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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13945, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230563

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis associated with diarrhea is considered a serious disease in Africa and South Asia. In this study, we examined the trends in the causative pathogens of diarrhea and the corresponding gut microbiota in Ghana using microbiome analysis performed on diarrheic stools via 16S rRNA sequencing. In total, 80 patients with diarrhea and 34 healthy adults as controls, from 2017 to 2018, were enrolled in the study. Among the patients with diarrhea, 39 were norovirus-positive and 18 were rotavirus-positive. The analysis of species richness (Chao1) was lower in patients with diarrhea than that in controls. Beta-diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the two groups. Several diarrhea-related pathogens (e.g., Escherichia-Shigella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter) were detected in patients with diarrhea. Furthermore, co-infection with these pathogens and enteroviruses (e.g., norovirus and rotavirus) was observed in several cases. Levels of both Erysipelotrichaceae and Staphylococcaceae family markedly differed between norovirus-positive and -negative diarrheic stools, and the 10 predicted metabolic pathways, including the carbohydrate metabolism pathway, showed significant differences between rotavirus-positive patients with diarrhea and controls. This comparative study of diarrheal pathogens in Ghana revealed specific trends in the gut microbiota signature associated with diarrhea and that pathogen-dependent dysbiosis occurred in viral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/fisiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0238898, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730036

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Available molecular epidemiological data from recent studies suggest significant genetic variation between the different lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and the MTBC lineages might have adapted to different human populations. AIM: This study sought to determine the population structure of clinical MTBC isolates from the Volta Region of Ghana. METHODS: The MTBC isolates obtained from collected sputum samples were identified by PCR detecting of IS6110 and genotyped using spoligotyping. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial isolates were characterized by amplification of the heat shock protein 65 (hsp65) gene and sequencing. The drug susceptibility profiles of the MTBCs determined using GenoType MTBDRplus. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen (117, 93.6%) out of 125 mycobacterial positive isolates were characterized as members of the MTBC of which M. tuberculosis sensu stricto (MTBss) and M. africanum (MAF) were respectively 94 (80.3%) and 23 (19.7%). In all, 39 distinct spoligotype patterns were obtained; 26 for MTBss and 13 for MAF lineages. Spoligotyping identified 89 (76%) Lineage 4, 16 (13.6%) Lineage 5, 7 (6.0%) Lineage 6, 3 (2.6%) Lineage 2, 1(0.9%) Lineage 3 and 1 (0.9%) Lineage 1. Among the Lineage 4 isolates, 62/89 (69.7%) belonged to Cameroon sub-lineage, 13 (14.7%) Ghana, 8 (9.0%) Haarlem, 2 (2.2%) LAM, 1 (1.1%) Uganda I, 1 (1.1%) X and the remaining two (2.2%) were orphan. Significant localization of MAF was found within the Ho municipality (n = 13, 29.5%) compared to the more cosmopolitan Ketu-South/Aflao (n = 3, 8.3%) (p-value = 0.017). Eight (8) non-tuberculous mycobacteria were characterized as M. abscessus (7) and M. fortuitum (1). CONCLUSION: We confirmed the importance of M. africanum lineages as a cause of TB in the Volta region of Ghana.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium/genética , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
3.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 10(1): 60-65, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707373

RESUMO

Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical disease caused by the Mycobacterium ulcerans. BU is an endemic disease in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa where population have long history of using medicinal plants for treatment. Indeed, several medicinal plants have been documented against BU and related conditions. The present study was undertaken to prove the efficacy of seven medicinal plants documented for the treatment of mycobacterial infections and related symptoms in Ghana. Method: Antimycobacterial activity of the stem bark extracts and reference control drugs were conducted using the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) assay method in clear round bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The extracts that showed anti-mycobacterium ulcerans activity were assessed for cytotoxicity using the Alamar blue assay. Results: Overall, The Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root aqueous extract exhibited the highest antimycobacterial activity (MIC=64 µg/mL) followed by Cleistopholis patens (MIC=256 µg/mL). Based on the marked activity of the Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extracts, pure cryptolepine, its major metabolite recorded a MIC value of 32 µg/mL. These extracts with considerable antimycobacterial activity showed 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) ranging from 94 to 384 µg/mL. Conclusions: Thus, Cleistopholis patens and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta are primed for further studies and could afford novel drugs for the mitigation of buruli ulcer disease.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Úlcera de Buruli , Mycobacterium ulcerans , Plantas Medicinais , Úlcera de Buruli/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649692

