coupled receptors (CALCR, MC4R, GIPR, GPR151, and GPR75). Protein-truncating variants in GPR75 were observed in ~4/10,000 sequenced individuals and were associated with 1.8 kilograms per square meter lower BMI and 54% lower odds of obesity in the heterozygous state. Knock out of Gpr75 in mice resulted in resistance to weight gain and improved glycemic control in a high-fat diet model. Inhibition of GPR75 may provide a therapeutic strategy for obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exoma/genética , Obesidade/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ganho de Peso/genética
9.
Mitochondrion ; 60: 33-42, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303007

RESUMO

We investigated the concordance of mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmic mutations (heteroplasmies) in 6745 maternal pairs of European (EA, n = 4718 pairs) and African (AA, n = 2027 pairs) Americans in whole blood. Mother-offspring pairs displayed the highest concordance rate, followed by sibling-sibling and more distantly-related maternal pairs. The allele fractions of concordant heteroplasmies exhibited high correlation (R2 = 0.8) between paired individuals. Discordant heteroplasmies were more likely to be in coding regions, be nonsynonymous or nonsynonymous-deleterious (p < 0.001). The number of deleterious heteroplasmies was significantly correlated with advancing age (20-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years, p-trend = 0.01). One standard deviation increase in heteroplasmic burden (i.e., the number of heteroplasmies carried by an individual) was associated with 0.17 to 0.26 (p < 1e - 23) standard deviation decrease in mtDNA copy number, independent of age. White blood cell count and differential count jointly explained 0.5% to 1.3% (p ≤ 0.001) variance in heteroplasmic burden. A genome-wide association and meta-analysis identified a region at 11p11.12 (top signal rs779031139, p = 2.0e - 18, minor allele frequency = 0.38) associated with the heteroplasmic burden. However, the 11p11.12 region is adjacent to a nuclear mitochondrial DNA (NUMT) corresponding to a 542 bp area of the D-loop. This region was no longer significant after excluding heteroplasmies within the 542 bp from the heteroplasmic burden. The discovery that blood mtDNA heteroplasmies were both inherited and somatic origins and that an increase in heteroplasmic burden was strongly associated with a decrease in average number of mtDNA copy number in blood are important findings to be considered in association studies of mtDNA with disease traits.

11.
Genet Epidemiol ; 45(6): 664-681, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184762

RESUMO

Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are biomarkers for liver health. Here we report the largest genome-wide association analysis to date of serum ALT and AST levels in over 388k people of European ancestry from UK biobank and DiscovEHR. Eleven million imputed markers with a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.5% were analyzed. Overall, 300 ALT and 336 AST independent genome-wide significant associations were identified. Among them, 81 ALT and 61 AST associations are reported for the first time. Genome-wide interaction study identified 9 ALT and 12 AST independent associations significantly modified by body mass index (BMI), including several previously reported potential liver disease therapeutic targets, for example, PNPLA3, HSD17B13, and MARC1. While further work is necessary to understand the effect of ALT and AST-associated variants on liver disease, the weighted burden of significant BMI-modified signals is significantly associated with liver disease outcomes. In summary, this study identifies genetic associations which offer an important step forward in understanding the genetic architecture of serum ALT and AST levels. Significant interactions between BMI and genetic loci not only highlight the important role of adiposity in liver damage but also shed light on the genetic etiology of liver disease in obese individuals.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
12.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989384

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The sparse allele vectors (SAV) file format is an efficient storage format for large-scale DNA variation data and is designed for high throughput association analysis by leveraging techniques for fast deserialization of data into computer memory. A command line interface has been developed to complement the storage format and supports basic features like importing, exporting and subsetting. Additionally, a C ++ programming API is available allowing for easy integration into analysis software. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/statgen/savvy. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

13.
Aging Cell ; 20(6): e13366, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050697

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a common precursor state for blood cancers that most frequently occurs due to mutations in the DNA-methylation modifying enzymes DNMT3A or TET2. We used DNA-methylation array and whole-genome sequencing data from four cohorts together comprising 5522 persons to study the association between CHIP, epigenetic clocks, and health outcomes. CHIP was strongly associated with epigenetic age acceleration, defined as the residual after regressing epigenetic clock age on chronological age, in several clocks, ranging from 1.31 years (GrimAge, p < 8.6 × 10-7 ) to 3.08 years (EEAA, p < 3.7 × 10-18 ). Mutations in most CHIP genes except DNA-damage response genes were associated with increases in several measures of age acceleration. CHIP carriers with mutations in multiple genes had the largest increases in age acceleration and decrease in estimated telomere length. Finally, we found that ~40% of CHIP carriers had acceleration >0 in both Hannum and GrimAge (referred to as AgeAccelHG+). This group was at high risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.90, p < 4.1 × 10-8 ) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (hazard ratio 3.24, p < 9.3 × 10-6 ) compared to those who were CHIP-/AgeAccelHG-. In contrast, the other ~60% of CHIP carriers who were AgeAccelHG- were not at increased risk of these outcomes. In summary, CHIP is strongly linked to age acceleration in multiple clocks, and the combination of CHIP and epigenetic aging may be used to identify a population at high risk for adverse outcomes and who may be a target for clinical interventions.

