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1.
Neurol Sci ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This paper aimed to investigate the usefulness of applying machine learning on resting-state fMRI connectivity data to recognize the pattern of functional changes in essential tremor (ET), a disease characterized by slight brain abnormalities, often difficult to detect using univariate analysis. METHODS: We trained a support vector machine with a radial kernel on the mean signals extracted by 14 brain networks obtained from resting-state fMRI scans of 18 ET and 19 healthy control (CTRL) subjects. Classification performance between pathological and control subjects was evaluated using a tenfold cross-validation. Recursive feature elimination was performed to rank the importance of the extracted features. Moreover, univariate analysis using Mann-Whitney U test was also performed. RESULTS: The machine learning algorithm achieved an AUC of 0.75, with four networks (language, primary visual, cerebellum, and attention), which have an essential role in ET pathophysiology, being selected as the most important features for classification. By contrast, the univariate analysis was not able to find significant results among these two conditions. CONCLUSION: The machine learning approach identifies the changes in functional connectivity of ET patients, representing a promising instrument to discriminate specific pathological conditions and find novel functional biomarkers in resting-state fMRI studies.

2.
JAMA Neurol ; 79(6): 614-622, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499837

RESUMO

Importance: The hippocampus is a highly epileptogenic brain region, yet over 90% of hippocampal epileptiform activity (HEA) cannot be identified on scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) by human experts. Currently, detection of HEA requires intracranial electrodes, which limits our understanding of the role of HEA in brain diseases. Objective: To develop and validate a machine learning algorithm that accurately detects HEA from a standard scalp EEG, without the need for intracranial electrodes. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this diagnostic study, conducted from 2008 to 2021, EEG data were used from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and healthy controls (HCs) to train and validate a deep neural network, HEAnet, to detect HEA on scalp EEG. Participants were evaluated at tertiary-level epilepsy centers at 2 academic hospitals: Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) or Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). Included in the study were patients aged 12 to 78 years with a clinical diagnosis of TLE and HCs without epilepsy. Patients with TLE and HCs with a history of intracranial surgery were excluded from the study. Exposures: Simultaneous intracranial EEG and/or scalp EEG. Main Outcomes and Measures: Performance was assessed using cross-validated areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ROC) and precision-recall curve (AUC PR) and additional clinically relevant metrics. Results: HEAnet was trained and validated using data sets that were derived from a convenience sample of 141 eligible participants (97 with TLE and 44 HCs without epilepsy) whose retrospective EEG data were readily available. Data set 1 included the simultaneous scalp EEG and intracranial electrode recordings of 51 patients with TLE (mean [SD] age, 40.7 [15.9] years; 30 men [59%]) at MGH. An automatically generated training data set with 972 095 positive HEA examples was created, in addition to a held-out expert-annotated testing data set with 22 762 positive HEA examples. HEAnet's performance was validated on 2 independent scalp EEG data sets: (1) data set 2 (at MGH; 24 patients with TLE and 20 HCs; mean [SD] age, 42.3 [16.2] years; 17 men [39%]) and (2) data set 3 (at BWH; 22 patients with TLE and 24 HCs; mean [SD] age, 43.0 [14.4] years; 20 men [43%]). For single-event detection of HEA on data set 1, HEAnet achieved a mean (SD) AUC ROC of 0.89 (0.01) and a mean (SD) AUC PR of 0.39 (0.03). On external validation with data sets 2 and 3, HEAnet accurately distinguished TLE from HC (AUC ROC of 0.88 and 0.95, respectively) and predicted epilepsy lateralization with 100% and 92% accuracy, respectively. HEAnet tracked dynamic changes in HEA in response to seizure medication adjustments and performed comparably with human experts in diagnosing TLE from 1-hour scalp EEG recordings, diagnosing TLE in several individuals that experts missed. Without reducing specificity, addition of HEAnet to human expert EEG review increased sensitivity for diagnosing TLE in humans from 50% to 58% to 63% to 67%. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this diagnostic study suggest that HEAnet provides a novel, noninvasive, quantitative, and clinically relevant biomarker of hippocampal hyperexcitability in humans.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Epilepsia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hipocampo , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Couro Cabeludo
3.
Epilepsia ; 61(9): 1906-1918, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Seizure detection is a major facet of electroencephalography (EEG) analysis in neurocritical care, epilepsy diagnosis and management, and the instantiation of novel therapies such as closed-loop stimulation or optogenetic control of seizures. It is also of increased importance in high-throughput, robust, and reproducible pre-clinical research. However, seizure detectors are not widely relied upon in either clinical or research settings due to limited validation. In this study, we create a high-performance seizure-detection approach, validated in multiple data sets, with the intention that such a system could be available to users for multiple purposes. METHODS: We introduce a generalized linear model trained on 141 EEG signal features for classification of seizures in continuous EEG for two data sets. In the first (Focal Epilepsy) data set consisting of 16 rats with focal epilepsy, we collected 1012 spontaneous seizures over 3 months of 24/7 recording. We trained a generalized linear model on the 141 features representing 20 feature classes, including univariate and multivariate, linear and nonlinear, time, and frequency domains. We tested performance on multiple hold-out test data sets. We then used the trained model in a second (Multifocal Epilepsy) data set consisting of 96 rats with 2883 spontaneous multifocal seizures. RESULTS: From the Focal Epilepsy data set, we built a pooled classifier with an Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (AUROC) of 0.995 and leave-one-out classifiers with an AUROC of 0.962. We validated our method within the independently constructed Multifocal Epilepsy data set, resulting in a pooled AUROC of 0.963. We separately validated a model trained exclusively on the Focal Epilepsy data set and tested on the held-out Multifocal Epilepsy data set with an AUROC of 0.890. Latency to detection was under 5 seconds for over 80% of seizures and under 12 seconds for over 99% of seizures. SIGNIFICANCE: This method achieves the highest performance published for seizure detection on multiple independent data sets. This method of seizure detection can be applied to automated EEG analysis pipelines as well as closed loop interventional approaches, and can be especially useful in the setting of research using animals in which there is an increased need for standardization and high-throughput analysis of large number of seizures.


