Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 134
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated bacterial vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis, which is mostly administered to neonates in regions where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. Adverse reactions following BCG vaccination are rare, however immunocompromised individuals and in particular patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are prone to develop vaccine-derived complications. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically review demographic, clinical, immunologic and genetic data of PIDs that present with BCG vaccine complications. Moreover, we performed a meta-analysis aiming to determine the BCG-vaccine complications rate for PID patients. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches on Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus (1966 to September 2018) introducing terms related to PIDs, BCG vaccination, and BCG vaccine complications. Studies with human subjects with confirmed PID, BCG vaccination history and vaccine-associated complications (VAC) were included. RESULTS: A total of 46 PIDs associated with BCG-VAC were identified. Severe combined immunodeficiency was the most common (466 cases) and also showed the highest BCG-related mortality. Most BCG infection cases in PID patients were reported from Iran (n=219, 18.8%). The overall frequency of BCG-VAC in the included 1691 PID cases was 41.5% (95% CI: 29.9, 53.2; I2=98.3%), based on the results of the random effect method used in this meta-analysis. Patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases had the highest frequency of BCG-VAC with a pooled frequency of 90.6% (95% CI: 79.7, 1.0; I2=81.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Several PID entities are susceptible to BCG-VAC. Systemic neonatal PID screening programs may help to prevent a substantial amount of BCG vaccination complications.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and some non-infectious clinical complications. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to provide a detailed evaluation of respiratory presentations and complications in a cohort of Iranian patients with CVID. METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study was conducted on 245 CVID patients who were recorded at the Iranian primary immunodeficiency disorders registry network. Respiratory manifestations were evaluated by reviewing clinical hospital records, immunologic findings, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. RESULTS: The majority of patients (n=208, 85.2%) had experienced at least one episode of acute respiratory manifestation and pneumonia was observed in 31.6 % (n=77) of cases as a first disease manifestation. During the follow-up pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis media were documented in 166 (68.6%), 125 (51.2%) and 103 (42.6%) cases, respectively. Abnormal PFT measurements were documented in 53.8 % of patients. Among these patients, 21.5% showed restrictive changes, whereas 18.4% of patients showed an obstructive pattern. Bronchiectasis was the most frequent radiological finding confirmed in 27.2 % of patients. Patients with bronchiectasis were older at the time of immunodeficiency diagnosis ( p <0.001) and had longer diagnosis delay ( p <0.001) when compared to patients without bronchiectasis. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of monitoring the respiratory tract system even in asymptomatic patients. PFT and CT scans are the most commonly used techniques aiming to identify these patients early aiming to reduce the rate of long-term respiratory complications.

3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038658

RESUMO

The pathogenesis in the majority of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), the most common symptomatic primary immunodeficiency, remains unknown. We aimed to compare the minor and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) markers as well as polygenic scores of common genetic variants between patients with monogenic CVID and without known genetic mutation detected. Monogenic patients were identified in a CVID cohort using whole exome sequencing. Computational full-resolution MHC typing and confirmatory PCR amplicon-based high-resolution typing were performed. Exome-wide polygenic scores were developed using significantly different variants and multi-variant Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were used to test the causality of significant genetic variants on antibody levels and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Among 83 CVID patients (44.5% females), monogenic defects were found in 40 individuals. Evaluation of the remaining CVID patients without known genetic mutation detected showed 13 and 27 significantly associated MHC-class I and II alleles, respectively. The most significant partial haplotype linked with the unsolved CVID was W*01:01:01-DMA*01:01:01-DMB*01:03:01:02-TAP1*01:01:01 (P < 0.001), where carriers had a late onset of the disease, only infection clinical phenotype, a non-familial form of CVID, post-germinal center defects and a non-progressive form of their disease. Exclusion of monogenic diseases allowed MR analyses to identify significant genetic variants associated with bacterial infections and improved discrepancies observed in MR analyses of previous GWAS studies with low pleiotropy mainly for a lower respiratory infection, bacterial infection and Streptococcal infection. This is the first study on the full-resolution of minor and major MHC typing and polygenic scores on CVID patients and showed that exclusion of monogenic forms of the disease unraveled an independent role of MHC genes and common genetic variants in the pathogenesis of CVID.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital agammaglobulinemia is the first primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a defect in B lymphocytes development, and subsequently decreased immunoglobulin levels. These patients are prone to suffer from recurrent infections mostly involving the respiratory tract. In this study, we aimed to describe in detail respiratory tract complications as the most prominent clinical feature among agammaglobulinemic patients. METHODS: A total number of 115 patients were included. Demographic, clinical and genetic data were collected from the patients' medical records. Among the available patients, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and/or high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) were performed. RESULTS: Respiratory tract complications (85.2%) especially pneumonia (62.6%) were the most prominent clinical features in our cohort. Among patients with abnormal PFT results (N=19), a mixed respiratory pattern was observed in 36.8%. HRCT was carried out in 29 patients; Bhalla scoring-based evaluation of these patients indicated excellent (44.8%), followed by good (34.5%) and mild (20.7%) results. Bronchiectasis was found in 13 patients undergoing HRCT (44.8%). We found significant inverse correlations between the Bhalla score and incidence rate of pneumonia, as well as the presence of bronchiectasis. Patients with abnormal PFT results had statistically significant higher bronchiectasis frequency and lower Bhalla scores compared to those with normal results. Forty-one patients were deceased and here respiratory failure was the most common cause of death (45.5%). CONCLUSION: High prevalence of respiratory tract infections among agammaglobulinemic patients and subsequent progression to permanent lung damage highlights the importance of implementing respiratory evaluation as part of routine follow-up program of agammaglobulinemic patients. Physicians should be aware of this and regularly monitor the respiratory function of these patients to allow for timely diagnosis and treatment initiation aiming to improve patients' prognosis and quality of life.

