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1.
Scand J Urol ; 53(6): 392-397, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830847

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the incidence, timing, and risk factors of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) following radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in a large cohort of patients.Patients and Methods: The electronic data base of patients underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in a tertiary referral center between January 2004 and February 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Patients developed VTE namely deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) within 90 days after surgery were identified and compared to those without VTE. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the predictors of the VTE.Results: Out of 1737 patients, 77 VTE have occurred in 70 (4%) patients. DVT and PE occurred in 34 (2%) and 43 (2.5%) patients, respectively. PE was the leading cause of mortality in 17 patients. The median (range) time for VTE was 11 days (1-92) with 39 (50.6%) events developed after the stoppage of thrombo-prophylaxis. On multivariate analysis, older age ≥60 years (OR = 1.9; p = 0.009), female gender (OR = 1.9; p = 0.02), morbid obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) (OR = 2.4; p = 0.008) and preoperative platelet count (≥300.000/cc) (OR = 1.6; p = 0.045) were significant predictors for developing VTE.Conclusion: The overall incidence of VTE is 4% with more than half of events occurred after the stoppage of thromboprophylaxis highlighting the necessity of adopting an extended protocol. Independent predictors included older age, female gender, morbid obesity and preoperative thrombocytosis. These group of patients require particular attention for the prevention of this complication.

2.
Arab J Urol ; 17(3): 195-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489234

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the potential use of body mass index (BMI) and serum lipids in improving prostate-specific antigen (PSA) sensitivity in patients undergoing biopsy for suspicion of prostate cancer, as there is an established relationship between metabolic syndrome, obesity and serum lipids with prostate cancer. Patients and methods: A pilot study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre between June 2016 and August 2017 of patients undergoing transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy. After the result of TRUS-biopsy, the first 50 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer (study group) and those with no prostate cancer (control group) were enrolled. BMI, serum PSA level, fasting blood sugar and lipid profile (e.g. cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL]), were compared between the groups. Results: Higher BMI, cholesterol, LDL and lower HDL together with PSA were significantly associated with a positive biopsy. On multivariate analysis, LDL (odds ratio [OR] 5.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-24.9; P = 0.03) and total PSA level (OR 12.9, 95% CI 4.7-35; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of a positive biopsy. A combination of LDL <80 mg/dL and PSA level <26 ng/mL threshold values determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 28%, respectively; whilst, the negative (NPV) and positive predictive values were 82.4% and 56.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and NPV of the combination was significantly higher than that of PSA level alone (94% vs 72% and 82.4% vs 75%, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Serum lipids might have a role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and could be used as an adjunct to PSA measurement to improve sensitivity and avoid unnecessary biopsies. Abbreviations: AUC: area under the curve; BMI: body mass index; FBS: fasting blood sugar; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; LOX-1: lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1; OR: odds ratio; ROC: receiver operating characteristic; RP: radical prostatectomy; TG: triglyceride.

3.
Investig Clin Urol ; 60(4): 251-257, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294134

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of xylocaine gel and ketorolac as opioid-sparing analgesia compared with pethidine for shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) pain. Materials and Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was performed in 132 patients with renal and upper ureteral stones amenable to treatment with SWL. The first patient group received intravenous (IV) pethidine and placebo gel; the second group received IV ketorolac plus placebo gel; the third group received lidocaine gel locally plus normal saline IV. Stone disintegration was classified as none (no change from basal by kidney, ureter, bladder X-ray or ultrasound [US] imaging), partial (fragmented and >4-mm residual fragments), and complete (≤4-mm residual fragments). Stone disintegration was assessed by kidney-ureter-bladder X-ray and US imaging. Pain was evaluated by use of the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Results: The NPRS scores were highest in the xylocaine group at 10, 20, and 30 minutes (p=0.0001) with no significant difference between the ketorolac and pethidine groups, except at 10 minutes (p=0.03) and a near significant difference at 30 minutes (p=0.054) in favor of ketorolac. Results for stone disintegration (none, partial, and complete, respectively) were as follows: 25 (50.0%), 23 (46.0%), and 2 (4.0%) for pethidine; 19 (35.8%), 23 (43.4%), and 11 (20.8%) for ketorolac; and 26 (89.7%), 3 (10.3%), and 0 (0.0%) for lidocaine (p=0.008). Conclusions: Ketorolac is a safe and more effective alternative to morphine derivatives for SWL analgesia. Lidocaine gel should not be used as mono-analgesia for SWL.