Assuntos
Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Agonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/toxicidade , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Modelos Lineares , Curva ROC , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
4.
Sleep ; 43(11)2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478820

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Develop a high-performing, automated sleep scoring algorithm that can be applied to long-term scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. METHODS: Using a clinical dataset of polysomnograms from 6,431 patients (MGH-PSG dataset), we trained a deep neural network to classify sleep stages based on scalp EEG data. The algorithm consists of a convolutional neural network for feature extraction, followed by a recurrent neural network that extracts temporal dependencies of sleep stages. The algorithm's inputs are four scalp EEG bipolar channels (F3-C3, C3-O1, F4-C4, and C4-O2), which can be derived from any standard PSG or scalp EEG recording. We initially trained the algorithm on the MGH-PSG dataset and used transfer learning to fine-tune it on a dataset of long-term (24-72 h) scalp EEG recordings from 112 patients (scalpEEG dataset). RESULTS: The algorithm achieved a Cohen's kappa of 0.74 on the MGH-PSG holdout testing set and cross-validated Cohen's kappa of 0.78 after optimization on the scalpEEG dataset. The algorithm also performed well on two publicly available PSG datasets, demonstrating high generalizability. Performance on all datasets was comparable to the inter-rater agreement of human sleep staging experts (Cohen's kappa ~ 0.75 ± 0.11). The algorithm's performance on long-term scalp EEGs was robust over a wide age range and across common EEG background abnormalities. CONCLUSION: We developed a deep learning algorithm that achieves human expert level sleep staging performance on long-term scalp EEG recordings. This algorithm, which we have made publicly available, greatly facilitates the use of large long-term EEG clinical datasets for sleep-related research.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Sono , Fases do Sono
5.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 131(1): 133-141, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Develop a high-performing algorithm to detect mesial temporal lobe (mTL) epileptiform discharges on intracranial electrode recordings. METHODS: An epileptologist annotated 13,959 epileptiform discharges from a dataset of intracranial EEG recordings from 46 epilepsy patients. Using this dataset, we trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) to recognize mTL epileptiform discharges from a single intracranial bipolar channel. The CNN outputs from multiple bipolar channel inputs were averaged to generate the final detector output. Algorithm performance was estimated using a nested 5-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: On the receiver-operating characteristic curve, our algorithm achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.996 and a partial AUC (for specificity > 0.9) of 0.981. AUC on a precision-recall curve was 0.807. A sensitivity of 84% was attained at a false positive rate of 1 per minute. 35.9% of the false positive detections corresponded to epileptiform discharges that were missed during expert annotation. CONCLUSIONS: Using deep learning, we developed a high-performing, patient non-specific algorithm for detection of mTL epileptiform discharges on intracranial electrodes. SIGNIFICANCE: Our algorithm has many potential applications for understanding the impact of mTL epileptiform discharges in epilepsy and on cognition, and for developing therapies to specifically reduce mTL epileptiform activity.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Eletrocorticografia/instrumentação , Eletrodos Implantados , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Artefatos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Eletrocorticografia/normas , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico , Feminino , Forame Oval/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
eNeuro ; 5(2)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780880

RESUMO

Network hyperexcitability is a feature of Alzheimer' disease (AD) as well as numerous transgenic mouse models of AD. While hyperexcitability in AD patients and AD animal models share certain features, the mechanistic overlap remains to be established. We aimed to identify features of network hyperexcitability in AD models that can be related to epileptiform activity signatures in AD patients. We studied network hyperexcitability in mice expressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) with mutations that cause familial AD, and compared a transgenic model that overexpresses human APP (hAPP) (J20), to a knock-in model expressing APP at physiological levels (APPNL/F). We recorded continuous long-term electrocorticogram (ECoG) activity from mice, and studied modulation by circadian cycle, behavioral, and brain state. We report that while J20s exhibit frequent interictal spikes (IISs), APPNL/F mice do not. In J20 mice, IISs were most prevalent during daylight hours and the circadian modulation was associated with sleep. Further analysis of brain state revealed that IIS in J20s are associated with features of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. We found no evidence of cholinergic changes that may contribute to IIS-circadian coupling in J20s. In contrast to J20s, intracranial recordings capturing IIS in AD patients demonstrated frequent IIS in non-REM (NREM) sleep. The salient differences in sleep-stage coupling of IIS in APP overexpressing mice and AD patients suggests that different mechanisms may underlie network hyperexcitability in mice and humans. We posit that sleep-stage coupling of IIS should be an important consideration in identifying mouse AD models that most closely recapitulate network hyperexcitability in human AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Excitabilidade Cortical/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Fases do Sono/fisiologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Animais , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
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