5.
Blood ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942606

RESUMO

Using whole exome sequencing to examine the genetic causes of immune deficiency in 235 CVID patients seen in New York, 128 patients from Sweden, and 208 from Iran, revealed 73 known disease-causing genes associated with this heterogeneous immune defect. The patients at the time of study ranged from age 4 to age 90. Overall, for 31%, 36% and 54% of the patients in United States, Swedish or Iranian cohorts, mutations were identified. The multiplicity of genes identified reflects the complex requirements of B cell antigen signaling, activation, survival, migration, maturation and maintenance of antibody-secreting memory B cell populations to the plasma cell stage. For the United States and Swedish cohorts, CVID subjects with non-infectious complications, lymphoid infiltrations, inflammatory, or autoimmunity, were more likely to have an identifiable gene, but in both cohorts, numerous subjects with these medical conditions had no potential gene that could be assigned. Specific clinical patterns of illnesses were also not linked to any given gene defect as there was considerable overlap in clinical presentations. These observations provide a broad perspective on the complexity of the genetic and immunologic phenotypes found in 571 CVID subjects of different ages and backgrounds.

6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(2): 292-299, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by infectious and noninfectious complications. Bronchiectasis continues to be a common respiratory problem and therapeutic challenge in CVID. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of bronchiectasis and its associated phenotype in patients with CVID. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus from the earliest available date to February 2019 with standard keywords. All pooled analyses of bronchiectasis prevalence and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were based on random-effects models. RESULTS: Fifty-five studies comprising 8535 patients with CVID were included in the meta-analysis. Overall prevalence of bronchiectasis was 34% (95% CI: 30-38; I2 = 90.19%). CVID patients with bronchiectasis had significantly lower serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM levels at the time of diagnosis compared with those without bronchiectasis. Among the clinical features, the frequencies of splenomegaly, pneumonia, otitis media, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia were significantly higher in CVID patients with bronchiectasis compared with those without bronchiectasis, respectively. CONCLUSION: A higher prevalence of bronchiectasis in patients with CVID should be managed by controlling recurrent and severe pneumonia episodes which are immune dysregulation since this complication is associated with poor prognosis in these patients.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. OBJECTIVE: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. METHOD: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. RESULTS: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) deficiency has been categorized as a combined immunodeficiency often complicated by enteropathies, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. We report seven new patients and four novel ICOS mutations resulting in a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)-like phenotype and show that dysregulated IL-12 release, reduced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) expression, and skewing towards a Th1-dominant phenotype are all associated with inflammatory complications in this condition. METHODS: A combination of whole exome and Sanger sequencing was used to identify novel mutations. Standard clinical and immunological evaluation was performed. FACS and ELISA-based assays were used to study cytokine responses and ICOS/ICOSL/CTLA4 expression following stimulation of whole blood and PBMCs with multiple TLR ligands, anti-CD3, and PHA. RESULTS: Four novel ICOS mutations included homozygous c.323_332del, homozygous c.451C>G, and compound heterozygous c.58+1G>A/c.356T>C. The predominant clinical phenotype was that of antibody deficiency associated with inflammatory complications in 4/7 patients. Six out of seven patients were treated with immunoglobulin replacement and one patient died from salmonella sepsis. All patients who were tested showed reduced IL-10 and IL-17 cytokine responses, normal IL-1ß, IL6, and TNF release following LPS stimulation and highly elevated IL-12 production in response to combined LPS/IFNγ stimulation. This was associated with skewing of CD4+ T cells towards Th1 phenotype and increased expression of ICOSL on monocytes. Lastly, reduced CTLA4 expression was found in 2 patients. One patient treated with ustekinumab for pancytopenia due to granulomatous bone marrow infiltration failed to respond to this targeted therapy. CONCLUSIONS: ICOS deficiency is associated with defective T cell activation, with simultaneously enhanced stimulation of monocytes. The latter is likely to result from a lack of ICOS/ICOSL interaction which might be necessary to provide negative feedback which limits monocytes activation.