4.
Urol Oncol ; 37(7): 478-484, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Checkpoint inhibitors are approved for the treatment of urothelial bladder cancer. However, there have been no reports on the prognostic value of programmed-death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. We assessed the relationship between PD-L1 expression, clinicopathological features, and oncologic outcomes in bladder SCC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Immunohistochemistry of PD-L1 was performed on 151 radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC treated in Mansoura, Egypt from 1997 to 2004. RESULTS: Median patient age was 52 years (range: 36-74 years) and median length of follow up was 63 months (range: 1-100 months). Schistosomiasis was present in 81% of the specimens and 93% had muscle-invasive disease on pathologic staging. PD-L1 expression was negative in 50 (33%) of the specimens. Negative PD-L1 expression was associated with higher pathologic tumor stage (P = 0.04), higher grade lesions (P = 0.01), and the presence of lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that negative PD-L1 expression is associated with worse recurrence-free (P = 0.01) and worse cancer-specific survival (P = 0.01). Multivariable Cox regression analyses showed negative PD-L1 expression was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (hazards ratio 2.05, 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.96, P = 0.03) and cancer-specific mortality (hazards ratio 2.89, 95% confidence interval 1.22-6.82, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Negative PD-L1 expression is associated with higher pathologic tumor stage, higher grade lesions, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and worse oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy for SCC. These findings support the need for the inclusion of patients with bladder SCC into immunotherapy clinical trials.

5.
BMC Urol ; 18(1): 100, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30413194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is believed to be associated with bladder cancer (BC) progression and poor clinical outcomes. In vivo studies have linked EGFR subcellular trafficking and chemo-resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapies. This has not been studied in the clinical adjuvant setting. We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of EGFR expression in patients receiving cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy following radical cystectomy for advanced BC. METHODS: The database from the Urology and Nephrology Center at Mansoura University was reviewed. BC patients who were treated with radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy for adverse pathological features or node positive disease were identified. Patients who underwent palliative cystectomy, had histological diagnoses other than pure urothelial carcinoma, or received adjuvant radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Immunohistochemical staining for EGFR expression was performed on archived bladder specimens. The following in vitro functional analyses were performed to study the relationship of EGFR expression and chemoresponse. RESULTS: The study included 58 patients, among which the mean age was 57 years old. Majority of patients had node positive disease (n = 53, 91%). Mean follow up was 26.61 months. EGFR was overexpressed in 25 cystectomy specimens (43%). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that EGFR over-expression significantly correlated with disease recurrence (p = 0.021). Cox proportional hazard modeling identified EGFR overexpression as an independent predictor for disease recurrence (p = 0.04). Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that inhibition of EGFR may sensitize cellular responses to cisplatin. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that EGFR overexpression is associated with disease recurrence following adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced BC. This may aid in patient prognostication and selection prior to chemotherapeutic treatment for BC.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Musculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética , Receptores ErbB/biossíntese , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Musculares/tratamento farmacológico , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 726-733, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954086

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after major surgeries is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aim to report incidence, predictors and associated comorbidities of AKI after radical cystectomy in a large cohort of patients. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1000 patients who underwent open radical cystectomy in a tertiary referral center. Perioperative serum creatinine measurements were used to define AKI according to the RIFLE criteria (as Risk, Injury and Failure). The predictors of AKI after surgery were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Out of 988 evaluable patients, AKI developed in 46 (4.7%). According to RIFLE criteria; AKI-Risk, AKI-Injury and AKI-Failure occurred in 26 (2.6%), 9 (0.9%) and 11 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that performing nephroureterectomy with cystectomy (Odds ratio [OR]: 4.3; 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-13.6; p=0.01) and the development of high grade complications (OR: 3.8; 95% CI 1.9-7.2; p<0.0001) were independently associated with AKI. Conclusions: AKI is a significant morbidity after radical cystectomy and the term should be included during routine cystectomy morbidity assessment.

