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1.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 365, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There continues to be a great need for better biomarkers and host-directed treatment targets for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Alterations in phospholipid metabolism may constitute a source of small molecule biomarkers for acute infections including CAP. Evidence from animal models of pulmonary infections and sepsis suggests that inhibiting acid sphingomyelinase (which releases ceramides from sphingomyelins) may reduce end-organ damage. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 105 phospholipids, 40 acylcarnitines, and 4 ceramides, as well as acid sphingomyelinase activity, in plasma from patients with CAP (n = 29, sampled on admission and 4 subsequent time points), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation with infection (COPD, n = 13) as a clinically important disease control, and 33 age- and sex-matched controls. RESULTS: Phospholipid concentrations were greatly decreased in CAP and normalized along clinical improvement. Greatest changes were seen in phosphatidylcholines, followed by lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides (three of which were upregulated), and were least in acylcarnitines. Changes in COPD were less pronounced, but also differed qualitatively, e.g. by increases in selected sphingomyelins. We identified highly accurate biomarkers for CAP (AUC ≤ 0.97) and COPD (AUC ≤ 0.93) vs. Controls, and moderately accurate biomarkers for CAP vs. COPD (AUC ≤ 0.83), all of which were phospholipids. Phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins were also markedly decreased in S. aureus-infected human A549 and differentiated THP1 cells. Correlations with C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were predominantly negative but only of mild-to-moderate extent, suggesting that these markers reflect more than merely inflammation. Consistent with the increased ceramide concentrations, increased acid sphingomyelinase activity accurately distinguished CAP (fold change = 2.8, AUC = 0.94) and COPD (1.75, 0.88) from Controls and normalized with clinical resolution. CONCLUSIONS: The results underscore the high potential of plasma phospholipids as biomarkers for CAP, begin to reveal differences in lipid dysregulation between CAP and infection-associated COPD exacerbation, and suggest that the decreases in plasma concentrations are at least partially determined by changes in host target cells. Furthermore, they provide validation in clinical blood samples of acid sphingomyelinase as a potential treatment target to improve clinical outcome of CAP.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(38): 19055-19063, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484767

RESUMO

Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JRRP) is a rare and debilitating childhood disease that presents with recurrent growth of papillomas in the upper airway. Two common human papillomaviruses (HPVs), HPV-6 and -11, are implicated in most cases, but it is still not understood why only a small proportion of children develop JRRP following exposure to these common viruses. We report 2 siblings with a syndromic form of JRRP associated with mild dermatologic abnormalities. Whole-exome sequencing of the patients revealed a private homozygous mutation in NLRP1, encoding Nucleotide-Binding Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Family Pyrin Domain-Containing 1. We find the NLRP1 mutant allele to be gain of function (GOF) for inflammasome activation, as demonstrated by the induction of inflammasome complex oligomerization and IL-1ß secretion in an overexpression system. Moreover, patient-derived keratinocytes secrete elevated levels of IL-1ß at baseline. Finally, both patients displayed elevated levels of inflammasome-induced cytokines in the serum. Six NLRP1 GOF mutations have previously been described to underlie 3 allelic Mendelian diseases with differing phenotypes and modes of inheritance. Our results demonstrate that an autosomal recessive, syndromic form of JRRP can be associated with an NLRP1 GOF mutation.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221081, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415649

RESUMO

Increased prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been observed among high-risk populations such as healthcare workers (HCWs). The results may depend on the method of LTBI assessment, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and/or tuberculin skin test (TST). Here, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LTBI assessed by both IGRAs and TST in HCWs living in Morocco, a country with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and high BCG vaccination coverage. HCWs were recruited in two Moroccan hospitals, Rabat and Meknes. All the participants underwent testing for LTBI by both IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube, QFT-GIT) and TST. Different combinations of IGRA and TST results defined the LTBI status. Risk factors associated with LTBI were investigated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model. The prevalence of LTBI among 631 HCWs (age range 18-60 years) varied from 40.7% (95%CI 36.9-44.5%) with QFT-GIT to 52% (95%CI 48.2-56.0%) with TST using a 10 mm cut-off. The highest agreement between QFT-GIT and TST (κ = 0.50; 95%CI 0.43-0.56) was observed with the 10 mm cut-off for a positive TST. For a definition of LTBI status using a double positive result for both QFT-GIT and TST, significant associations were found with the following risk factors: being male (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.40-3.49; p = 0.0007), belonging to age groups 35-44 years (OR = 2.43; 95%CI 1.45-4.06; p = 0.0007) and even more 45-60 years (OR = 4.81; 95%CI 2.72-8.52; p = 7.10-8), having a family history of TB (OR = 6.62; 95%CI 2.59-16.94; p = 8.10-5), and working at a pulmonology unit (OR = 3.64; 95%CI 1.44-9.23; p = 0.006). Smoking was associated with LTBI status when defined by a positive QFT-GIT result (OR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.12-3.21; p = 0.02). A high prevalence of LTBI was observed among HCWs in two Moroccan hospitals. Male gender, increased age, family history of TB, and working at a pulmonology unit were consistent risk factors associated with LTBI.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(33): 16463-16472, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346092

RESUMO

Heterozygous in-frame mutations in coding regions of human STAT3 underlie the only known autosomal dominant form of hyper IgE syndrome (AD HIES). About 5% of familial cases remain unexplained. The mutant proteins are loss-of-function and dominant-negative when tested following overproduction in recipient cells. However, the production of mutant proteins has not been detected and quantified in the cells of heterozygous patients. We report a deep intronic heterozygous STAT3 mutation, c.1282-89C>T, in 7 relatives with AD HIES. This mutation creates a new exon in the STAT3 complementary DNA, which, when overexpressed, generates a mutant STAT3 protein (D427ins17) that is loss-of-function and dominant-negative in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity. In immortalized B cells from these patients, the D427ins17 protein was 2 kDa larger and 4-fold less abundant than wild-type STAT3, on mass spectrometry. The patients' primary B and T lymphocytes responded poorly to STAT3-dependent cytokines. These findings are reminiscent of the impaired responses of leukocytes from other patients with AD HIES due to typical STAT3 coding mutations, providing further evidence for the dominance of the mutant intronic allele. These findings highlight the importance of sequencing STAT3 introns in patients with HIES without candidate variants in coding regions and essential splice sites. They also show that AD HIES-causing STAT3 mutant alleles can be dominant-negative even if the encoded protein is produced in significantly smaller amounts than wild-type STAT3.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(31): 15616-15624, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308240

RESUMO

Type-1 reactions (T1R) are pathological inflammatory episodes and main contributors to nerve damage in leprosy. Here, we evaluate the genewise enrichment of rare protein-altering variants in 7 genes where common variants were previously associated with T1R. We selected 474 Vietnamese leprosy patients of which 237 were T1R-affected and 237 were T1R-free matched controls. Genewise enrichment of nonsynonymous variants was tested with both kernel-based (sequence kernel association test [SKAT]) and burden methods. Of the 7 genes tested 2 showed statistical evidence of association with T1R. For the LRRK2 gene an enrichment of nonsynonymous variants was observed in T1R-free controls (P SKAT-O = 1.6 × 10-4). This genewise association was driven almost entirely by the gain-of-function variant R1628P (P = 0.004; odds ratio = 0.29). The second genewise association was found for the Parkin coding gene PRKN (formerly PARK2) where 7 rare variants were enriched in T1R-affected cases (P SKAT-O = 7.4 × 10-5). Mutations in both PRKN and LRRK2 are known causes of Parkinson's disease (PD). Hence, we evaluated to what extent such rare amino acid changes observed in T1R are shared with PD. We observed that amino acids in Parkin targeted by nonsynonymous T1R-risk mutations were also enriched for mutations implicated in PD (P = 1.5 × 10-4). Hence, neuroinflammation in PD and peripheral nerve damage due to inflammation in T1R share overlapping genetic control of pathogenicity.

6.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2057-2070, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270247

RESUMO

Vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) and yellow fever (YF) with live attenuated viruses can rarely cause life-threatening disease. Severe illness by MMR vaccines can be caused by inborn errors of type I and/or III interferon (IFN) immunity (mutations in IFNAR2, STAT1, or STAT2). Adverse reactions to the YF vaccine have remained unexplained. We report two otherwise healthy patients, a 9-yr-old boy in Iran with severe measles vaccine disease at 1 yr and a 14-yr-old girl in Brazil with viscerotropic disease caused by the YF vaccine at 12 yr. The Iranian patient is homozygous and the Brazilian patient compound heterozygous for loss-of-function IFNAR1 variations. Patient-derived fibroblasts are susceptible to viruses, including the YF and measles virus vaccine strains, in the absence or presence of exogenous type I IFN. The patients' fibroblast phenotypes are rescued with WT IFNAR1 Autosomal recessive, complete IFNAR1 deficiency can result in life-threatening complications of vaccination with live attenuated measles and YF viruses in previously healthy individuals.