9.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101612, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678777

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) comprises a heterogeneous group of over 330 genetic disorders, caused mainly by single-gene mutations, such as CD70. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cell lines, PHAi003-A and PHAi003-B, from a PID patient carrying the homozygous frameshift CD70 mutation c.250delT. The CD70 c.250delT genotype results in a complete loss of expression variant. This patient is one of the five CD70 deficient individuals described to date, and presented hypogammaglobulinemia, EBV associated Hodgkin's lymphoma and susceptibility to other viral infections. The PHAi003-A and PHAi003-B lines are a unique resource for PID modeling and studying CD70-mediated immunity in human cells.

10.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-14, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762358

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency and cancer predisposition, caused by mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. The clinical and immunological manifestations of A-T are very heterogeneous, especially at an early age, leading to frequent misdiagnosis. Cutaneous granulomas with unknown pathogenesis occur uncommonly in a minority of A-T patients. We herein report an unusual case of a 13-year-old girl with A-T who presented severe clinical manifestations, including multiple granulomatous lesions of the skin and a class switch defect phenotype. This patient is the first Iranian A-T case with cutaneous granulomatosis and immunodeficiency. In addition, the literature on skin granulomas in all previously reported A-T patients is reviewed indicating an increased frequency of elevated IgM level and female dominancy in this selected group of patients.

11.
Immunol Lett ; 216: 70-78, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most severe form of primary immunodeficiency disorders that is characterized by impaired early T lymphocyte differentiation and is variably associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages. SCID can be caused by mutations in more than 20 different genes. Molecular diagnosis in SCID patients contributes to genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, treatment modalities, and overall prognosis. In this cohort, the clinical, laboratory and genetic data related to Iranian SCID patients were comprehensively evaluated and efficiency of stepwise sequencing methods approach based on immunophenotype grouping was investigated METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data from 242 patients with SCID phenotype were evaluated. Molecular genetic analysis methods including Sanger sequencing, targeted gene panel and whole exome sequencing were performed on 62 patients. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 78.9% in the cohort with a median follow-up of four months. The majority of the patients had a phenotype of T-NK-B+ (34.3%) and the most severe clinical manifestation and highest mortality rate were observed in T-NK-B- SCID cases. Genetic mutations were confirmed in 50 patients (80.6%), of which defects in recombination-activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2) were found in 16 patients (32.0%). The lowest level of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were observed in patients with ADA deficiency (p = 0.026) and IL2RG deficiency (p = 0.019), respectively. CONCLUSION: Current findings suggest that candidate gene approach based on patient's immunophenotype might accelerate molecular diagnosis of SCID patients. Candidate gene selection should be done according to the frequency of disease-causing genes in different populations. Targeted gene panel, WES and WGS methods can be used for the cases which are not diagnosed using this method.

12.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(11): 1225-1233, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592698

RESUMO

Objectives: Common variable immunodeficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and heterogeneous clinical features. Neutropenia is a rare complication among CVID patients leading to a higher rate of infections and morbidity. Multiple factors (e.g. autoimmunity, infections, drugs and etc.) are found to underlie this complication.Methods: In the present study, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were compared between two groups of CVID patients with and without neutropenia.Results: Frequency of neutropenia was 8.1%. Infectious complications were the most prevalent clinical manifestations regardless of presence of neutropenia. However, candida infection and septicemia were significantly higher in neutropenic patients (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The most prominent clinical phenotypes of CVID patients with neutropenia were polyclonal lymphocytic infiltration and autoimmunity, both being considerably higher compared to the non-neutropenic group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.009, respectively). The mortality rate in neutropenic patients was higher than in patients without neutropenia (61.1 vs. 25.2%, p = 0.004).Conclusion: Although neutropenia is a rare complication among CVID patients, it is associated with frequent and severe clinical complications, including autoimmunity and lymphoproliferative conditions. Also, its accompaniment with higher mortality frequency in CVID patients indicates a need for more precise attention and consideration regarding specific treatment in neutropenic patients.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(11): 2005-2012, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625840