7.
Int Braz J Urol ; 44(4): 726-733, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) after major surgeries is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We aim to report incidence, predictors and associated comorbidities of AKI after radical cystectomy in a large cohort of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1000 patients who underwent open radical cystectomy in a tertiary referral center. Perioperative serum creatinine measurements were used to define AKI according to the RIFLE criteria (as Risk, Injury and Failure). The predictors of AKI after surgery were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Out of 988 evaluable patients, AKI developed in 46 (4.7%). According to RIFLE criteria; AKI-Risk, AKI-Injury and AKI-Failure occurred in 26 (2.6%), 9 (0.9%) and 11 (1.1%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that performing nephroureterectomy with cystectomy (Odds ratio [OR]: 4.3; 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-13.6; p=0.01) and the development of high grade complications (OR: 3.8; 95% CI 1.9-7.2; p<0.0001) were independently associated with AKI. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is a significant morbidity after radical cystectomy and the term should be included during routine cystectomy morbidity assessment.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
World J Urol ; 36(11): 1835-1843, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29761225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in pathological features and prognostics across four bladder cancer histopathological types: urothelial carcinoma (UC), urothelial carcinoma with variant histology (UCV), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC), utilizing a large cohort of radical cystectomy (RC) patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent RC at a single institution in Egypt between 1997 and 2004 was performed. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of pathological features including tumor stage, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and lymph node (LN) involvement in the different subtypes on disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: 1238 patients (975 male, 263 female) were included, of whom 577 (47%) had UC, 174 (14%) UCV, 398 (32%) SCC, and 89 (7%) ADC. Median age was 54 (20-87) years and median follow-up was 40 months (0-110). There were significant differences in stage, grade, LVI, LN involvement, and presence of schistosomiasis across the subtypes (all p < 0.05). The prognostic significance of LVI was more evident in SCC (HR 2.14, p = 0.003) and ADC (HR 2.17, p = 0.044) than in UC (HR 1.66, p = 0.008). LN involvement was the strongest prognostic factor in UCV (HR 2.14, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: There are significant differences in clinicopathological features and their prognostic impact across bladder cancer subtypes. The prognostic significance of LVI is more evident in SCC and ADC, while LN involvement is more prognostic in UCV. Determining independent predictors in individual subtypes can guide multimodal treatment selection and clinical trial design.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 49(8): 1327-1334, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term renal function outcome of management of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF)-induced ureteral obstruction. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with idiopathic RPF-induced ureteral obstruction were classified according to the management type into two groups, group A; managed by indwelling JJ stent and group B managed by ureterolysis and omental wrapping (UOR). The primary outcome was to define the long-term outcome of management on RF. It was evaluated by changes in serum creatinine and estimated GFR (eGFR) using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation where 20% changes in eGFR is considered significant. The second outcome is to compare the outcomes between both groups. RESULTS: After 27.5 (1-124) months, median (range) follow-up, median (range) serum creatinine increased significantly from 1.5 (0.8-8.1) to 1.6 (1-12.1) mg/dl (p value =0.04) and eGFR showed non-statistical significant reduction from 43 (5-110) to 41 (5-88) ml/min/1.73 m2 (p value =0.3). Eight (22.2%), 12 (34.4%) and 16 (44.4%) patients showed stable, increased and decreased eGFR. Group A showed statistically significant increased serum creatinine and insignificant decreased eGFR (p value =0.04 and 0.09), while group B showed statistically insignificant changes in serum creatinine and eGFR (p value =0.5 and 0.9). In group B, nine (21.4%) renal units are still harboring JJ stents. CONCLUSION: For idiopathic RPF, UOR avoided indwelling ureteral stents in 78.6% of renal units with apparent better long-term renal function outcome.


