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1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961635

RESUMO

The development of medical assisting tools based on artificial intelligence advances is essential in the global fight against COVID-19 outbreak and the future of medical systems. In this study, we introduce ai-corona, a radiologist-assistant deep learning framework for COVID-19 infection diagnosis using chest CT scans. Our framework incorporates an EfficientNetB3-based feature extractor. We employed three datasets; the CC-CCII set, the MasihDaneshvari Hospital (MDH) cohort, and the MosMedData cohort. Overall, these datasets constitute 7184 scans from 5693 subjects and include the COVID-19, non-COVID abnormal (NCA), common pneumonia (CP), non-pneumonia, and Normal classes. We evaluate ai-corona on test sets from the CC-CCII set, MDH cohort, and the entirety of the MosMedData cohort, for which it gained AUC scores of 0.997, 0.989, and 0.954, respectively. Our results indicates ai-corona outperforms all the alternative models. Lastly, our framework's diagnosis capabilities were evaluated as assistant to several experts. Accordingly, We observed an increase in both speed and accuracy of expert diagnosis when incorporating ai-corona's assistance.

2.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33865239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic complications are considered among the main extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal type and duration of prophylactic antithrombotic therapy in these patients remain unknown. METHODS: This manuscript reports the final (90-day) results of the Intermediate versus Standard-dose Prophylactic anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents with COVID-19: An opeN label randomized controlled trial (INSPIRATION) study. Patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care were randomized to intermediate-dose versus standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation for 30 days, irrespective of hospital discharge status. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of adjudicated venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or all-cause death. The main safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 600 randomized patients, 562 entered the modified intention-to-treat analysis (median age [Q1, Q3]; 62 (50, 71) years; 237 (42.2%) women), of whom 336 (59.8%) survived to hospital discharge. The primary outcome occurred in 132 (47.8%) of patients assigned to intermediate-dose and 130 (45.4%) patients assigned to standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1.55, P=0.11). No significant differences were observed between the two groups for other efficacy outcomes, or in the landmark analysis from days 31-90. Overall, there were 7 (2.5%) major bleeding events in the intermediate-dose group (including 3 fatal events) and 4 (1.4%) major bleeding events in the standard-dose group (none fatal) (HR: 1.82, 95% CI: 0.53-6.24, P=0.33). CONCLUSION: Intermediate-dose compared with standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation did not reduce a composite of death, treatment with ECMO, or venous or arterial thrombosis at 90-day follow-up.

3.
JAMA ; 325(16): 1620-1630, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734299

RESUMO

Importance: Thrombotic events are commonly reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Limited data exist to guide the intensity of antithrombotic prophylaxis. Objective: To evaluate the effects of intermediate-dose vs standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation among patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design performed in 10 academic centers in Iran comparing intermediate-dose vs standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (first hypothesis) and statin therapy vs matching placebo (second hypothesis; not reported in this article) among adult patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19. Patients were recruited between July 29, 2020, and November 19, 2020. The final follow-up date for the 30-day primary outcome was December 19, 2020. Interventions: Intermediate-dose (enoxaparin, 1 mg/kg daily) (n = 276) vs standard prophylactic anticoagulation (enoxaparin, 40 mg daily) (n = 286), with modification according to body weight and creatinine clearance. The assigned treatments were planned to be continued until completion of 30-day follow-up. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mortality within 30 days, assessed in randomized patients who met the eligibility criteria and received at least 1 dose of the assigned treatment. Prespecified safety outcomes included major bleeding according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (type 3 or 5 definition), powered for noninferiority (a noninferiority margin of 1.8 based on odds ratio), and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <20 ×103/µL). All outcomes were blindly adjudicated. Results: Among 600 randomized patients, 562 (93.7%) were included in the primary analysis (median [interquartile range] age, 62 [50-71] years; 237 [42.2%] women). The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 126 patients (45.7%) in the intermediate-dose group and 126 patients (44.1%) in the standard-dose prophylaxis group (absolute risk difference, 1.5% [95% CI, -6.6% to 9.8%]; odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.76-1.48]; P = .70). Major bleeding occurred in 7 patients (2.5%) in the intermediate-dose group and 4 patients (1.4%) in the standard-dose prophylaxis group (risk difference, 1.1% [1-sided 97.5% CI, -∞ to 3.4%]; odds ratio, 1.83 [1-sided 97.5% CI, 0.00-5.93]), not meeting the noninferiority criteria (P for noninferiority >.99). Severe thrombocytopenia occurred only in patients assigned to the intermediate-dose group (6 vs 0 patients; risk difference, 2.2% [95% CI, 0.4%-3.8%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19, intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation, compared with standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation, did not result in a significant difference in the primary outcome of a composite of adjudicated venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mortality within 30 days. These results do not support the routine empirical use of intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation in unselected patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04486508.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Irã (Geográfico) , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/etiologia , Trombose/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/mortalidade
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 92: 107329, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412395

