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1.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741694

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms such as aberrant DNA methylation (DNAme) are known to drive esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), yet they remain poorly understood. Here we studied tumor-specific DNAme in ESCC cases from nine high-incidence countries of Africa, Asia, and South America. Infinium MethylationEPIC array was performed on 108 tumors and 51 normal tissue adjacent to the tumors (NAT) in the discovery phase, and targeted pyrosequencing was performed on 132 tumors and 36 NAT in the replication phase. Top genes for replication were prioritizied by weighting methylation results using RNA-seq data from TCGA and GTEx and validated by qPCR. Methylome analysis comparing tumor and NAT identified 6,796 differentially methylated positions (DMP) and 866 differential methylated regions (DMR) with a 30% methylation (Δß) difference. The majority of identified DMPs and DMRs were hypermethylated in tumors, particularly in promoters and gene-body regions of genes involved in transcription activation. The top three prioritized genes for replication, PAX9, SIM2 and THSD4 had similar methylation differences in the discovery and replication sets. These genes were exclusively expressed in normal esophageal tissues in GTEx and downregulated in tumors. The specificity and sensitivity of these DNAme events in discriminating tumors from NAT were assessed. Our study identified novel, robust, and crucial tumor-specific DNAme events in ESCC tumors across several high incidence populations of the world. Methylome changes identified in this study may serve as potential targets for biomarker discovery and warrant further functional characterization.

2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 28(1): 98-106, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624066

RESUMO

AIMS: Tens of millions of people worldwide use opiates but little is known about their potential role in causing cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to study the association of long-term opiate use with cardiovascular mortality and whether this association is independent of the known risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the population-based Golestan Cohort Study-50 045 Iranian participants, 40-75 years, 58% women-we used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HRs, 95% CIs) for the association of opiate use (at least once a week for a period of 6 months) with cardiovascular mortality, adjusting for potential confounders-i.e. age, sex, education, wealth, residential place, marital status, ethnicity, and tobacco and alcohol use. To show independent association, the models were further adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, waist and hip circumferences, physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake, aspirin and statin use, and history of cardiovascular diseases and cancers. In total, 8487 participants (72.2% men) were opiate users for a median (IQR) of 10 (4-20) years. During 548 940 person-years-median of 11.3 years, >99% success follow-up-3079 cardiovascular deaths occurred, with substantially higher rates in opiate users than non-users (1005 vs. 478 deaths/100 000 person-years). Opiate use was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, with adjusted HR (95% CI) of 1.63 (1.49-1.79). Overall 10.9% of cardiovascular deaths were attributable to opiate use. The association was independent of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSION: Long-term opiate use was associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality independent of the traditional risk factors. Further research, particularly on mechanisms of action, is recommended.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527138

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism in cancer incidence and outcome is widespread. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is fundamental to improve cancer prevention and clinical management. Sex disparities are particularly striking in kidney cancer: across diverse populations, men consistently show unexplained two-fold increased incidence and worse prognosis. We have characterized genome-wide expression and regulatory networks of 609 renal tumors and 256 non-tumor renal tissues. Normal kidney displayed sex-specific transcriptional signatures, including higher expression of X-linked tumor suppressor genes in women. Sex-dependent genotype-phenotype associations unraveled women-specific immune regulation. Sex differences were markedly expanded in tumors, with male-biased expression of key genes implicated in metabolism, non-malignant diseases with male predominance, and carcinogenesis, including markers of tumor infiltrating leukocytes. Analysis of sex-dependent RCC progression and survival uncovered prognostic markers involved in immune response and oxygen homeostasis. In summary, human kidney tissues display remarkable sexual dimorphism at the molecular level. Sex-specific transcriptional signatures further shape renal cancer, with relevance for clinical management.