Assuntos
Fibrose Retroperitoneal/complicações , Stents , Obstrução Ureteral/fisiopatologia , Obstrução Ureteral/cirurgia , Adulto , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Obstrução Ureteral/etiologia
10.
BJU Int ; 120(1): 152-157, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a detailed step-by-step approach of our technique for robot-assisted intracorporeal 'W'-configuration orthotopic ileal neobladder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC), extended pelvic lymph node dissection and intracorporeal neobladder (ICNB). ICNB was divided into six key steps to facilitate and enable a detailed analysis and auditing of the technique. No conversion to open surgery was required. Timing for each step was noted. All patients had at least 3 months of follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age was 57 years. The mean overall console and diversion times were 357 and 193 min, respectively. None of the patients had any evidence of residual disease after RARC. Four of the five patients had complications; three developed fevers due to urinary tract infections (one required readmission), and one developed myocardial infarction and required coronary angiography and stenting. Looking at the timing for the individual steps, bowel detubularisation and construction of the posterior plate were consistently the longest among the key steps (average 46 min, 13% of the overall operative time), followed by uretero-ileal anastomosis (37 min, 10%), neobladder-urethral anastomosis (23 min, 6%), and identification and fixation of the bowel (26 min, 7%). CONCLUSION: We described our step-by-step technique and initial perioperative outcomes of our first five ICNBs with 'W' configuration.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Íleo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Derivação Urinária , Cistectomia/métodos , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
BJU Int ; 119(6): 879-884, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27987527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop a scoring tool, Pelvic Lymphadenectomy Appropriateness and Completion Evaluation (PLACE), to assess the intraoperative completeness and appropriateness of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) following robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). PATIENTS, SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A panel of 11 open and robotic surgeons developed the content and structure of PLACE. The PLND template was divided into three zones. In all, 21 de-identified videos of bilateral robot-assisted PLNDs were assessed by the 11 experts using PLACE to determine inter-rater reliability. Lymph node (LN) clearance was defined as the proportion of cleared LNs from all PLACE zones. We investigated the correlation between LN clearance and LN count. Then, we compared the LN count of 18 prospective PLNDs using PLACE with our retrospective series performed using the extended template (No PLACE). RESULTS: A significant reliability was achieved for all PLACE zones among the 11 raters for the 21 bilateral PLND videos. The median (interquartile range) for LN clearance was 468 (431-545). There was a significant positive correlation between LN clearance and LN count (R2 = 0.70, P < 0.01). The PLACE group yielded similar LN counts when compared to the No PLACE group. CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic Lymphadenectomy Appropriateness and Completion Evaluation is a structured intraoperative scoring system that can be used intraoperatively to measure and quantify PLND for quality control and to facilitate training during RARC.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Excisão de Linfonodo , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 49(1): 49-53, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785747

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the necessity of chronic alkali therapy in non-complicated orthotopic ileal neobladders with normal renal function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 200 male patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal W neobladder for invasive bladder carcinoma between January 1993 and December 2013. The studied patients included 100 consecutive patients who were maintained on regular alkali therapy since surgery and 100 consecutive patients who stopped the use of alkali treatment after initial 3 months postoperative with minimum postoperative observation time of 1 year. All patients had satisfactory function of the reservoirs with normal upper tract. The patients were subjected to blood analysis for creatnine, electrolytes, pH and bicarbonate and urine chemical analysis. The study also included 40 healthy male age-matched volunteers who served as a control group. RESULTS: Both groups were comparable as regard age, BMI, follow-up period and surgical technique. There were no significant differences between both groups as regard serum creatnine, electrolytes blood pH and bicarbonate and the mean values were within normal range; however, the neobladder patients are still toward the acidotic side in comparison to healthy volunteers. Also there were no significant differences between both groups of patients as regard urine pH and excretion of electrolytes, calcium, phosphorus and creatnine. CONCLUSION: Patients with non-complicated ileal neobladders with normal upper tract who were not maintained on alkali prophylaxis for long period have a compensated acid base status. Therefore, the prolonged alkali prophylaxis is not mandatory.