14.
Nat Genet ; 53(7): 1097-1103, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017140

RESUMO

Genome-wide association analysis of cohorts with thousands of phenotypes is computationally expensive, particularly when accounting for sample relatedness or population structure. Here we present a novel machine-learning method called REGENIE for fitting a whole-genome regression model for quantitative and binary phenotypes that is substantially faster than alternatives in multi-trait analyses while maintaining statistical efficiency. The method naturally accommodates parallel analysis of multiple phenotypes and requires only local segments of the genotype matrix to be loaded in memory, in contrast to existing alternatives, which must load genome-wide matrices into memory. This results in substantial savings in compute time and memory usage. We introduce a fast, approximate Firth logistic regression test for unbalanced case-control phenotypes. The method is ideally suited to take advantage of distributed computing frameworks. We demonstrate the accuracy and computational benefits of this approach using the UK Biobank dataset with up to 407,746 individuals.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(5): 874-893, 2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887194

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a powerful tool for detecting novel coding and non-coding disease-causing variants, has largely been applied to clinical diagnosis of inherited disorders. Here we leveraged WGS data in up to 62,653 ethnically diverse participants from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program and assessed statistical association of variants with seven red blood cell (RBC) quantitative traits. We discovered 14 single variant-RBC trait associations at 12 genomic loci, which have not been reported previously. Several of the RBC trait-variant associations (RPN1, ELL2, MIDN, HBB, HBA1, PIEZO1, and G6PD) were replicated in independent GWAS datasets imputed to the TOPMed reference panel. Most of these discovered variants are rare/low frequency, and several are observed disproportionately among non-European Ancestry (African, Hispanic/Latino, or East Asian) populations. We identified a 3 bp indel p.Lys2169del (g.88717175_88717177TCT[4]) (common only in the Ashkenazi Jewish population) of PIEZO1, a gene responsible for the Mendelian red cell disorder hereditary xerocytosis (MIM: 194380), associated with higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). In stepwise conditional analysis and in gene-based rare variant aggregated association analysis, we identified several of the variants in HBB, HBA1, TMPRSS6, and G6PD that represent the carrier state for known coding, promoter, or splice site loss-of-function variants that cause inherited RBC disorders. Finally, we applied base and nuclease editing to demonstrate that the sentinel variant rs112097551 (nearest gene RPN1) acts through a cis-regulatory element that exerts long-range control of the gene RUVBL1 which is essential for hematopoiesis. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of WGS in ethnically diverse population-based samples and gene editing for expanding knowledge of the genetic architecture of quantitative hematologic traits and suggest a continuum between complex trait and Mendelian red cell disorders.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)/organização & administração , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Variação Genética/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
18.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734315

RESUMO

LocusZoom.js is a JavaScript library for creating interactive web-based visualizations of genetic association study results. It can display one or more traits in the context of relevant biological data (such as gene models and other genomic annotation), and allows interactive refinement of analysis models (by selecting linkage disequilibrium reference panels, identifying sets of likely causal variants, or comparisons to the GWAS catalog). It can be embedded in web pages to enable data sharing and exploration. Views can be customized and extended to display other data types such as phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) results, chromatin co-accessibility, or eQTL measurements. A new web upload service harmonizes datasets, adds annotations, and makes it easy to explore user-provided result sets. Availability LocusZoom.js is open-source software under a permissive MIT license. Code and documentation are available at: https://github.com/statgen/locuszoom/. Installable packages for all versions are also distributed via NPM. Additional features are provided as standalone libraries to promote reuse. Use with your own GWAS results at https://my.locuszoom.org/. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

19.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

20.
Mult Scler ; 27(9): 1332-1340, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defective alleles within the PRF1 gene, encoding the pore-forming protein perforin, in combination with environmental factors, cause familial type 2 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL2), a rare, severe autosomal recessive childhood disorder characterized by massive release of cytokines-cytokine storm. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the function of hypomorph PRF1:p.A91V g.72360387 G > A on multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: We cross-compare the association data for PRF1:p.A91V mutation derived from GWAS on adult MS and pediatric T1D in Sardinians. The novel association with T1D was replicated in metanalysis in 12,584 cases and 17,692 controls from Sardinia, the United Kingdom, and Scotland. To dissect this mutation function, we searched through the coincident association immunophenotypes in additional set of general population Sardinians. RESULTS: We report that PRF1:p.A91V, is associated with increase of lymphocyte levels, especially within the cytotoxic memory T-cells, at general population level with reduced interleukin 7 receptor expression on these cells. The minor allele increased risk of MS, in 2903 cases and 2880 controls from Sardinia p = 2.06 × 10-4, odds ratio OR = 1.29, replicating a previous finding, whereas it protects from T1D p = 1.04 × 10-5, OR = 0.82. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate opposing contributions of the cytotoxic T-cell compartment to MS and T1D pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade , Sistema Imunitário , Autoimunidade/genética , Criança , Humanos , Inflamação , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM , Proteínas Musculares , Mutação , Perforina/genética , Fatores de Transcrição
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