RESUMO

Cholera remains a major global public health threat and continuous emergence of new Vibrio cholerae strains is of major concern. We conducted a molecular epidemiological study to detect virulence markers and antimicrobial resistance patterns of V. cholerae isolates obtained from the 2012-2015 cholera outbreaks in Ghana. Archived clinical isolates obtained from the 2012, 2014 and 2015 cholera outbreaks in Ghana were revived by culture and subjected to microscopy, biochemical identification, serotyping, antibiotic susceptibility testing, molecular detection of distinct virulence factors and Multi-Locus Variable-Number of Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA). Of 277 isolates analysed, 168 (60.6%) were confirmed to be V. cholerae and 109 (39.4%) isolates constituted other bacteria (Escherichia coli, Aeromonas sobria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococci faecalis). Serotyping the V. cholerae isolates identified 151 (89.9%) as Ogawa, 3 (1.8%) as Inaba and 14 (8.3%) as non-O1/O139 serogroup. The O1 serogroup isolates (154/168, 91.7%) carried the cholera toxin ctxB gene as detected by PCR. Additional virulence genes detected include zot, tcpA, ace, rtxC, toxR, rtxA, tcpP, hlyA and tagA. The most common and rare virulence factors detected among the isolates were rtxC (165 isolates) and tcpP (50 isolates) respectively. All isolates from 2014 and 2015 were multidrug resistant against the selected antibiotics. MLVA differentiated the isolates into 2 large unique clones A and B, with each predominating in a particular year. Spatial analysis showed clustering of most isolates at Ablekuma sub-district. Identification of several virulence genes among the two different genotypes of V. cholerae isolates and resistance to first- and second-line antibiotics, calls for scaleup of preventive strategies to reduce transmission, and strengthening of public health laboratories for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing to guide accurate treatment. Our findings support the current WHO licensed cholera vaccines which include both O1 Inaba and Ogawa serotypes.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cólera/diagnóstico , Cólera/microbiologia , Toxina da Cólera/genética , Toxina da Cólera/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Sorogrupo , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Vibrio cholerae/classificação , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio cholerae/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0209395, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a re-emerging problem in both livestock and humans. The association of some M. bovis strains with hyper-virulence, MDR-TB and disseminated disease makes it imperative to understand the biology of the pathogen. METHODS: Mycobacterium bovis (15) among 1755 M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolated between 2012 and 2014 were characterized and analyzed for associated patient demography and other risk factors. Five of the M. bovis isolates were whole-genome sequenced and comparatively analyzed against a global collection of published M. bovis genomes. RESULTS: Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 3/560(0.5%) females and 12/1195(1.0%) males with pulmonary TB. The average age of M. bovis infected cases was 46.8 years (7-72years). TB patients from the Northern region of Ghana (1.9%;4/212) had a higher rate of infection with M. bovis (OR = 2.7,p = 0.0968) compared to those from the Greater Accra region (0.7%;11/1543). Among TB patients with available HIV status, the odds of isolating M. bovis from HIV patients (2/119) was 3.3 higher relative to non-HIV patients (4/774). Direct contact with livestock or their unpasteurized products was significantly associated with bTB (p<0.0001, OR = 124.4,95% CI = 30.1-508.3). Two (13.3%) of the M. bovis isolates were INH resistant due to the S315T mutation in katG whereas one (6.7%) was RIF resistant with Q432P and I1491S mutations in rpoB. M. bovis from Ghana resolved as mono-phyletic branch among mostly M. bovis from Africa irrespective of the host and were closest to the root of the global M. bovis phylogeny. M. bovis-specific amino acid mutations were detected among MTBC core genes such as mce1A, mmpL1, pks6, phoT, pstB, glgP and Rv2955c. Additional mutations P6T in chaA, G187E in mgtC, T35A in Rv1979c, S387A in narK1, L400F in fas and A563T in eccA1 were restricted to the 5 clinical M. bovis from Ghana. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate potential zoonotic transmission of bTB in Ghana and hence calls for intensified public education on bTB, especially among risk groups.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Comorbidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mutação , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11269, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30050166