Assuntos
Acidose/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma/cirurgia , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Estruturas Criadas Cirurgicamente/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/etiologia , Idoso , Cistectomia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/sangue , Urinálise
13.
Scand J Urol ; 50(6): 433-438, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27589558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review different management modalities and outcome of patients presenting with late intestinal obstruction (IO) after radical cystectomy (RC) or palliative cystectomy (PC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Files of patients who presented with IO between January 1978 and June 2014 were reviewed. Patients who developed IO following either RC or PC more than 30 days after surgery were included. Patients' characteristics and management protocols were evaluated. Predictors for failure of conservative management and unfavorable outcome after surgical explorations were evaluated. Symptom-free and overall survival rates of patients with malignant IO was were recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of IO was 2.8% after RC (118 out of 4199 patients) and 10% after PC (nine out of 87). Colonic diversions had the highest prevalence (6.2%), followed by ileal loop conduit (2.9%); the lowest prevalences followed Kock pouch and ileal W neobladder (1.7% and 1.6%, respectively). Postoperative urinary leakage from a ureteroenteric anastomosis was the only predictor for surgical intervention (p = 0.039). Nine cases had been explored for malignant obstruction (eight after RC and one after PC). The mean ± SD elapsed time before death was 3.6 ± 2 months (range 0.5-17 months). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary diversion with colonic segments carries more risk for the development of IO in comparison with ileal segments. Postoperative urinary leakage after cystectomy and urinary diversion may be a contributory factor for surgical exploration in cases with late IO.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Cuidados Paliativos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Colo/cirurgia , Tratamento Conservador , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Íleo/cirurgia , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estruturas Criadas Cirurgicamente , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/complicações , Derivação Urinária/métodos
14.
Int J Urol ; 23(10): 861-865, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27545102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare treatment-related outcomes of ureteral stenting with an external versus double J stent in patients with orthotopic reservoirs after radical cystectomy. METHODS: Patients undergoing radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder were randomized into two groups; group I patients received external stents, whereas group II received double J stents. In both groups, preoperative parameters were recorded, and patients were assessed regarding urinary tract infection, urinary leakage, upper tract deterioration, readmission and hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of 48 and 45 patients were randomized in the external stent group and double J group, respectively. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, sex, associated comorbidity and oncological status. Early urinary leak was observed in two patients (4.2%) in the external stent group, and in two patients (4.4%) in the double J group (P = 0.95). None of our patients developed ureteral strictures in the external stent group, and one patient did in the double J group (P = 0.3). Positive urine culture (58.3%, 51.1%) as well as febrile urinary tract infections (2.1%, 6.7%) were comparable between both groups, respectively (P = 0.43, 0.28). Wound complications (12.5%, 8.9%) and stent-related complications (2.1%, 0%) were comparable between both groups, respectively (P = 0.57, 0.33). The mean hospital stay was 17.5 days (range 14-32 days) and 14.6 days (range 10-42 days) in both groups, respectively (P = 0.001), with comparable re-admission rates (P = 0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Incorporation of double J stents in orthotopic urinary diversion is a safe alternative to the routinely used external stenting.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Stents , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Drenagem , Humanos
15.
Urology ; 96: 80-84, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27417920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the standard physical, chemical, and microscopic characteristics of urine in patients with noncomplicated orthotopic ileal neobladders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study that included 100 male patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder between 1993 and 2013. All included patients were in a good health and having satisfactory function of the reservoirs with normal upper tract with a minimum 1-year postoperative follow-up. We excluded patients with oncological failure, those with diversion-related complications, those who were maintained on clean intermittent catheterization, or those who have symptoms of urinary tract infection. Patients with medical diseases that may affect urine properties (eg, diabetes mellitus) or receiving special medications (eg, diuretics, alkali therapy, or antibiotics) were also excluded. The patients were subjected to urine analysis, blood chemistry, pH, and blood gases; the results were compared to a control group of 40 normal male volunteers. RESULTS: Urine analysis in diverted patients showed higher urine pH than in control group but it is still acidic. Pyuria, proteinuria, hematuria, and positive culture were significantly higher in diverted patients. The chemical analysis showed lower urinary calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine contents in diverted patients than in the control group. Serum creatinine was significantly higher in diverted patients, whereas blood pH and bicarbonate were lower, but these values are within normal. CONCLUSION: Urine from uncomplicated orthotopic ileal reservoirs is acidic. Pyuria, proteinuria, minor degrees of microscopic hematuria, and positive nitrite reaction are normal findings. We also have normal findings for lower urinary calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine contents in patients.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Íleo/transplante , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/urina , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Coletores de Urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Urinálise/métodos
16.
Urol Oncol ; 34(9): 417.e1-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27157247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) with oncologic outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder following radical cystectomy (RC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 1,280 patients who underwent RC for invasive bladder cancer between 1997 and 2003 in Mansoura, Egypt. Only patients with pure urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) or SCC pathology were included. Using multivariate Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier analyses, prognostic significance of LVI in disease-free survival and cancer-specific survival was evaluated for patients with UCB and SCC. RESULTS: Our cohort included 519 (59%) patients with UCB and 360 (41%) with SCC. Median patient age and follow-up were 55 years (20-87) and 64 months (0-128), respectively. Median number of lymph nodes (LN) retrieved was 19 (4-70). LVI was present in 288 (32.8%) patients (241 [46.4%] UCB vs. 47 [13.1%] SCC; P<0.001). LVI was an independent predictor of oncologic outcomes in both UCB and SCC groups; however, LVI had more prognostic significance in SCC. LN negative, LVI positive (LVI+/LN-) patients with SCC had higher risk of recurrence and cancer-specific mortality compared to LN positive, LVI negative (LVI-/LN+) patients with SCC (hazard ratio = 2.8 vs. 1.9 and hazard ratio = 3.6 vs. 2.2, respectively). CONCLUSION: The presence of LVI is an independent predictor of poor oncologic outcomes after RC and had greater prognostic significance in patients with SCC compared to UCB.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
World J Urol ; 33(10): 1419-28, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25542395

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To develop two nomograms predicting disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) and to externally validate them in multiple series. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from a single-centre series of 818 consecutive patients who underwent RC and PLND were used to build the nomogram. External validation was performed in 3,173 patients from 7 centres worldwide. Time to recurrence and to cancer-specific death were addressed with univariable and multivariable analyses. Nomograms were built to predict 2-, 5- and 8-year DFS and CSS probabilities. Predictive accuracy was quantified using the concordance index. RESULTS: Age, pathologic T stage, lymph-node density and extent of PLND were independent predictors of DFS and CSS (p < 0.05). Discrimination accuracies for DFS and CSS at 2, 5 and 8 years were 0.81, 0.8, 0.79 and 0.82, 0.81, 0.8, respectively, with a slight overestimation at calibration plots beyond 24 months. In the external series, predictive accuracies for DFS and CSS at 2, 5 and 8 years were 0.83, 0.82, 0.82 and 0.85, 0.85, 0.83 for European centres; 0.73, 0.72, 0.71 and 0.80, 0.74, 0.68 for African series; 0.76, 0.74, 0.71 and 0.79, 0.76, 0.73 for American series. CONCLUSIONS: These nomograms developed from a contemporary series are simple clinical tools and provide optimal oncologic outcome prediction in all external cohorts.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Cistectomia/métodos , Nomogramas , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
18.
Urology ; 85(1): 233-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25440985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of the available urinary diversion options for patients treated with radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in different settings (pioneering institutions, leading urologic oncology centers, and population based). METHODS: Population-based data from the literature included all patients (n = 7608) treated in Sweden during the period 1964-2008, from Germany (n = 14,200) for the years 2008 and 2011, US patients (identified from National Inpatient Sample during 1998-2005, 35,370 patients and 2001-2008, 55,187 patients), and from Medicare (n = 22,600) for the years 1992, 1995, 1998, and 2001. After the International Consultation on Urologic Diseases-European Association of Urology International Consultation on Bladder Cancer 2012, the urinary diversion committee members disclosed data from their home institutions (n = 15,867), including the pioneering institutions and the leading urologic oncology centers. They are the coauthors of this report. RESULTS: The receipt of continent urinary diversion in Sweden and the United States is <15%, whereas in the German high-volume setting, 30% of patients receive a neobladder. At leading urologic oncology centers, this rate is also 30%. At pioneering institutions up to 75% of patients receive an orthotopic reconstruction. Anal diversion is <1%. Continent cutaneous diversion is the second choice. CONCLUSION: Enormous variations in urinary diversion exist for >2 decades. Increased attention in expanding the use of continent reconstruction may help to reduce these disparities for patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. Continent reconstruction should not be the exclusive domain of cystectomy centers. Efforts to increase rates of this complex reconstruction must concentrate on better definition of the quality-of-life impact, technique dissemination, and the centralization of radical cystectomy.


