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1.
Artif Intell Med ; 118: 102127, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412844

RESUMO

In case of comorbidity, i.e., multiple medical conditions, Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) should issue recommendations based on all relevant disease-related Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG). However, treatments from multiple comorbid CPG often interact adversely (e.g., drug-drug interactions) or introduce operational inefficiencies (e.g., redundant scans). A common solution is the a-priori integration of computerized CPG, which involves integration decisions such as discarding, replacing or delaying clinical tasks (e.g., treatments) to avoid adverse interactions or inefficiencies. We argue this insufficiently deals with execution-time events: as the patient's health profile evolves, acute conditions occur, and real-time delays take place, new CPG integration decisions will often be needed, and prior ones may need to be reverted or undone. Any realistic CPG integration effort needs to further consider temporal aspects of clinical tasks-these are not only restricted by temporal constraints from CPGs (e.g., sequential relations, task durations) but also by CPG integration efforts (e.g., avoid treatment overlap). This poses a complex execution-time challenge and makes it difficult to determine an up-to-date, optimal comorbid care plan. We present a solution for dynamic integration of CPG in response to evolving health profiles and execution-time events. CPG integration policies are formulated by clinical experts for coping with comorbidity at execution-time, with clearly defined integration semantics that build on Description and Transaction Logics. A dynamic planning approach reconciles temporal constraints of CPG tasks at execution-time based on their importance, and continuously updates an optimal task schedule.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Semântica , Comorbidade , Humanos , Tempo
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 223-227, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042738

RESUMO

Blood products and their derivatives are perishable commodities that require an efficient inventory management to ensure both a low wastage rate and a high product availability rate. To optimize blood product inventory, blood transfusion services need to reduce wastage by avoiding outdates and improve availability of different blood products. We used advance visualization techniques to design and develop a highly interactive real-time web-based dashboard to monitor the blood product inventory and the on-going blood unit transactions in near-real-time based on analysis of transactional data. Blood transfusion staff use the dashboard to locate units with specific characteristics, investigate the lifecycle of the units, and efficiently transfer units between facilities to minimize outdates.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos
3.
Artif Intell Med ; 108: 101931, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972660

RESUMO

In a digitally enabled healthcare setting, we posit that an individual's current location is pivotal for supporting many virtual care services-such as tailoring educational content towards an individual's current location, and, hence, current stage in an acute care process; improving activity recognition for supporting self-management in a home-based setting; and guiding individuals with cognitive decline through daily activities in their home. However, unobtrusively estimating an individual's indoor location in real-world care settings is still a challenging problem. Moreover, the needs of location-specific care interventions go beyond absolute coordinates and require the individual's discrete semantic location; i.e., it is the concrete type of an individual's location (e.g., exam vs. waiting room; bathroom vs. kitchen) that will drive the tailoring of educational content or recognition of activities. We utilized Machine Learning methods to accurately identify an individual's discrete location, together with knowledge-based models and tools to supply the associated semantics of identified locations. We considered clustering solutions to improve localization accuracy at the expense of granularity; and investigate sensor fusion-based heuristics to rule out false location estimates. We present an AI-driven indoor localization approach that integrates both data-driven and knowledge-based processes and artifacts. We illustrate the application of our approach in two compelling healthcare use cases, and empirically validated our localization approach at the emergency unit of a large Canadian pediatric hospital.

4.
JMIR Med Inform ; 7(4): e14993, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a temporary mental disorder that occasionally affects patients undergoing surgery, especially cardiac surgery. It is strongly associated with major adverse events, which in turn leads to increased cost and poor outcomes (eg, need for nursing home due to cognitive impairment, stroke, and death). The ability to foresee patients at risk of delirium will guide the timely initiation of multimodal preventive interventions, which will aid in reducing the burden and negative consequences associated with delirium. Several studies have focused on the prediction of delirium. However, the number of studies in cardiac surgical patients that have used machine learning methods is very limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the application of several machine learning predictive models that can pre-emptively predict delirium in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and compare their performance. METHODS: We investigated a number of machine learning methods to develop models that can predict delirium after cardiac surgery. A clinical dataset comprising over 5000 actual patients who underwent cardiac surgery in a single center was used to develop the models using logistic regression, artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), Bayesian belief networks (BBN), naïve Bayesian, random forest, and decision trees. RESULTS: Only 507 out of 5584 patients (11.4%) developed delirium. We addressed the underlying class imbalance, using random undersampling, in the training dataset. The final prediction performance was validated on a separate test dataset. Owing to the target class imbalance, several measures were used to evaluate algorithm's performance for the delirium class on the test dataset. Out of the selected algorithms, the SVM algorithm had the best F1 score for positive cases, kappa, and positive predictive value (40.2%, 29.3%, and 29.7%, respectively) with a P=.01, .03, .02, respectively. The ANN had the best receiver-operator area-under the curve (78.2%; P=.03). The BBN had the best precision-recall area-under the curve for detecting positive cases (30.4%; P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: Although delirium is inherently complex, preventive measures to mitigate its negative effect can be applied proactively if patients at risk are prospectively identified. Our results highlight 2 important points: (1) addressing class imbalance on the training dataset will augment machine learning model's performance in identifying patients likely to develop postoperative delirium, and (2) as the prediction of postoperative delirium is difficult because it is multifactorial and has complex pathophysiology, applying machine learning methods (complex or simple) may improve the prediction by revealing hidden patterns, which will lead to cost reduction by prevention of complications and will optimize patients' outcomes.

5.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 32(4): 178-182, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117831

RESUMO

Healthcare is a living system that generates a significant volume of heterogeneous data. As healthcare systems are pivoting to value-based systems, intelligent and interactive analysis of health data is gaining significance for health system management, especially for resource optimization whilst improving care quality and health outcomes. Health data analytics is being influenced by new concepts and intelligent methods emanating from artificial intelligence and big data. In this article, we contextualize health data and health data analytics in terms of the emerging trends of artificial intelligence and big data. We examine the nature of health data using the big data criterion to understand "how big" is health data. Next, we explain the working of artificial intelligence-based data analytics methods and discuss "what insights" can be derived from a broad spectrum of health data analytics methods to improve health system management, health outcomes, knowledge discovery, and healthcare innovation.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Ciência de Dados , Tomada de Decisões Assistida por Computador
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 247: 920-924, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29678095

RESUMO

Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. It is well understood that if modifiable risk factors are targeted, most chronic diseases can be prevented. Lifetime health is an emerging health paradigm that aims to assist individuals to achieve desired health targets, and avoid harmful lifecycle choices to mitigate the risk of chronic diseases. Early risk identification is central to lifetime health. In this paper, we present a digital health-based platform (PRISM) that leverages artificial intelligence, data visualization and mobile health technologies to empower citizens to self-assess, self-monitor and self-manage their overall risk of major chronic diseases and pursue personalized chronic disease prevention programs. PRISM offers risk assessment tools for 5 chronic conditions, 2 psychiatric disorders and 8 different cancers.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Atenção à Saúde , Telemedicina , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Med Syst ; 41(9): 139, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766103

RESUMO

Patient referral is a protocol where the referring primary care physician refers the patient to a specialist for further treatment. The paper-based current referral process at times lead to communication and operational issues, resulting in either an unfulfilled referral request or an unnecessary referral request. Despite the availability of standardized referral protocols they are not readily applied because they are tedious and time-consuming, thus resulting in suboptimal referral requests. We present a semantic-web based Referral Knowledge Modeling and Execution Framework to computerize referral protocols, clinical guidelines and assessment tools in order to develop a computerized e-Referral system that offers protocol-based decision support to streamline and standardize the referral process. We have developed a Spinal Problem E-Referral (SPER) system that computerizes the Spinal Condition Consultation Protocol (SCCP) mandated by the Halifax Infirmary Division of Neurosurgery (Halifax, Canada) for referrals for spine related conditions (such as back pain). The SPER system executes the ontologically modeled SCCP to determine (i) patient's triaging option as per severity assessments stipulated by SCCP; and (b) clinical recommendations as per the clinical guidelines incorporated within SCCP. In operation, the SPER system identifies the critical cases and triages them for specialist referral, whereas for non-critical cases SPER system provides clinical guideline based recommendations to help the primary care physician effectively manage the patient. The SPER system has undergone a pilot usability study and was deemed to be easy to use by physicians with potential to improve the referral process within the Division of Neurosurgery at QEII Health Science Center, Halifax, Canada.


Assuntos
Encaminhamento e Consulta , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Especialização , Triagem
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 235: 28-32, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28423749

RESUMO

A recent trend in healthcare is to motivate patients to self-manage their health conditions in home-based settings. Medication adherence is an important aspect in disease self-management since sub-optimal medication adherence by the patient can lead to serious healthcare costs and discomfort for the patient. In order to alleviate the limitations of self-reported medication adherence, we can use ambient assistive living (AAL) technologies in smart environments. Activity recognition services allow to retrieve self-management information related to medication adherence in a less intrusive way. By remotely monitor compliance with medication adherence, self-management program's interventions can be tailored and adapted based on the observed patient's behaviour. To address this challenge, we present an AAL framework that monitor activities related to medication adherence.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação , Monitorização Fisiológica , Autocuidado , Moradias Assistidas , Humanos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda
9.
BioData Min ; 10: 7, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28203277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capturing complete medical knowledge is challenging-often due to incomplete patient Electronic Health Records (EHR), but also because of valuable, tacit medical knowledge hidden away in physicians' experiences. To extend the coverage of incomplete medical knowledge-based systems beyond their deductive closure, and thus enhance their decision-support capabilities, we argue that innovative, multi-strategy reasoning approaches should be applied. In particular, plausible reasoning mechanisms apply patterns from human thought processes, such as generalization, similarity and interpolation, based on attributional, hierarchical, and relational knowledge. Plausible reasoning mechanisms include inductive reasoning, which generalizes the commonalities among the data to induce new rules, and analogical reasoning, which is guided by data similarities to infer new facts. By further leveraging rich, biomedical Semantic Web ontologies to represent medical knowledge, both known and tentative, we increase the accuracy and expressivity of plausible reasoning, and cope with issues such as data heterogeneity, inconsistency and interoperability. In this paper, we present a Semantic Web-based, multi-strategy reasoning approach, which integrates deductive and plausible reasoning and exploits Semantic Web technology to solve complex clinical decision support queries. RESULTS: We evaluated our system using a real-world medical dataset of patients with hepatitis, from which we randomly removed different percentages of data (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) to reflect scenarios with increasing amounts of incomplete medical knowledge. To increase the reliability of the results, we generated 5 independent datasets for each percentage of missing values, which resulted in 20 experimental datasets (in addition to the original dataset). The results show that plausibly inferred knowledge extends the coverage of the knowledge base by, on average, 2%, 7%, 12%, and 16% for datasets with, respectively, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of missing values. This expansion in the KB coverage allowed solving complex disease diagnostic queries that were previously unresolvable, without losing the correctness of the answers. However, compared to deductive reasoning, data-intensive plausible reasoning mechanisms yield a significant performance overhead. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that plausible reasoning approaches, by generating tentative inferences and leveraging domain knowledge of experts, allow us to extend the coverage of medical knowledge bases, resulting in improved clinical decision support. Second, by leveraging OWL ontological knowledge, we are able to increase the expressivity and accuracy of plausible reasoning methods. Third, our approach is applicable to clinical decision support systems for a range of chronic diseases.

10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 228: 519-23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27577437

RESUMO

Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Generally, the therapeutic options for managing AF include the use of anticoagulant drugs that prevent the coagulation of blood. New Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) are not optimally prescribed to patients, despite their efficacy. In Canada, NOAC medications are not directly available to patients who belong to provincial benefits programs, rather a NOAC special authorization process establishes the eligibility of a patient to receive a NOAC and be paid by the provincial Pharmacare program. This special authorization process is tedious and paper-based which inhibits physicians to prescribe NOAC leading to suboptimal AF care to patients. In this paper, we present a computerized NOAC Authorization Decision Support System (NOAC-ADSS), accessible to physicians to help them (a) determine a patient eligibility for NOAC based on Canadian AF clinical guidelines, and (b) complete the special authorization form. We present a semantic web based system to ontologically model the NOAC eligibility criteria and execute the knowledge to determine a patient NOAC eligibility and dosage.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Administração Oral , Canadá , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Médicos de Família
11.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 20(1): 388-98, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25532198

RESUMO

Computerizing paper-based CPG and then executing them can provide evidence-informed decision support to physicians at the point of care. Semantic web technologies especially web ontology language (OWL) ontologies have been profusely used to represent computerized CPG. Using semantic web reasoning capabilities to execute OWL-based computerized CPG unties them from a specific custom-built CPG execution engine and increases their shareability as any OWL reasoner and triple store can be utilized for CPG execution. However, existing semantic web reasoning-based CPG execution engines suffer from lack of ability to execute CPG with high levels of expressivity, high cognitive load of computerization of paper-based CPG and updating their computerized versions. In order to address these limitations, we have developed three CPG execution engines based on OWL 1 DL, OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + semantic web rule language (SWRL). OWL 1 DL serves as the base execution engine capable of executing a wide range of CPG constructs, however for executing highly complex CPG the OWL 2 DL and OWL 2 DL + SWRL offer additional executional capabilities. We evaluated the technical performance and medical correctness of our execution engines using a range of CPG. Technical evaluations show the efficiency of our CPG execution engines in terms of CPU time and validity of the generated recommendation in comparison to existing CPG execution engines. Medical evaluations by domain experts show the validity of the CPG-mediated therapy plans in terms of relevance, safety, and ordering for a wide range of patient scenarios.


Assuntos
Ontologias Biológicas , Internet , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Semântica , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aplicações da Informática Médica
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 216: 148-52, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26262028

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine if shared decisions for managing non-critical chronic illness, made through an online biomedical technology intervention, us feasible and usable. The technology intervention incorporates behavioural and decision theories to increase patient engagement, and ultimately long term adherence to health behaviour change. We devised the iheart web intervention as a "proof of concept" in five phases. The implementation incorporates the Vaadin web application framework, Drools, EclipseLink and a MySQL database. Two-thirds of the study participants favoured the technology intervention, based on Likert-scale questions from a post-study questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of think aloud feedback, video screen captures and open-ended questions from the post-study questionnaire uncovered six main areas or themes for improvement. We conclude that online shared decisions for managing a non-critical chronic illness are feasible and usable through the iheart web intervention.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Mídias Sociais , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde , Canadá , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Estudos de Viabilidade
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 216: 285-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26262056

RESUMO

Exposure to a large volume of alerts generated by medical Alert Generating Systems (AGS) such as drug-drug interaction softwares or clinical decision support systems over-whelms users and causes alert fatigue in them. Some of alert fatigue effects are ignoring crucial alerts and longer response times. A common approach to avoid alert fatigue is to devise mechanisms in AGS to stop them from generating alerts that are deemed irrelevant. In this paper, we present a novel framework called INITIATE: an INtellIgent adapTIve AlerT Environment to avoid alert fatigue by managing alerts generated by one or more AGS. We have identified and categories the lifecycle of different alerts and have developed alert management logic as per the alerts' lifecycle. Our framework incorporates an ontology that represents the alert management strategy and an alert management engine that executes this strategy. Our alert management framework offers the following features: (1) Adaptability based on users' feedback; (2) Personalization and aggregation of messages; and (3) Connection to Electronic Medical Records by implementing a HL7 Clinical Document Architecture parser.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos/normas , Alarmes Clínicos/normas , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Software/normas , Nível Sete de Saúde/normas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Nova Escócia
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 205: 303-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25160195

RESUMO

Shared decision making is considered the cornerstone of patient-centred care but transpires in only 10% of face-to-face consultative encounters. Technology interventions have rampantly sought to fill the shared decision making gap but fall short in patient engagement. Recent studies indicate that combining multiple approaches could lead to greater commitment towards achieving positive health outcomes. Consequently, this study combines and embeds the I-Change behavioural theory with choice architecture within a technology-based aid to facilitate shared health decision making for hypertension reduction. An ontology knowledge model combining the behavioural and choice methods forms the core framework that will inform the technical solution. The model is both scalable and patient-centric. A pilot study will trial the solution, solicit feedback and propose refinements for future clinical use.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas/organização & administração , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Sistemas Computadorizados de Registros Médicos/organização & administração , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 150: 643-7, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19745390

RESUMO

Clinical Pathways (CP) stipulate an evidence-based patient care workflow for a specific disease within a localized setting. We present an ontology-based approach for computerizing CP so that they can be executed at the point-of-care. We present our CP modeling approach that features the integration of multiple localized CP to realize a unified disease-specific CP. The execution of the ontological CP model is achieved by our property abstraction method that assigns functional behaviors to existing semantic properties to facilitate their execution. Using our methods we have developed a prostate cancer management system.


Assuntos
Automação , Procedimentos Clínicos , Modelos Teóricos , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata
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