RESUMO

Patients with immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived poliovirus (iVDPV) are potential poliovirus reservoirs in the posteradication era that might reintroduce polioviruses into the community. We update the iVDPV registry in Iran by reporting 9 new patients. In addition to national acute flaccid paralysis surveillance, cases were identified by screening nonparalyzed primary immunodeficiency (PID) patients. Overall, 23 iVDPV patients have been identified since 1995. Seven patients (30%) never had paralysis. Poliovirus screening accelerated the iVDPV detection rate in Iran after 2014.The iVDPV infection rate among nonparalyzed patients with adaptive PID was 3.1% (7/224), several folds higher than previous estimates. Severe combined immunodeficiency patients had the highest risk for asymptomatic infection (28.6%) compared with other PIDs. iVDPV2 emergence has decreased after the switch from trivalent to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in 2016. However, emergence of iVDPV1 and iVDPV3 continued. Poliovirus screening in PID patients is an essential step in the endgame of polio eradication.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a group of more than 350 disorders affecting distinct components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this review, the classic and advanced stepwise approach towards the diagnosis of PIDs are simplified and explained in detail. RESULTS: Susceptibility to recurrent infections is the main hallmark of almost all PIDs. However, non-infectious complications attributable to immune dysregulation presenting with lymphoproliferative and/or autoimmune disorders are not uncommon. Moreover, PIDs could be associated with misleading presentations including allergic manifestations, enteropathies, and malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: Timely diagnosis is the most essential element in improving outcome and reducing the morbidity and mortality in PIDs. This wouldn't be possible unless the physicians keep the diagnosis of PID in mind and be sufficiently aware of the approach to these patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440277

RESUMO

Background: The lymphohematopoietic cells originating from feto-maternal trafficking during pregnancy may cause microchimerism and lead to materno-fetal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patients. However, definitive diagnosis between GVHD and Omenn's syndrome is often difficult based on clinical and immunological phenotypes particularly in the patients with hypomorphic mutations. Case presentation: A 3-year-old girl with a history of erythroderma and immunodeficiency was studied. The whole exome sequencing method was used to find the disease-causing variants, and T-A cloning and Quantitative Florescence Polymerase Chain Reaction (QF-PCR) methods were utilized to detect the presence of mosaicism or microchimerism. We identified a homozygous missense Janus Kinase 3 mutation (JAK3, c.2324G>A, p.R775H) as a new disease-causing variant in the patient, and the presence of microchimerism with maternal origin was proven as an underlying cause of her clinical presentation. Conclusion: The findings highlighted the importance of appropriate diagnostic approach in GVHD cases with hypomorphic JAK3 mutations. When analyzing the results of the next generation sequencing, the possibility of microchimerism should be considered based on the context of the disease.

16.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(10): 1105-1113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452405

RESUMO

Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common clinically significant primary immunodeficiency (PID) disorder characterized by variable clinical manifestations including recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders, enteropathy, lymphoproliferative disorders, and malignancy. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of malignancy in patients with CVID. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus were searched systemically to find eligible studies from the earliest available date to March 2019 with standard keywords. Pooled estimates of the malignancy prevalence and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random effects models. Results: Forty-eight studies with a total of 8123 CVID patients met the inclusion criteria and were finally included in the meta-analysis. Overall prevalence of malignancy was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.1-10.0; I2 = 79.2%). The prevalence of lymphoma, gastric cancer, and breast cancer in CVID patients were 4.1% (95% CI: 3.3-4.9; I2 = 62.6%), 1.5% (95% CI: 0.78-2.2; I2 = 68.9%), and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.64-1.9; I2 = 54.9%), respectively. Moreover, autoimmunity and malabsorption were more frequent in patients with malignancy than those without malignancy. Conclusion: The prevalence of malignancy has increased in CVID patients due to recent improvement in survival rate and the lymphoma is the most common type. This research highlighted the significance of malignancy screening and management in CVID patients.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation. The authors present a case report of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency with the history of autoimmunity, enteropathy and visceral leishmaniasis. Sirolimus therapy was started for autoimmunity and enteropathy but was discontinued due to recurrent leishmaniasis. Therefore, a common side-effect of many immunosuppressive drugs in patients with LRBA deficiency is increased susceptibility to infections. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed to detect the underlying genetic mutation and Leishmania DNA was detected by the PCR technique in this patient. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing of the patient reported a homozygous frameshift deletion mutation in the LRBA gene (NM_006726: exon29: c.4638delC, p. S1546fs). Leishmania DNA PCR was positive in this case. CONCLUSION: Parasite infections manifestations report in LRBA deficiency. Leishmania infections in patients with chronic diarrhea and autoimmunity should be considered for immunodeficiency.