Assuntos
Cistectomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Derivação Urinária/métodos , Alemanha , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Suécia , Estados Unidos , Derivação Urinária/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Urol Oncol ; 33(3): 111.e1-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25477183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the association of fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) expression with pathologic features and clinical outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the urinary bladder. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry of FGF2 was performed on radical cystectomy specimens with pure SCC from 1997 to 2003. The relationship between FGF2 and pathologic parameters and oncological outcome was assessed. RESULTS: The study included 151 patients with SCC (98 men) with a median age of 52 years (range: 36-74 y). Schistosomal infection was found in 81% of patients. Pathologic category was T2 and T3 in 88% of patients and the grade was low in>50%. Lymph node invasion and lymphovascular invasion were found in 30.5% and 16%. Altered FGF2 was associated with tumor grade (P = 0.014), lymph node invasion, and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.042). Altered FGF2 was associated with both disease recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (P≤0.001) in Kaplan-Meier analyses and was an independent predictor of cancer recurrence (hazard ratio = 2.561, P = 0. 009) and cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio = 2.679, P = 0. 033) in multivariate Cox regression analyses. Adding FGF2 to a model including standard clinicopathologic prognostics (pathologic T category, lymph node status, and grade) showed a significant improvement (6%) in accuracy of prediction poor oncological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: FGF2 overexpression is associated with aggressive pathologic features and worse outcomes after radical cystectomy for SCC, suggesting a good prognostic and possible therapeutic role.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Cistectomia , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
20.
BJU Int ; 115(1): 94-100, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24905239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, risk factors and causes of hospital readmission in a large series of patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the data of 1000 patients who underwent RC and urinary diversion between January 2004 and September 2009 in our tertiary referral centre. Patients stayed in hospital for 21 and 11 days for orthotopic and ileal conduit diversions, respectively. The primary outcome was the development of a complication requiring hospital readmission at ≤3 months (early) and >3 months (late). Causes of hospital readmissions were categorised according to frequency of readmissions. Predictors were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: In all, 895 patients were analysed excluding 105 patients because of perioperative mortality and loss to follow-up. Early and late readmissions occurred in 8.6% and 11% patients, respectively. The commonest causes of first readmission were upper urinary tract obstruction (UUO, 13%) and pyelonephritis (12.4%) followed by intestinal obstruction (11.9%) and metabolic acidosis (11.3%). The development of postoperative high-grade complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.955; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.254-3.046; P = 0.003) and orthotopic bladder substitution (OR 1.585; 95% CI 1.095-2.295; P = 0.015) were independent predictors for overall hospital readmission after RC. Postoperative high-grade complications (OR 2.488; 95% CI 1.391-4.450; P = 0.002), orthotopic bladder substitution (OR 2.492; 95% CI 1.423-4.364; P = 0.001) and prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.964; 95% CI:1.166-3.308; P = 0.011) were independent predictors for early readmission while hypertension (OR 1.670; 95% CI 1.007-2.769; P = 0.047) was an independent predictor for late readmission. CONCLUSION: Hospital readmissions are a significant problem after RC. In the present study, UUO, pyelonephritis, metabolic acidosis and intestinal obstruction were the main causes of readmission. Orthotopic bladder substitution and development of postoperative high-grade complications were significant predictors for overall readmission.


Assuntos
Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Derivação Urinária/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
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