4.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403511

RESUMO

There are unexplained geographical variations in the incidence of kidney cancer with the high rates reported in Baltic countries, as well as eastern and central Europe. Having access to a large and well-annotated collection of "tumor/non-tumor" pairs of kidney cancer patients from the Czech Republic, Romania, Serbia, UK, and Russia, we aimed to analyze the morphology of non-neoplastic renal tissue in nephrectomy specimens. By applying digital pathology, we performed a microscopic examination of 1012 frozen non-neoplastic kidney tissues from patients with renal cell carcinoma. Four components of renal parenchyma were evaluated and scored for the intensity of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, tubular atrophy, glomerulosclerosis, and arterial wall thickening, globally called chronic renal parenchymal changes. Moderate or severe changes were observed in 54 (5.3%) of patients with predominance of occurrence in Romania (OR = 2.67, CI 1.07-6.67) and Serbia (OR = 4.37, CI 1.20-15.96) in reference to those from Russia. Further adjustment for comorbidities, tumor characteristics, and stage did not change risk estimates. In multinomial regression model, relative probability of non-glomerular changes was 5.22 times higher for Romania and Serbia compared to Russia. Our findings show that the frequency of chronic renal parenchymal changes, with the predominance of chronic interstitial nephritis pattern, in kidney cancer patients varies by country, significantly more frequent in countries located in central and southeastern Europe where the incidence of kidney cancer has been reported to be moderate to high. The observed association between these pathological features and living in certain geographic areas requires a larger population-based study to confirm this association on a large scale.

5.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102780, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152576

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Racial disparities for overall survival (OS) in head and neck cancer have been well described. However, the extent to which these disparities exist for HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), and the contribution of demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables, is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were identified from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Study (CHANCE), a population-based study in North Carolina. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for OS in black versus white patients with sequential adjustment sets. RESULTS: A total of 157 HPV-associated OPSCC patients were identified. Of these, 93% were white and 7% were black. Black patients with HPV-associated OPSCC were more likely to be younger, have an income <$20,000, live farther away from clinic where biopsy was performed, and have advanced T stage at diagnosis. Black patients had worse OS in the unadjusted analysis (HR 4.9, 95% CI 2.2-11.1, p < 0.0001). The racial disparity in OS slightly decreased when sequentially adjusting for demographic, clinical, and SES variables. However, HR for black race remained statistically elevated in the final adjustment set which controlled for age, sex, stage, smoking, alcohol use, and individual-level household income, insurance, and education level (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-10.1, p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study that confirms persistence of racial disparities in HPV-associated OPSCC after controlling for demographic, clinical, and individual-level socioeconomic factors.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320959

RESUMO

In the African esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) corridor, recent work from Kenya found increased ESCC risk associated with poor oral health, including an ill-understood association with dental fluorosis. We examined these associations in a Tanzanian study, which included examination of potential biases influencing the latter association. This age and sex frequency-matched case-control study included 310 ESCC cases and 313 hospital visitor/patient controls. Exposures included self-reported oral hygiene and nondental observer assessed decayed+missing+filled tooth count (DMFT index) and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov dental fluorosis index (TFI). Blind to this nondental observer TFI, a dentist independently assessed fluorosis on photographs of 75 participants. Odds ratios (ORs) are adjusted for demographic factors, alcohol and tobacco. ESCC risk was associated with using a chewed stick to brush teeth (OR 2.3 [95% CI: 1.3-4.1]), using charcoal to whiten teeth (OR 2.13 [95% CI: 1.3, 4.1]) and linearly with the DMFT index (OR 3.3 95% CI: [1.8, 6.0] for ≥10 vs 0). Nondental observer-assessed fluorosis was strongly associated with ESCC risk (OR 13.5 [95% CI: 5.7-31.9] for TFI 5+ v 0). However, the professional dentist's assessment indicated that only 43% (10/23) of participants assessed as TFI 5+ actually had fluorosis. In summary, using oral charcoal, brushing with a chewed stick and missing/decayed teeth may be risk factors for ESCC in Tanzania, for which dose-response and mechanistic research is needed. Links of ESCC with "dental fluorosis" suffered from severe exposure misclassification, rendering it impossible to disentangle any effects of fluorosis, extrinsic staining or reverse causality.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128785

RESUMO

Esophageal sponge cytology is an endoscopy alternative well accepted by patients with extensive data for accuracy in the context of adenocarcinoma. Few studies have assessed its feasibility in asymptomatic community members, and fewer still in East Africa, where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) rates are high. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a capsule-based diagnosis of esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), an ESCC precursor, which may benefit epidemiological and early detection research. We collected Cytosponge collections in 102 asymptomatic adults from Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Uptake, acceptability and safety were assessed. Participants scored acceptability immediately following the procedure and 7 days later on a scale of 0 (least) to 10 (most acceptable). Slides from paraffin-embedded cell clots were read by two pathologists for ESD and other pathologies. All participants (52 men, 50 women, aged 30-77) swallowed the device at first attempt, 100 (98%) of which gave slides of adequate cellularity. Acceptability scores were 10 (53%), 9 (24%), 8 (21%), 7 (2%) and 6 (1%), with no differences by age, sex or time of asking. Cytological findings were esophageal inflammation (4%), atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (1%), low-grade dysplasia (1%), gastritis (22%) and suspected intestinal metaplasia (6%). Setting-specific logistical and ethical considerations of study implementation are discussed. We demonstrate the safety, acceptability and feasibility of Cytosponge sampling in this setting, paving the way for innovative etiology and early-detection research. Targeted sampling strategies and biomarker development will underpin the success of such initiatives. The study protocol is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04090554).

8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(9): e1203-e1212, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there are few well characterised large-scale survival studies with complete follow-up data. We aimed to provide robust survival estimates in women in this setting and apportion the survival gaps. METHODS: The African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) prospective cohort study was done at eight hospitals across five sub-Saharan African countries (Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia). We prospectively recruited women (aged ≥18 years) who attended these hospitals with suspected breast cancer. Women were actively followed up by use of a telephone call once every 3 months, and a mobile health application was used to keep a dynamic record of follow-up calls due. We collected detailed sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment data. The primary outcome was 3-year overall survival, analysed by use of flexible proportional mortality models, and we predicted survival under scenarios of modified distributions of risk factors. FINDINGS: Between Sept 8, 2014, and Dec 31, 2017, 2313 women were recruited from these eight hospitals, of whom 85 did not have breast cancer. Of the remaining 2228 women with breast cancer, 58 women with previous treatment or recurrence, and 14 women from small racial groups (white and Asian women in South Africa), were excluded. Of the 2156 women analysed, 1840 (85%) were histologically confirmed, 129 (6%) were cytologically confirmed, and 187 (9%) were clinically confirmed to have breast cancer. 2156 (97%) women were followed up for up to 3 years or up to Jan 1, 2019, whichever was earlier. Up to this date, 879 (41%) of these women had died, 1118 (52%) were alive, and 159 (7%) were censored early. 3-year overall survival was 50% (95% CI 48-53), but we observed variations in 3-year survival between different races in Namibia (from 90% in white women to 56% in Black women) and in South Africa (from 76% in mixed-race women to 59% in Black women), and between different countries (44-47% in Uganda and Zambia vs 36% in Nigeria). 215 (10%) of all women had died within 6 months of diagnosis, but 3-year overall survival remained low in women who survived to this timepoint (58%). Among survival determinants, improvements in early diagnosis and treatment were predicted to contribute to the largest increases in survival, with a combined absolute increase in survival of up to 22% in Nigeria, Zambia, and Uganda, when compared with the contributions of other factors (such as HIV or aggressive subtypes). INTERPRETATION: Large variations in breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan African countries indicate that improvements are possible. At least a third of the projected 416 000 breast cancer deaths that will occur in this region in the next decade could be prevented through achievable downstaging and improvements in treatment. Improving survival in socially disadvantaged women warrants special attention. FUNDING: Susan G Komen and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Oral Oncol ; 108: 104800, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 8th edition AJCC staging guidelines for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) recently introduced pathologic staging criteria for nodal disease among p16-positive patients. In this study we evaluate pathologic staging in p16-negative HNSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared pathologic staging to the 7th and 8th edition AJCC staging systems using a statewide population-based cohort. All M0 p16-negative surgical patients were included. The outcome was five-year overall survival. RESULTS: Of 304 patients identified, 113 were N0, 157 had 1-4 positive nodes, and 34 had ≥4 nodes. Survival was 71% (95% CI 61-78%) with no nodes, 48% (36%-60%) for 1-4 nodes, and 24% (11 - 39%) for > 4 nodes. When compared to the AJCC systems, the pathologic staging yielded a larger total survival gradient, more montonic survival, better consistency across primary sites, and a slightly lower Bayesian information criterion (1510 vs 1538). After adjusting for disease characteristics, demographics, and tobacco use, hazard ratios for survival were similar using pathologic and AJCC criteria. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, pathological staging was more prognostic than AJCC staging. This is the first study to evaluate pathologic staging in p16-negative cancer; if these findings are verified, a universal nodal staging system could be introduced.

10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(5): e649-e660, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging for a role of opiates in various cancers. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between regular opium use and cancer incidence. METHODS: This study was done in a population-based cohort of 50 045 individuals aged 40-75 years from northeast Iran. Data on participant demographics, diet, lifestyle, opium use, and different exposures were collected upon enrolment using validated questionnaires. We used proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs for the association between opium use and different cancer types. FINDINGS: During a median 10 years of follow-up, 1833 participants were diagnosed with cancer. Use of opium was associated with an increased risk of developing all cancers combined (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·24-1·58), gastrointestinal cancers (1·31, 1·11-1·55), and respiratory cancers (2·28, 1·58-3·30) in a dose-dependent manner (ptrend<0·001). For site-specific cancers, use of opium was associated with an increased risk of developing oesophageal (1·38, 1·06-1·80), gastric (1·36, 1·03-1·79), lung (2·21, 1·44-3·39), bladder (2·86, 1·47-5·55), and laryngeal (2·53, 1·21-5·29) cancers in a dose-dependent manner (ptrend<0·05). Only high-dose opium use was associated with pancreatic cancer (2·66, 1·23-5·74). Ingestion of opium (but not smoking opium) was associated with brain (2·15, 1·00-4·63) and liver (2·46, 1·23-4·95) cancers in a dose-dependent manner (prend<0·01). We observed consistent associations among ever and never tobacco users, men and women, and individuals with lower and higher socioeconomic status. INTERPRETATION: Opium users have a significantly higher risk of developing cancers in different organs of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary systems and the CNS. The results of this analysis show that regular use of opiates might increase the risk of a range of cancer types. FUNDING: World Cancer Research Fund International, Cancer Research UK, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, US National Cancer Institute, International Agency for Research on Cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Dependência de Ópio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
NAR Genom Bioinform ; 2(2): lqaa021, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363341

RESUMO

The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way of reaching a genome sequence, with the promise of potentially providing a comprehensive characterization of DNA variations. Nevertheless, detecting somatic mutations is still a difficult problem, in particular when trying to identify low abundance mutations, such as subclonal mutations, tumour-derived alterations in body fluids or somatic mutations from histological normal tissue. The main challenge is to precisely distinguish between sequencing artefacts and true mutations, particularly when the latter are so rare they reach similar abundance levels as artefacts. Here, we present needlestack, a highly sensitive variant caller, which directly learns from the data the level of systematic sequencing errors to accurately call mutations. Needlestack is based on the idea that the sequencing error rate can be dynamically estimated from analysing multiple samples together. We show that the sequencing error rate varies across alterations, illustrating the need to precisely estimate it. We evaluate the performance of needlestack for various types of variations, and we show that needlestack is robust among positions and outperforms existing state-of-the-art method for low abundance mutations. Needlestack, along with its source code is freely available on the GitHub platform: https://github.com/IARCbioinfo/needlestack.