RESUMO

Mycobacterium africanum (Maf) causes a substantial proportion of human tuberculosis in some countries of West Africa, but little is known on this pathogen. We compared the genomes of 253 Maf clinical isolates from Ghana, including N = 175 Lineage 5 (L5) and N = 78 Lineage 6 (L6). We found that the genomic diversity of L6 was higher than in L5 despite the smaller sample size. Regulatory proteins appeared to evolve neutrally in L5 but under purifying selection in L6. Even though over 90% of the human T cell epitopes were conserved in both lineages, L6 showed a higher ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous single nucleotide variation in these epitopes overall compared to L5. Of the 10% human T cell epitopes that were variable, most carried mutations that were lineage-specific. Our findings indicate that Maf L5 and L6 differ in some of their population genomic characteristics, possibly reflecting different selection pressures linked to distinct ecological niches.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Genótipo , Mycobacterium/genética , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Gana , Humanos , Mycobacterium/classificação , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 96(5): 1076-1083, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500810

RESUMO

AbstractThe exact route of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) (causative agent of Buruli ulcer [BU]), risk factors, and reservoir hosts are not clearly known, although it has been identified as an environmental pathogen. This study assessed potential environmental and behavioral risk factors that influence BU infections. We conducted a case-control study where cases were matched by their demographic characteristics and place of residence. A structured questionnaire was administered to solicit information on the environmental and behavioral factors of participants that may expose them to infection. A total of 176 cases and 176 controls were enrolled into the study. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified farming in swampy areas (odds ratio [OR] = 4.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.82-7.18), farming while wearing short clothing (OR = 1,734.1, 95% CI = 68.1-44,120.9), insect bite (OR = 988.3, 95% CI = 31.4-31,115.6), and application of leaves on wounds (OR = 6.23, 95% CI = 4.74-18.11) as potential risk factors. Farming in long clothing (OR = 0.000, 95% CI = 0.00-0.14), washing wound with water and soap (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.29-0.98), and application of adhesive bandage on wounds (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15-0.82) were found to be protective against BU infection. In the absence of the exact MU transmission mechanisms, education of public in BU-endemic zones on the use of protective clothing during farming activities to limit exposure of the skin and proper wound care management would be essential in the fight against BU.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/diagnóstico , Úlcera de Buruli/prevenção & controle , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/prevenção & controle , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Roupa de Proteção , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/transmissão , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/microbiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Rios , Inquéritos e Questionários , Áreas Alagadas
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(2): e0005331, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beyond Mycobacterium ulcerans-specific therapy, sound general wound management is required for successful management of Buruli ulcer (BU) patients which places them among the large and diverse group of patients in poor countries with a broken skin barrier. METHODS: Clinically BU suspicious patients were enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 at a primary health care (PHC) center and a municipal hospital, secondary health care (SHC) center in Ghana. All patients were IS2404 PCR tested and divided into IS2404 PCR positive and negative groups. The course of wound healing was prospectively investigated including predictors of wound closure and assessment of infrastructure, supply and health staff performance. RESULTS: 53 IS2404 PCR positive patients-31 at the PHC center and 22 at the SHC center were enrolled-and additionally, 80 clinically BU suspicious, IS2404 PCR negative patients at the PHC center. The majority of the skin ulcers at the PHC center