RESUMO

Interferon Beta-1a (IFN-ß1-a), an immunomodulatory mediator with antiviral effects, has shown in vivo and in vitro activities especially on coronavirus including SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 defined as the disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2. The virus has been illustrated inhibits the production of IFN-ß1-a from inflammatory cells. We conducted a retrospective study of all adult confirmed COVID-19 hospitalized patients who received combination of three doses of 12 million international units of IFN-ß1-a and Lopinavir 400 mg and Ritonavir 100 mg every 12 h (case group) for 14 days besides standard care and age- and sex- matched COVID-19 patients with receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (control group) at Masih Daneshvari Hospital as a designated hospital for COVID-19 between Feb 19 and Apr 30, 2020. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the impact of IFN-ß1-a on outcome and all-cause mortality. 152 cases in IFN-ß1-a group and 304 cases as control group were included. IFN-ß1-a group stayed at hospital longer and required noninvasive ventilation more than control group (13 vs. 6 days, p = 0.001) and (34% vs. 24%, p = 0.04), respectively. During treatment, 57 (12.5%) patients died. The death rate in case and control groups was 11% and 13% respectively. In multivariate analysis, not receiving IFN-ß1-a (HR 5.12, 95% CI: 2.77-9.45), comorbidity (HR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.13-4.60) and noninvasive ventilation (HR 2.77, 95% CI: 1.56-4.93) remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality. In this study, risk of death decreased by using IFN-ß1-a in COVID-19 patients. More clinical study will be necessary to measure efficacy of IFN-ß1-a in COVID-19 treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon beta/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
6.
Tanaffos ; 19(2): 122-128, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262799

RESUMO

Background: Following the recent epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, a novel betacoronavirus was isolated from two patients in Iran on February 19, 2020. In this study, we aimed to determine the clinical manifestations and outcomes of the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection (n=127). Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on all COVID-19-suspected cases, admitted to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (a designated hospital for COVID-19), Tehran, Iran, since February 19, 2020. All patients were tested for COVID-19, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Data of confirmed cases, including demographic characteristics, clinical features, and outcomes, were collected and compared between three groups of patients, requiring different types of admission (requiring ICU admission, admission to the general ward, and transfer to ICU). Results: Of 412 suspected cases, with the mean age of 54.1 years (SD=13.4), 127 (31%) were positive for COVID-19. Following the patients' first visit to the clinic, 115 cases were admitted to the general ward, while ten patients required ICU admission. Due to clinical deterioration in the condition of 25 patients (out of 115 patients), ICU admission was essential. Based on the results, the baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. Patients requiring ICU admission were more likely to have multiorgan involvement (liver involvement, P<0.001; renal involvement, P<0.001; and cardiac involvement, P=0.02), low O2 saturation (P<0.001), and lymphopenia (P=0.05). During hospital admission, 21 (16.5%) patients died, while the rest (83.5%) were discharged and followed-up until March 26, 2020. Also, the survival rate of patients, who received immunoglobulin, was higher than other patients (60.87% vs. 39.13%). Conclusion: The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was considerable in our study. Based on the present results, this infection can cause multiorgan damage. Therefore, intensive monitoring of these patients needs to be considered.