7.
J Exp Med ; 216(8): 1777-1790, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213488

RESUMO

Fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) is a devastating and unexplained condition that strikes otherwise healthy individuals during primary infection with common liver-tropic viruses. We report a child who died of FVH upon infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) at age 11 yr and who was homozygous for a private 40-nucleotide deletion in IL18BP, which encodes the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). This mutation is loss-of-function, unlike the variants found in a homozygous state in public databases. We show that human IL-18 and IL-18BP are both secreted mostly by hepatocytes and macrophages in the liver. Moreover, in the absence of IL-18BP, excessive NK cell activation by IL-18 results in uncontrolled killing of human hepatocytes in vitro. Inherited human IL-18BP deficiency thus underlies fulminant HAV hepatitis by unleashing IL-18. These findings provide proof-of-principle that FVH can be caused by single-gene inborn errors that selectively disrupt liver-specific immunity. They also show that human IL-18 is toxic to the liver and that IL-18BP is its antidote.

8.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 2038-2056, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217193

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive IRF7 and IRF9 deficiencies impair type I and III IFN immunity and underlie severe influenza pneumonitis. We report three unrelated children with influenza A virus (IAV) infection manifesting as acute respiratory distress syndrome (IAV-ARDS), heterozygous for rare TLR3 variants (P554S in two patients and P680L in the third) causing autosomal dominant (AD) TLR3 deficiency. AD TLR3 deficiency can underlie herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) by impairing cortical neuron-intrinsic type I IFN immunity to HSV-1. TLR3-mutated leukocytes produce normal levels of IFNs in response to IAV. In contrast, TLR3-mutated fibroblasts produce lower levels of IFN-ß and -λ, and display enhanced viral susceptibility, upon IAV infection. Moreover, the patients' iPSC-derived pulmonary epithelial cells (PECs) are susceptible to IAV. Treatment with IFN-α2b or IFN-λ1 rescues this phenotype. AD TLR3 deficiency may thus underlie IAV-ARDS by impairing TLR3-dependent, type I and/or III IFN-mediated, PEC-intrinsic immunity. Its clinical penetrance is incomplete for both IAV-ARDS and HSE, consistent with their typically sporadic nature.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(21): 10430-10434, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068474

RESUMO

The human genetic basis of tuberculosis (TB) has long remained elusive. We recently reported a high level of enrichment in homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A variant in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with TB from non-European countries in which TB is endemic. This variant is homozygous in ∼1/600 Europeans and ∼1/5,000 people from other countries outside East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We report a study of this variant in the UK Biobank cohort. The frequency of P1104A homozygotes was much higher in patients with TB (6/620, 1%) than in controls (228/114,473, 0.2%), with an odds ratio (OR) adjusted for ancestry of 5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96-10.31, P = 2 × 10-3]. Conversely, we did not observe enrichment for P1104A heterozygosity, or for TYK2 I684S or V362F homozygosity or heterozygosity. Moreover, it is unlikely that more than 10% of controls were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as 97% were of European genetic ancestry, born between 1939 and 1970, and resided in the United Kingdom. Had all of them been infected, the OR for developing TB upon infection would be higher. These findings suggest that homozygosity for TYK2 P1104A may account for ∼1% of TB cases in Europeans.

10.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 59: 88-100, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121434

RESUMO

Studies of vertebrate immunity have traditionally focused on professional cells, including circulating and tissue-resident leukocytes. Evidence that non-professional cells are also intrinsically essential (i.e. not via their effect on leukocytes) for protective immunity in natural conditions of infection has emerged from three lines of research in human genetics. First, studies of Mendelian resistance to infection have revealed an essential role of DARC-expressing erythrocytes in protection against Plasmodium vivax infection, and an essential role of FUT2-expressing intestinal epithelial cells for protection against norovirus and rotavirus infections. Second, studies of inborn errors of non-hematopoietic cell-extrinsic immunity have shown that APOL1 and complement cascade components secreted by hepatocytes are essential for protective immunity to trypanosome and pyogenic bacteria, respectively. Third, studies of inborn errors of non-hematopoietic cell-intrinsic immunity have suggested that keratinocytes, pulmonary epithelial cells, and cortical neurons are essential for tissue-specific protective immunity to human papillomaviruses, influenza virus, and herpes simplex virus, respectively. Various other types of genetic resistance or predisposition to infection in human populations are not readily explained by inborn variants of genes operating in leukocytes and may, therefore, involve defects in other cells. The probing of this unchartered territory by human genetics is reshaping immunology, by scaling immunity to infection up from the immune system to the whole organism.

11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(W1): W623-W631, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045209

RESUMO

Human whole-genome-sequencing reveals about 4 000 000 genomic variants per individual. These data are mostly stored as VCF-format files. Although many variant analysis methods accept VCF as input, many other tools require DNA or protein sequences, particularly for splicing prediction, sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, and structure prediction. However, there is no existing webserver capable of extracting DNA/protein sequences for genomic variants from VCF files in a user-friendly and efficient manner. We developed the SeqTailor webserver to bridge this gap, by enabling rapid extraction of (i) DNA sequences around genomic variants, with customizable window sizes and options to annotate the splice sites closest to the variants and to consider the neighboring variants within the window; and (ii) protein sequences encoded by the DNA sequences around genomic variants, with built-in SnpEff annotator and customizable window sizes. SeqTailor supports 11 species, including: human (GRCh37/GRCh38), chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, chicken, lizard, zebrafish, fruitfly, Arabidopsis and rice. Standalone programs are provided for command-line-based needs. SeqTailor streamlines the sequence extraction process, and accelerates the analysis of genomic variants with software requiring DNA/protein sequences. It will facilitate the study of genomic variation, by increasing the feasibility of sequence-based analysis and prediction. The SeqTailor webserver is freely available at http://shiva.rockefeller.edu/SeqTailor/.

12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 950-959, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591557

RESUMO

Computational analyses of human patient exomes aim to filter out as many nonpathogenic genetic variants (NPVs) as possible, without removing the true disease-causing mutations. This involves comparing the patient's exome with public databases to remove reported variants inconsistent with disease prevalence, mode of inheritance, or clinical penetrance. However, variants frequent in a given exome cohort, but absent or rare in public databases, have also been reported and treated as NPVs, without rigorous exploration. We report the generation of a blacklist of variants frequent within an in-house cohort of 3,104 exomes. This blacklist did not remove known pathogenic mutations from the exomes of 129 patients and decreased the number of NPVs remaining in the 3,104 individual exomes by a median of 62%. We validated this approach by testing three other independent cohorts of 400, 902, and 3,869 exomes. The blacklist generated from any given cohort removed a substantial proportion of NPVs (11-65%). We analyzed the blacklisted variants computationally and experimentally. Most of the blacklisted variants corresponded to false signals generated by incomplete reference genome assembly, location in low-complexity regions, bioinformatic misprocessing, or limitations inherent to cohort-specific private alleles (e.g., due to sequencing kits, and genetic ancestries). Finally, we provide our precalculated blacklists, together with ReFiNE, a program for generating customized blacklists from any medium-sized or large in-house cohort of exome (or other next-generation sequencing) data via a user-friendly public web server. This work demonstrates the power of extracting variant blacklists from private databases as a specific in-house but broadly applicable tool for optimizing exome analysis.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Exoma , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
14.
Bioinformatics ; 34(24): 4307-4309, 2018 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535305

RESUMO

Summary: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) generates large amounts of genomic data and reveals about 20 000 genetic coding variants per individual studied. Several mutation damage prediction scores are available to prioritize variants, but there is currently no application to help investigators to determine the relevance of the candidate genes and variants quickly and visually from population genetics data and deleteriousness scores. Here, we present PopViz, a user-friendly, rapid, interactive, mobile-compatible webserver providing a gene-centric visualization of the variants of any human gene, with (i) population-specific minor allele frequencies from the gnomAD population genetic database; (ii) mutation damage prediction scores from CADD, EIGEN and LINSIGHT and (iii) amino-acid positions and protein domains. This application will be particularly useful in investigations of NGS data for new disease-causing genes and variants, by reinforcing or rejecting the plausibility of the candidate genes, and by selecting and prioritizing, the candidate variants for experimental testing. Availability and implementation: PopViz webserver is freely accessible from http://shiva.rockefeller.edu/PopViz/. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Software , Biologia Computacional , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
16.
J Clin Invest ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422821

RESUMO

X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) are caused by loss-of-function and hypomorphic NEMO mutations, respectively. We describe a European mother with mild IP and a Japanese mother without IP, whose three boys with EDA-ID died of immunodeficiency. We identify the same private variant in an intron of IKBKG/NEMO, IVS4+866 C>T, which was inherited from and occurred de novo in the European and Japanese mothers, respectively. This mutation creates a new splicing donor site, giving rise to a 44-nucleotide pseudo-exon generating a frameshift. Its leakiness accounts for NF-κB activation being impaired, but not abolished in the boys' cells. However, aberrant splicing rates differ between cell types, with WT NEMO mRNA and protein levels ranging from barely detectable in leukocytes to residual amounts in iPSC-derived macrophages, and higher levels in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. Finally, SRSF6 binds to the pseudo-exon, facilitating its inclusion. Moreover, SRSF6 knockdown or CLK inhibition restores WT NEMO expression and function in mutant cells. A recurrent deep intronic splicing mutation in IKBKG/NEMO underlies a purely quantitative NEMO defect in males that is most severe in leukocytes and can be rescued by the inhibition of SRSF6 or CLK.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8007-E8016, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072435

RESUMO

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is the only known human developmental defect exclusively affecting a lymphoid organ. In 2013, we showed that private deleterious mutations in the protein-coding region of RPSA, encoding ribosomal protein SA, caused ICA by haploinsufficiency with complete penetrance. We reported seven heterozygous protein-coding mutations in 8 of the 23 kindreds studied, including 6 of the 8 multiplex kindreds. We have since enrolled 33 new kindreds, 5 of which are multiplex. We describe here 11 new heterozygous ICA-causing RPSA protein-coding mutations, and the first two mutations in the 5'-UTR of this gene, which disrupt mRNA splicing. Overall, 40 of the 73 ICA patients (55%) and 23 of the 56 kindreds (41%) carry mutations located in translated or untranslated exons of RPSA. Eleven of the 43 kindreds affected by sporadic disease (26%) carry RPSA mutations, whereas 12 of the 13 multiplex kindreds (92%) carry RPSA mutations. We also report that 6 of 18 (33%) protein-coding mutations and the two (100%) 5'-UTR mutations display incomplete penetrance. Three mutations were identified in two independent kindreds, due to a hotspot or a founder effect. Finally, RPSA ICA-causing mutations were demonstrated to be de novo in 7 of the 23 probands. Mutations in RPSA exons can affect the translated or untranslated regions and can underlie ICA with complete or incomplete penetrance.


Assuntos
Éxons , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Baço/anormalidades , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores de Laminina/biossíntese , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Baço/metabolismo
19.
J Exp Med ; 215(10): 2567-2585, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143481

RESUMO

Life-threatening pulmonary influenza can be caused by inborn errors of type I and III IFN immunity. We report a 5-yr-old child with severe pulmonary influenza at 2 yr. She is homozygous for a loss-of-function IRF9 allele. Her cells activate gamma-activated factor (GAF) STAT1 homodimers but not IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) trimers (STAT1/STAT2/IRF9) in response to IFN-α2b. The transcriptome induced by IFN-α2b in the patient's cells is much narrower than that of control cells; however, induction of a subset of IFN-stimulated gene transcripts remains detectable. In vitro, the patient's cells do not control three respiratory viruses, influenza A virus (IAV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). These phenotypes are rescued by wild-type IRF9, whereas silencing IRF9 expression in control cells increases viral replication. However, the child has controlled various common viruses in vivo, including respiratory viruses other than IAV. Our findings show that human IRF9- and ISGF3-dependent type I and III IFN responsive pathways are essential for controlling IAV.

20.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 973-985, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127434

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies mycobacterial disease by decreasing the numbers of cDC2s and impairing IFN-γ production by mycobacterium-specific memory TH1* cells.

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