closed, without the need for surgical intervention (86.7%) compared to 40% at the SHC center, where the majority required split-skin grafting (75%) or excision (12.5%). Only 9% of wounds at the PHC center, but 50% at the SHC center were complicated by bacterial infection. The majority of patients, 54.8% at the PHC center and 68.4% at the SHC center, experienced wound pain, mostly severe and associated with wound dressing. Failure of ulcers to heal was reliably predicted by wound area reduction between week 2 and 4 after initiation of treatment in 75% at the PHC center, and 90% at the SHC center. Obvious reasons for arrested wound healing or deterioration of wound were missed additional severe pathology; at the PHC center (chronic osteomyelitis, chronic lymphedema, squamous cell carcinoma) and at the SHC center (malignant ulceration, chronic lymphedema) in addition to hygiene and wound care deficiencies. When clinically suspicious, but IS2404 PCR negative patients were recaptured in the community, 76/77 (98.7%) of analyzed wounds were either completely closed (85.7%) or almost closed (13%). Five percent were found to have important missed severe pathology (chronic osteomyelitis, ossified fibroma and suspected malignancy). CONCLUSION: The wounds of most BU patients attending the primary health care level can be adequately managed. Additionally, the patients are closer to their families and means of livelihood. Non-healing wounds can be predicted by wound area reduction between 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of treatment. Patients with clinically BU suspicious, but PCR negative ulcers need to be followed up to capture missed diagnoses.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium ulcerans/genética , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium ulcerans/fisiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Cuidados de Saúde Secundários/estatística & dados numéricos , Cicatrização , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 6(1): 70-75, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28317808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species are assuming public health importance in pulmonary diseases; they are increasingly being isolated, and importantly, most NTMs do not respond to routine tuberculosis (TB) drugs. This study aimed to identify NTMs isolated from pulmonary TB cases and also determine their susceptibility to streptomycin (STR), isoniazid (INH), and rifampicin (RIF). METHODS: A total of 1755 mycobacterial isolates, obtained between August 2012 and July 2014, from 2036 smear-positive pulmonary cases were identified using polymerase chain reaction amplification of IS6110, and hsp65 gene sequencing analysis. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was then performed for the identified NTMs against STR, INH, and RIF using microplate Alamar blue assay. The results were analyzed against patients' biodata for statistical associations. RESULTS: Of the 1755 analyzed isolates, we identified 43 (2.5%) NTMs, which included 18 (41.9%) Mycobacterium intracellulare, 13 (30.2%) Mycobacterium avium subs. paratuberculosis, 5 (11.3%) Mycobacterium abscessus, 3 (7.0%) each of Mycobacterium mucogenicum and Mycobacterium colombiense, and 1 (2.3%) Mycobacterium simiae. Patients infected with NTMs (52.0%) were more likely to be human immunodeficiency virus-positive (P = 0.001, odds ratio = 6.6, 95% confidence interval = 2.7-16.2) than those infected with M. tuberculosis complex (5.8%). All the 43 (100%) NTMs were resistant to INH, whereas 32 (74%) and 19 (44%) were resistant to RIF and STR, respectively. Furthermore, 16 (37.2%) NTMs were resistant to all three drugs, 20 were resistant to INH and RIF, and 3 were resistant to STR and INH. All the M. abscessus isolates were resistant to all the three drugs, whereas all the M. avium isolates were resistant to INH and RIF, but only three were resistant to STR. Among the M. intracellulare isolates, 8, 18, and 15 isolates were resistant to STR, INH, and RIF, respectively. CONCLUSION: The observed high-resistance level to INH and RIF supports the need for rapid species identification and DST of nonresponding TB cases before retreatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Criança , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rifampina/farmacologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Estreptomicina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Microb Ecol ; 74(2): 350-361, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28238016