12.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(2): 193-202, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894494

RESUMO

The association between diet quality and head and neck cancer (HNC) was explored using a population-based case-control study of 1170 HNC cases and 1303 age-, race-, and sex-matched controls from the United States. Diet quality was assessed with three diet quality scores (DQS): (a) Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005), (b) Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), and (c) HNC-specific Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS-HNC), a modified MDS that we developed to be more applicable to HNC. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) representing diet quality-incident HNC associations. We examined effect measure modification (EMM) by body mass index (BMI), race, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption and associational heterogeneity by HPV-positivity and tumor site. A one standard deviation summary DQS decrement suggested a consistent inverse association (ORs (CIs)) for the HEI-2005, MDS, and MDS-HNC: 1.35 (1.21, 1.50), 1.13 (1.02, 1.25), and 1.17 (1.06, 1.31), respectively. This association did not vary by tumor site or tumor HPV status, though additive EMM by alcohol use and by BMI was observed. Our findings suggest the Mediterranean diet can be used to study HNC in American populations, and that poor diet quality elevates HNC incidence, particularly among alcohol users.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Oral Oncol ; 100: 104487, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the performance of an oral cancer prognostic 13-gene signature for the prediction of survival of patients diagnosed with HPV-negative and p16-negative oral cavity cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diagnostic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral cavity cancer tumor samples were obtained from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington, University of Calgary, University of Michigan, University of Utah, and seven ARCAGE study centers coordinated by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. RNA from 638 Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-negative and p16-negative samples was analyzed for the 13 genes using a NanoString assay. Ridge-penalized Cox regressions were applied to samples randomly split into discovery and validation sets to build models and evaluate the performance of the 13-gene signature in predicting 2-year oral cavity cancer-specific survival overall and separately for patients with early and late stage disease. RESULTS: Among AJCC stage I/II patients, including the 13-gene signature in the model resulted in substantial improvement in the prediction of 2-year oral cavity cancer-specific survival. For models containing age and sex with and without the 13-gene signature score, the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) and partial AUC were 0.700 vs. 0.537 (p < 0.001), and 0.046 vs. 0.018 (p < 0.001), respectively. Improvement in predicting prognosis for AJCC stage III/IV disease also was observed, but to a lesser extent. CONCLUSIONS: If confirmed using tumor samples from a larger number of early stage oral cavity cancer patients, the 13-gene signature may inform personalized treatment of early stage HPV-negative and p16-negative oral cavity cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inclusão em Parafina , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida , Fixação de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores Sexuais
15.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 431-438, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (C228T and C250T) detected in tumours and cells shed into urine of urothelial cancer (UC) patients are putative biomarkers for UC detection and monitoring. However, the possibility of detecting these mutations in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in blood and urine, or DNA from urinary exfoliated cells (cellDNA) with a single-gene sensitive assay has never been tested in a case-control setting. METHODS: We developed a single-plex assay (UroMuTERT) for the detection of low-abundance TERT promoter mutations. We tested 93 primary and recurrent UC cases and 94 controls recruited in France (blood, urine samples and tumours for the cases), and 50 primary UC cases and 50 controls recruited in Portugal (urinary exfoliated cell samples). We compared our assay with urine cytology. FINDINGS: In the French series, C228T or C250T were detected in urinary cfDNA or cellDNA in 81 cases (87·1%; 95% CI 78·6-93·2), and five controls (Specificity 94·7%; 95%CI 88·0-98·3), with 98·6% (95% CI 92·5-99·96) concordance in matched tumours. Detection rate in plasma cfDNA among cases was 7·1%. The UroMuTERT sensitivity was (i) highest for urinary cfDNA and cellDNA combined, (ii) consistent across primary and recurrent cases, tumour stages and grades, (iii) higher for low-risk non-muscle invasive UC (86·1%) than urine cytology (23·0%) (P < 0·0001) and (iv) 93·9% when combined with cytology. In the Portuguese series - the sensitivity and specificity for detection of UC with urinary cellDNA was 68·0% (95% CI 53·3-80·5) and 98·0% (95% CI 89·3-100·0). INTERPRETATION: TERT promoter mutations detected by the UroMuTERT assay in urinary DNA (cfDNA or cellDNA) show excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of UC, significantly outperforming that of urine cytology notably for detection of low-grade early stages UC. FUND: French Cancer League; French Foster Research in Molecular Biology and European Commission FP7 Marie Curie COFUND.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico
16.
Laryngoscope ; 129(11): 2506-2513, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Literature examining long-term survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) status is lacking. We compare 10-year overall survival (OS) rates for cases to population-based controls. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Cases surviving 5 years postdiagnosis were identified from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Study. We examined 10-year survival by site, stage, p16, and treatment using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Cases were compared to age-matched, noncancer controls with stratification by p16 and smoking status. RESULTS: Ten-year OS for HNSCC is less than controls. In 581 cases, OS differed between sites with p16+ oropharynx having the most favorable prognosis (87%), followed by oral cavity (69%), larynx (67%), p16- oropharynx (56%), and hypopharynx (51%). Initial stage, but not treatment, also impacted OS. When compared to controls matched on smoking status, the hazard ratio (HR) for death in p16+ oropharynx cases was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7-3.1) for smokers and 2.4 (95% CI: 0.7-8.8) for nonsmokers. Similarly, HR for death in non-HPV-associated HNSCC was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.7-3.0) for smokers and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4-4.9) for nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: OS for HNSCC cases continues to decrease 5 years posttreatment, even after stratification by p16 and smoking status. Site, stage, smoking, and p16 status are significant factors. These data provide important prognostic information for HNSCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Laryngoscope, 129:2506-2513, 2019.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Papillomaviridae , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1416-1427, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Northeast Iran has one of the highest reported rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) worldwide. Decades of investigations in this region have identified some local habits and environmental exposures that increase risk. We analyzed data from the Golestan Cohort Study to determine the individual and combined effects of the major environmental risk factors of ESCC. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort of 50,045 individuals, 40 to 75 years old, from urban and rural areas across Northeast Iran. Detailed data on demographics, diet, lifestyle, socioeconomic status, temperature of drinking beverages, and different exposures were collected using validated methods, questionnaires, and physical examinations, from 2004 through 2008. Participants were followed from the date of enrollment to the date of first diagnosis of esophageal cancer, date of death from other causes, or date of last follow-up, through December 31, 2017. Proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between different exposures and ESCC. RESULTS: During an average 10 years of follow-up, 317 participants developed ESCC. Opium smoking (HR 1.85; 95% CI 1.18-2.90), drinking hot tea (≥60°C) (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.15-2.22), low intake of fruits (HR 1.48; 95% CI 1.07-2.05) and vegetables (HR 1.62; 95% CI 1.03-2.56), excessive tooth loss (HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.04-2.64), drinking unpiped water (HR 2.04; 95% CI 1.09-3.81), and exposure to indoor air pollution (HR 1.57; 95% CI 1.08-2.29) were significantly associated with increased risk of ESCC, in a dose-dependent manner. Combined exposure to these risk factors was associated with a stepwise increase in the risk of developing ESCC, reaching a more than 7-fold increase in risk in the highest category. Approximately 75% of the ESCC cases in this region can be attributed to a combination of the identified exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of data from the Golestan Cohort Study in Iran identified multiple risk factors for ESCC in this population. Our findings support the hypothesis that the high rates of ESCC are due to a combination of factors, including thermal injury (from hot tea), exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (from opium and indoor air pollution), and nutrient-deficient diets. We also associated ESCC risk with exposure to unpiped water and tooth loss.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dependência de Ópio/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural , Chá/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 99-109, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582155

RESUMO

There are no studies of oral health in relation to esophageal cancer in Africa, or of Eastern Africa's endemic dental fluorosis, an irreversible enamel hypo-mineralization due to early-life excessive fluoride intake. During 2014-18, we conducted a case-control study of squamous cell esophageal cancer in Eldoret, western Kenya. Odds ratios (AORs (95% confidence intervals)) were adjusted for design factors, tobacco, alcohol, ethnicity, education, oral hygiene and missing/decayed teeth. Esophageal cancer cases (N = 430) had poorer oral health and hygiene than controls (N = 440). Compared to no dental fluorosis, moderate/severe fluorosis, which affected 44% of cases, had a crude OR of 20.8 (11.6, 37.4) and on full adjustment was associated with 9.4-fold (4.6, 19.1) increased risk, whilst mild fluorosis (43% of cases) had an AOR of 2.3 (1.3, 4.0). The prevalence of oral leukoplakia and tooth loss/decay increased with fluorosis severity, and increased cancer risks associated with moderate/severe fluorosis were particularly strong in individuals with more tooth loss/decay. Using a mswaki stick (AOR = 1.7 (1.0, 2.9)) rather than a commercial tooth brush and infrequent tooth brushing also independently increased risk. Geographic variations showed that areas of high esophageal cancer incidence and those of high groundwater fluoride levels have remarkably similar locations across Eastern Africa. In conclusion, poor oral health in combination with, or as a result of, high-altitude susceptibility to hydro-geologically influenced dental fluorosis may underlie the striking co-location of Africa's esophageal cancer corridor with the Rift Valley. The findings call for heightened research into primary prevention opportunities of this highly fatal but common cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência
19.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(9): 863-873, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30069657

RESUMO

Prior studies of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) have explored the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) as an independent risk factor; however, none have investigated the interaction of known risk factors with SES. We examined this using the North Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Study, a population-based case-control study. Incident cases of SCCHN from North Carolina between 2002 and 2006 (n = 1,153) were identified and age, sex, and race-matched controls (n = 1,267) were selected from driver license records. SES measures included household income, educational attainment, and health insurance. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Current smoking was more strongly associated with SCCHN among those households making < $20,000/year [OR 5.11 (3.61-6.61)] compared to household incomes > $50,000/year [OR 2.47 (1.69-3.25); p interaction < 0.001]. Current drinking was more strongly associated with SCCHN in household incomes < $20,000 [OR 2.91 (2.05-3.78)] compared to > $50,000/year [1.28 (0.97-1.58); p interaction < 0.001]. Current drinkers with less than high school education or income < $20,000 had nearly threefold odds of never-drinkers in the same SES category [OR 2.91 (2.05-3.78); 2.09 (1.39-2.78), respectively]. Our results suggest that the relationship of smoking and alcohol use may be stronger among those of lower SES.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mod Pathol ; 31(12): 1770-1786, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140036

RESUMO

The classification of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) differs between organ systems and currently causes considerable confusion. A uniform classification framework for NENs at any anatomical location may reduce inconsistencies and contradictions among the various systems currently in use. The classification suggested here is intended to allow pathologists and clinicians to manage their patients with NENs consistently, while acknowledging organ-specific differences in classification criteria, tumor biology, and prognostic factors. The classification suggested is based on a consensus conference held at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in November 2017 and subsequent discussion with additional experts. The key feature of the new classification is a distinction between differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), also designated carcinoid tumors in some systems, and poorly differentiated NECs, as they both share common expression of neuroendocrine markers. This dichotomous morphological subdivision into NETs and NECs is supported by genetic evidence at specific anatomic sites as well as clinical, epidemiologic, histologic, and prognostic differences. In many organ systems, NETs are graded as G1, G2, or G3 based on mitotic count and/or Ki-67 labeling index, and/or the presence of necrosis; NECs are considered high grade by definition. We believe this conceptual approach can form the basis for the next generation of NEN classifications and will allow more consistent taxonomy to understand how neoplasms from different organ systems inter-relate clinically and genetically.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/classificação , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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