7.
Clin Respir J ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the therapeutic effects of high-flow-oxygen-Therapy (HFT) and noninvasive-ventilation (NIV) for stabilizing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during exacerbation. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial at Masih-Daneshvari hospital, between July 2019 and Oct 2019, 30 exacerbated-COPD-patient with PaCO2 64.58±11.61 mmHg, Respiratory Rate 24.43±2.75 and PH 7.31±0.02 were divided into two groups, N= 15. By a simple randomized allocation, patients receive either NIV or HFT for one hour, and following a washout period of 30 minutes, they switched to the other treatment option. Arterial Blood Gas Parameters, as well as Respiratory Rate (RR), Dyspnea Score, Heart Rate (HR), and Oxygen Saturation (SO2), were compared before and after the intervention and between groups. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics were similar in two groups. Pre and post-analysis revealed that in both groups, all improved significantly. After the first period, there was no difference in all parameters between groups except for SO2 which was significantly higher in HFT (%92.1± 1) than that of NIV (%89± 1), P=0.001. Likewise, following the washout period, patients in HFT and NIV had a dyspnea score of 1.93± 0.7 and 2.73±0.9 respectively, P=0.01. No carryover-effect and was observed but period effect was significant for some outcomes. A significant improvement in SO2 and HR was observed by HFT according to treatment effect by combining two periods' results. During the study, no side effects were reported. CONCLUSION: In this short-term study HFT appears feasible for patients with COPD exacerbation to reduce dyspnea score and improve respiratory distress.

8.
Arch Acad Emerg Med ; 8(1): e85, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244520

RESUMO

Introduction: Nebulized budesonide has been long used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of nebulized budesonide (NB) versus oral prednisolone (OP) in increasing peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of COPD patients in emergency department (ED). Methods: Patients with COPD exacerbation, referring to ED were enrolled in this randomized trial study. In the first group, NB 0.5 mg every 30 minutes till three doses, placebo tablet, and standard treatment was administered. In the second group, nebulized normal saline, OP tablet 50 mg, and standard treatment were administered. Patients' demographic data, vital signs, PEFR, venous blood gas (VBG) analysis, disposition, and patient and physician satisfaction were all collected and compared between the two groups. Results: 43 patients in the NB group and 41 patients in the OP group were evaluated. The two groups had similar age (p=0.544) and gender (p=0.984) distribution, duration of illness (p=0.458), and baseline PEFR (p=0.400). 12 and 24 hours after treatment, significant increase in PEFR in the NB and OP groups were observed (p=0.032 and 0.008; respectively). The upward trend of PEFR in NB group was significantly better than that of OP group during 24 hours of treatment (p=0.005). Vital signs and VBG results showed no significant differences between the two groups during the studied time interval. Conclusion: NB, compared to OP, could more effectively increase PEFR and ameliorate disease severity of patients with COPD exacerbation at 12 and 24 hours after treatment in ED.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 89(Pt B): 107102, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075713

RESUMO

Potential therapeutic approaches in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) comprise antiviral and immunomodulatory agents; however, no immunomodulator drug has been approved. This multicenter, prospective, open-label, uncontrolled study aimed to assess the use of subcutaneous tocilizumab in adult patients with severe and critical COVID-19. Tocilizumab was added to the standard care of therapy at a dose of 324 mg (<100 kg bodyweight) or 486 mg (≥100 kg bodyweight). The study endpoints were all-cause mortality rate, changes in oxygen-support level, oxygen saturation, body temperature, respiratory rate, and laboratory variables during the study, and drug safety. Of 126 patients enrolled, 86 had severe and 40 had critical disease. Most patients were male (63.49%) and aged below 65 (78.57%). By day 14 of the study, 4.65% (4/86) of severe patients and 50.00% (20/40) of critical patients died. By the end, 6.98% (6/86) of severe patients and 60.00% (24/40) of critical patients died.Outcomes concerning three additional endpoints (oral temperature, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate)were significantly improved as early as three days after tocilizumab administration in both groups of subjects, more considerably in severe patients. Significant improvement in the required level of oxygenation was reported in severe patients seven days after tocilizumab administration. No tocilizumab-related serious adverse event occurred in this study. Subcutaneous tocilizumab might improve some clinical parameters and reduce the risk of death in COVID-19 patients, particularly if used in the early stages of respiratory failure.

11.
Thromb Res ; 196: 382-394, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microvascular and macrovascular thrombotic events are among the hallmarks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, the exuberant immune response is considered an important driver of pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal management strategy to prevent thrombosis in critically-ill patients with COVID-19 remains unknown. METHODS: The Intermediate versus Standard-dose Prophylactic anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents with COVID-19: An opeN label randomized controlled trial (INSPIRATION) and INSPIRATION-statin (INSPIRATION-S) studies test two independent hypotheses within a randomized controlled trial with 2 × 2 factorial design. Hospitalized critically-ill patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed COVID-19 will be randomized to intermediate-dose versus standard dose prophylactic anticoagulation. The 600 patients undergoing this randomization will be screened and if meeting the eligibility criteria, will undergo an additional double-blind stratified randomization to atorvastatin 20 mg daily versus matching placebo. The primary endpoint, for both hypotheses will be tested for superiority and includes a composite of adjudicated acute arterial thrombosis, venous thromboembolism (VTE), use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or all-cause death within 30 days from enrollment. Key secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, adjudicated VTE, and ventilator-free days. Key safety endpoints include major bleeding according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium definition and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <20,000/fL) for the anticoagulation hypothesis. In a prespecified secondary analysis for non-inferiority, the study will test for the non-inferiority of intermediate intensity versus standard dose anticoagulation for major bleeding, considering a non-inferiority margin of 1.8 based on odds ratio. Key safety endpoints for the statin hypothesis include rise in liver enzymes >3 times upper normal limit and clinically-diagnosed myopathy. The primary analyses will be performed in the modified intention-to-treat population. Results will be tested in exploratory analyses across key subgroups and in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: INSPIRATION and INSPIRATON-S studies will help address clinically-relevant questions for antithrombotic therapy and thromboinflammatory therapy in critically-ill patients with COVID-19.

12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106869, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from mild symptoms to severe complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this syndrome, inflammatory cytokines are released after activation of the inflammatory cascade, with the predominant role of interleukin (IL)-6. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab, as an IL-6 antagonist, in patients with severe or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In this prospective clinical trial, 76 patients with severe or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection were evaluated for eligibility, and ultimately, 42 patients were included. Tocilizumab was administered at a dose of 400 mg as a single dose via intravenous infusion. Primary outcomes included changes in oxygenation support, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, and death. Secondary outcomes included radiological changes in the lungs, IL-6 plasma levels, C-reactive protein levels, and adverse drug reactions. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: Of the 42 included patients, 20 (48%) patients presented the severe infection stage and 22 (52%) were in the critical stage. The median age of patients was 56 years, and the median IL-6 level was 28.55 pg/mL. After tocilizumab administration, only 6 patients (14%) required invasive ventilation. Additionally, 35 patients (83.33%) showed clinical improvement. By day 28, a total of 7 patients died (6 patients in the critical stage and 1 patient in the severe stage). Neurological adverse effects were observed in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current results, tocilizumab may be a promising agent for patients with severe or critical SARS-CoV-2 infection, if promptly initiated during the severe stage.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Adv Respir Med ; 88(4): 305-312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is an association between the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and aggressive tumor growth in multiple forms of cancer,including adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). ACCs are uncommon yet a malignant form of neoplasms that arises within the secretory glands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the increase of mTOR in the ACC tumors in order to survey the possibility of treating these tumors with mTOR inhibitors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples from known cases of the lung and tracheal ACC were retrievedfrom the archives of the pa-thology department of Masih Daneshvari hospital, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for mTOR was performed on them. After preparation of the blocks with specific antibodies, tumor cells with cytoplasmic and/or nuclear expression of mTOR were considered as positive cells by applying a specific scoring method introduced in this study. RESULTS: The paraffin blocks of 26 patients were surveyed and the IHC marker of mTOR was positive in the tumors of 10 patients (38.5%). Out of 10 mTOR positive cases, 5 were females and 5 were males. The primary site of the surveyed tumors was the trachea and bronchus in 12 cases (46%), salivary glands in 7 individuals (27%), and lung tissue in 7 cases (27%), and there was no significant correlation between the primary site of the ACC tumors and the existence of the mTOR markers in them (P = 0.67). From all cases, 13 patients (50%) had cribriform and tubular cells without solid components, 9 cases (34.6%) had cribriform and tubular with less than 30% of solid components, and 4 cases (15.4%) had cribriform and tubular cells with more than 30% of solid com-ponents. There was no significant difference between the morphologies and the existence of mTOR markers in them (P = 0.741). CONCLUSIONS: As the incidence of mTOR markers is seen in patients with tracheal ACC, evaluation and scoring of mTOR in these persons can be helpful as further studies can distinguish the use of it in the treatment of the disease. .

14.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2838-2843, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678961

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is a therapeutic strategy for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There are inconclusive data in this regard and causes of VV-ECMO failure are not yet understood well. CASE SERIES: Here, seven patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS who underwent VV-ECMO introduced and causes of VV-ECMO failure discussed. Medical records of seven COVID-19 patients treated with VV-ECMO were retrospectively evaluated to determine the clinical outcomes of VV-ECMO. Oxygenator failure occurred in four patients whom needed to oxygenator replacement. Successful VV-ECMO decannulation was done in three patients, however finally one patient survived. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercoagulability state and oxygenator failure were the most main etiologies for VV-ECMO failure in our study. All patients with COVID-19 undergoing VV-ECMO should be monitored for such problems and highly specialized healthcare team should monitor the patients during VV-ECMO.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , /terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Falha de Tratamento
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 85: 106688, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a new coronavirus spreads rapidly throughout the countries and resulted in a worldwide epidemic. Interferons have direct antiviral and immunomodulatory effects. Antiviral effects may include inhibition of viral replication, protein synthesis, virus maturation, or virus release from infected cells. Previous studies have shown that some coronaviruses are susceptible to interferons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of IFN-ß-1a administration in COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective non-controlled trial, 20 patients included. They received IFN-ß-1a at a dose of 44 µg subcutaneously every other day up to 10 days. All patients received conventional therapy including Hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, virological clearance, and imaging findings recorded during the study. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 58.55 ± 13.43 years. Fever resolved in all patients during first seven days. Although other symptoms decreased gradually. Virological clearance results showed a significant decrease within 10 days. Imaging studies showed significant recovery after 14-day period in all patients. The mean time of hospitalization was 16.8 ± 3.4 days. There were no deaths or significant adverse drug reactions in the 14-day period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of IFN-ß-1a in combination with hydroxychloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir in the management of COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: IRCT20151227025726N12.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon beta-1a/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Injeções Subcutâneas , Interferon beta-1a/administração & dosagem , Interferon beta-1a/farmacologia , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9695, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546756

RESUMO

The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) is a monolayer that covers the ovarian surface and is involved in ovulation by rupturing and enabling release of a mature oocyte and by repairing the wound after ovulation. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a mechanism that may promote wound healing after ovulation. While this process is poorly understood in the OSE, in other tissues wound repair is known to be under the control of the local microenvironment and different growth factors such as the WNT signaling pathway. Among WNT family members, WNT4 and WNT5a are expressed in the OSE and are critical for the ovulatory process. The objective of this study was to determine the potential roles of WNT4 and WNT5a in regulating the OSE layer. Using primary cultures of mouse OSE cells, we found WNT5a, but not WNT4, promotes EMT through a non-canonical Ca2+-dependent pathway, up-regulating the expression of Vimentin and CD44, enhancing cell migration, and inhibiting the CTNNB1 pathway and proliferation. We conclude that WNT5a is a stimulator of the EMT in OSE cells, and acts by suppressing canonical WNT signaling activity and inducing the non-canonical Ca2+ pathway.

18.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 21: 340-341, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353526

RESUMO

Cytokine release syndrome is prevalent in severe cases of COVID-19. In this syndrome, an uncontrolled response of immune system occurs. Extracorporeal blood purification has been proven to effectively remove the released inflammatory cytokines. Here, we reported a successful case to represent our experience of extracorporeal blood purification in a patient with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hemoperfusão/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Irã (Geográfico) , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
19.
J Res Med Sci ; 25: 24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419781

RESUMO

Background: Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis (TB) are two granulomatous inflammatory diseases with several common symptoms. The aim of the present study was to compare the serum levels of biomarkers including interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, calcium (Ca), hemoglobin, sedimentation rate, and lymphocyte-to-neutrophil ratio between patients with pulmonary TB, patients with sarcoidosis, and control group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on patients referred to the Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, from April 2017 to 2018. In this study, 24 newly diagnosed patients with active pulmonary TB, 34 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis, and 30 healthy individuals as the control group were enrolled. Demographic data, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), the ratio of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), serum Ca level, hemoglobin (Hb), and IL-4 and IL-13 were compared between the study groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, sensitivity, and specificity were also calculated using SPSS 16.0 software. Results: The mean age was 47.71 ± 10.88 and 55.25 ± 21.58 years in the sarcoidosis and TB. The mean ESR in sarcoidosis patients was 21.45 ± 13.37 mm/h and 41.4 ± 17 mm/h in the TB group. The percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes in sarcoidosis and TB patients was 28.02 ± 12.20 and 21.41 ± 12.49, respectively, which was significantly higher among patients with sarcoidosis. NLR was also 2.4 ± 1.6 and 4.4 ± 2.9 in sarcoidosis and TB patients, respectively, which showed a significant difference among the groups. Regarding the evaluation of the level of IL-4 and IL-13 in patients, it is worth noting that IL-4 in patients with sarcoidosis was 90 pg/ml compared to 20 pg/ml for TB patients (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-13 in the TB and control groups, which varied between 20 and 80 pg/ml (P = 0.35). However, its value was significantly higher in patients with sarcoidosis (P = 0.01) than in the healthy control group and TB (P = 0.01). The ROC curves showed that the diagnostic cutoff of ESR level, Ca, NLR, and Hb could be valuable due to the area under the curves. The cutpoint of 34 mm/h for ESR had a sensitivity of 86% as well as 80% specificity to distinguish TB from the sarcoidosis. Conclusion: Serum levels of the biomarkers indicated a stronger immunological background in sarcoidosis using NLR, Ca, ESR, and Hb.

20.
Oman Med J ; 35(2): e112, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405434

RESUMO

Objectives: In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, such as Iran, the differentiation of malignant from non-malignant tumors is crucial. We attempted to find a reliable model in determining malignant nodes by investigating the sonographic characteristics of lymph nodes (LNs). Methods: In this prospective study, the morphologic characteristics of LNs, including size, shape, vascular pattern, echogenicity, margin, coagulation necrosis sign, calcification, and central hilar structure, which had been obtained during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, were compared with the final pathology results. Results: We examined 253 LNs from 93 patients. Round shape, non-hilar vascular pattern, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, distinct margin, and the existence of necrosis signs were significantly higher in malignant nodes. On the other hand, the existence of calcification, as well as the presence of central hilar structure, were highly suggestive of benign nodes (p < 0.050). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that size > 1 cm, heterogeneous echogenicity, hyperechogenicity, the existence of necrosis signs, and the lack of central hilar structure are independent predictive factors for malignancy. The accuracy of each of the aforementioned characteristics are 42.3%, 71.5%, 71.9%, 73.5%, and 65.6%, respectively. Of 74 malignant LNs, 100% had at least one of these independent factors. Conclusions: The morphological features of LNs based on endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration can play a role in predicting malignancy.

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