RESUMO

This study aimed to contribute to the understanding of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) ecology by analysing both clinical and environmental samples collected from ten communities along two major river basins (Offin and Densu) associated with Buruli ulcer (BU) at different seasons. We collected clinical samples from presumptive BU cases and environmental samples from ten communities. Following DNA extraction, clinical samples were confirmed by IS2404 PCR and environmental samples were confirmed by targeting MU-specific genes, IS2404, IS2606 and the ketoreductase (KR) using real-time PCR. Environmental samples were first analysed for IS2404; after which, IS2404-positive samples were multiplexed for the IS2606 and KR gene. Our findings indicate an overall decline in BU incidence along both river basins, although incidence at Densu outweighs that of Offin. Overall, 1600 environmental samples were screened along Densu (434, 27 %) and Offin (1166, 73 %) and MU was detected in 139 (9 %) of the combined samples. The positivity of MU along the Densu River basin was 89/434 (20.5 %), whilst that of the Offin River basin was 50/1166 (4.3 %). The DNA was detected mainly in snails (5/6, 83 %), moss (8/40, 20 %), soil (55/586, 9 %) and vegetation (55/675, 8 %). The proportion of MU positive samples recorded was higher during the months with higher rainfall levels (126/1175, 11 %) than during the dry season months (13/425, 3 %). This study indicates for the first time that there is a seasonal pattern in the presence of MU in the environment, which may be related to recent rainfall or water in the soil.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Animais , Briófitas/microbiologia , Gana , Humanos , Chuva , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Caramujos/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Água
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 10(10): e0004950, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a subcutaneous skin disease listed among the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO). Early case detection and management is very important to reduce morbidity and the accompanied characteristic disfiguring nature of BU. Since diagnosis based on clinical evidence can lead to misdiagnosis, microbiological confirmation is essential to reduce abuse of drugs; since the anti-mycobacterial drugs are also used for TB treatment. The current WHO gold standard PCR method is expensive, requires infrastructure and expertise are usually not available at the peripheral centers where BU cases are managed. Thus one of the main research agendas is to develop methods that can be applied at the point of care. In this study we selected aptamers, which are emerging novel class of detection molecules, for detecting mycolactone, the first to be conducted in a BUD endemic country. METHODS: Aptamers that bind to mycolactone were isolated by the SELEX process. To measure their affinity and specificity to mycolactone, the selected aptamers were screened by means of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and an enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). Selected aptamers were assessed by ELONA using swab samples from forty-one suspected BU patients with IS2404 PCR and culture as standard methods. ROC analysis was used to evaluate their accuracy and cutoff-points. RESULTS: Five out of the nine selected aptamers bound significantly (p< 0.05) to mycolactone, of these, three were able to distinguish between mycolactone producing mycobacteria, M. marinum (CC240299, Israel) and other bacteria whilst two others also bounded significantly to Mycobacterium smegmatis. Their dissociation constants were in the micro-molar range. At 95% confidence interval, the ROC curve analysis among the aptamers at OD450 ranged from 0.5-0.7. Using this cut-off for the ELONA assay, the aptamers had 100% specificity and sensitivity between 0.0% and 50.0%. The most promising aptamer, Apt-3683 showed a discernible cleavage difference relative to the non-specific autocatalysis over a 3-minute time course. CONCLUSION: This preliminary proof-of-concept indicates that diagnosis of BUD with RNA aptamers is feasible and can be used as point of care upon incorporation into a diagnostic platform.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Úlcera de Buruli/diagnóstico , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/genética , Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium smegmatis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium ulcerans/química , Mycobacterium ulcerans/metabolismo , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(14): 4320-4329, 2016 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208141

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: This study aimed to isolate nontuberculous mycobacterial species from environmental samples obtained from some selected communities in Ghana. To optimize decontamination, spiked environmental samples were used to evaluate four decontamination solutions and supplemented media, after which the best decontamination solution and media were used for the actual analysis. The isolates obtained were identified on the basis of specific genetic sequences, including heat shock protein 65, IS2404, IS2606, rpoB, and the ketoreductase gene, as needed. Among the methods evaluated, decontamination with 1 M NaOH followed by 5% oxalic acid gave the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria (50.0%) and the lowest rate of contamination (15.6%). The cultivation medium that supported the highest rate of recovery of mycobacteria was polymyxin B-amphotericin B-nalidixic acid-trimethoprim-azlocillin-supplemented medium (34.4%), followed by isoniazid-supplemented medium (28.1%). Among the 139 samples cultivated in the main analysis, 58 (41.7%) yielded mycobacterial growth, 70 (50.4%) had no growth, and 11 (7.9%) had all inoculated tubes contaminated. A total of 25 different mycobacterial species were identified. Fifteen species (60%) were slowly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium ulcerans, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium mantenii, and Mycobacterium malmoense), and 10 (40%) were rapidly growing (e.g., Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium abscessus). The occurrence of mycobacterial species in the various environmental samples analyzed was as follows: soil, 16 species (43.2%); vegetation, 14 species (38.0%); water, 3 species (8.0%); moss, 2 species (5.4%); snail, 1 species (2.7%); fungi, 1 species (2.7%). This study is the first to report on the isolation of M. ulcerans and other medically relevant nontuberculous mycobacteria from different environmental sources in Ghana. IMPORTANCE: Diseases caused by mycobacterial species other than those that cause tuberculosis and leprosy are increasing. Control is difficult because the current understanding of how the organisms are spread and where they live in the environment is limited, although this information is needed to design preventive measures. Growing these organisms from the environment is also difficult, because the culture medium becomes overgrown with other bacteria that also live in the environment, such as in soil and water. We aimed to improve the methods for growing these organisms from environmental sources, such as soil and water samples, for better understanding of important mycobacterial ecology.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Microbiologia Ambiental , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/classificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Meios de Cultura/química , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Descontaminação/métodos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
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