18.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(6): 557-568, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183658

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Hyper Immunoglobulin M (HIgM) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders, characterized by recurrent infections and associated with decreased serum IgG and IgA, but normal or increased IgM. The aim of the present study was to evaluate respiratory manifestations in patients with HIgM syndrome. METHODS: A total number of 62 patients, including 46 males and 16 females were included in the present study. To investigate the respiratory complications among HIgM patients, we evaluated the clinical hospital records, immunologic and molecular diagnostic assays, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. RESULTS: Pneumonia was the most common respiratory manifestation (n = 35, 56.4%), followed by otitis media (45.1%), sinusitis (33.8%), and bronchiectasis (14.5%). 52.1% of the patients had abnormal PFT results, with a predominant restrictive pattern of changes. HRCT scans demonstrated abnormal findings in 85.7% of patients with found mutations. Ten cases had hilar lymphadenopathy and para-hilar infiltrates in their HRCT findings. Genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 29 HIgM patients (72.4% CD40 ligand (CD40L) and 24.1% activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA/AID) deficiencies). Majority of patients with CD40L (71.4%) and AID (57.1%) deficiencies had missense mutations. Pneumonia and abnormal high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings were more frequent among patients with CD40L mutation. Respiratory failure constituted the major cause of mortality (37.5%) with majority of cases occurring in CD40L-deficient patients (50%). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory complications are common in patients with HIgM syndrome. A proper awareness of respiratory manifestations in patients with HIgM may result in improved management, reduced morbidity and mortality, and an improvement in the quality of life of the patients.

19.
Immunol Lett ; 210: 55-62, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059734

RESUMO

Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) and agammaglobulinemia are two of the main types of symptomatic primary antibody deficiencies. The pathogenic origins of these two diseases are different; agammaglobulinemia is a group of inherited disorders that usually are caused by mutations in the gene encoding Bruton Tyrosine Kinase (BTK) protein while CVID is a heterogeneous disorder mainly without monogenic cause. However, both diseases share a characteristic of frequent bacterial infections, a decline in serum immunoglobulin levels, and abnormality in antibody responses. The demographics and immunologic parameters, clinical manifestation, and mortality statistics from 297 patients with CVID and agammaglobulinemia followed up over 2 decades in the Children's Medical Center of Iran. Age at onset of symptom in agammaglobulinemia was earlier than CVID but the course of disease in CVID patients was longer than agammaglobulinemia patients. Pulmonary infections were the most prevalent clinical manifestations in both groups of patients. Lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were significantly higher in CVID patients than agammaglobulinemia patients and there was a significant association between these complications and mortality in CVID patients. Among 297 patients, 128 patients (88 CVID and 40 agammaglobulinemia) deceased. The predominant causes of death in CVID patients were infections, chronic lung disease, and malignancy while in agammaglobulinemia patients were infections and respiratory failure. Infections, especially respiratory infections were the most common complication and cause of death in both CVID and agammaglobulinemia groups and recent treatment advances even Immunoglobulin replacement cannot completely control these complications. Thus prompt recognition and specific management of these complications are worthwhile.

20.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 179(3): 231-246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091523

RESUMO

Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) is the most prevalent type of primary immunodeficiency disorder. The phenotypic feature of SIgAD is related to a defect in B lymphocyte differentiation into plasma cell-producing immunoglobulin A (IgA). In this review, we summarize the recent advances in this regard. Genetic (including major histocompatibility complex [MHC] and non-MHC genes), immunologic (including B and T lymphocyte subsets abnormality), cytokines/chemokines and their related receptors, apoptosis and microbiota defects are reviewed. The mechanisms leading to SIgAD are most likely multifactorial and it can be speculated that several pathways controlling B cells functions or regulating epigenetic of the IGHA gene encoding constant region of IgA heavy chain and long-term survival of IgA switched memory B cells and plasma cells may be defective in different SIgAD patients.


Assuntos
Deficiência de IgA/etiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Microbiota , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA